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Boyuan Zhang, Raúl Hernández Sánchez, Yu Zhong, Melissa Ball, Maxwell W Terban, Daniel Paley, Simon J L Billinge, Fay Ng, Michael L Steigerwald, Colin Nuckolls
Self-assembly of electroactive molecules is a promising route to new types of functional semiconductors. Here we report a capsule-shaped molecule that assembles itself into a cellular semiconducting material. The interior space of the capsule with a volume of ~415 Å3 is a nanoenvironment that can accommodate a guest. To self-assemble these capsules into electronic materials, we functionalize the thiophene rings with bromines, which encode self-assembly into two-dimensional layers held together through halogen bonding interactions...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Carole A Paley, Mark I Johnson
Background: Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of at least three out of five clinical risk factors: abdominal (visceral) obesity, hypertension, elevated serum triglycerides, low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and insulin resistance. It is estimated to affect over 20% of the global adult population. Abdominal (visceral) obesity is thought to be the predominant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and as predictions estimate that 50% of adults will be classified as obese by 2030 it is likely that metabolic syndrome will be a significant problem for health services and a drain on health economies...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Shannon J Beres, Claire A Sheldon, Chantal J Boisvert, Christina L Szperka, Grace L Paley, Evanette K Burrows, Marianne R Chilutti, Geraldine W Liu, Shana E McCormack, Grant T Liu
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic utility of closing pressure and volume of cerebrospinal fluid removed with respect to papilledema resolution and headache improvement in pediatric pseudotumor cerebri syndrome. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of 93 children with definite pseudotumor cerebri syndrome. The primary outcome measure was time to resolution of papilledema, and the secondary outcome measure was time to resolution of headache...
March 30, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Paul D Griffiths, Deborah Jarvis, Leanne Armstrong, Daniel J A Connolly, Pauline Bayliss, Julie Cook, Anthony R Hart, Elizabeth Pilling, Tamanna Williams, Martyn N J Paley
OBJECTIVES: MR imaging of neonates is difficult for many reasons and a major factor is safe transport to the MR facilities. In this article we describe the use of a small, investigational 3-T MR customised for brain imaging and sited on a neonatal unit of a tertiary centre in the UK, which is in contrast to a 300-m journey to the whole-body MR scanner used at present for clinical cases. METHODS: We describe our methods for preparing babies for safe transport and scanning on an investigational 3-T MR scanner on a neonatal unit and the development of appropriate MR sequences...
April 30, 2018: European Radiology
Lyndsay Christie, Ronny van Aerle, Richard K Paley, David W Verner-Jeffreys, Hannah Tidbury, Matthew Green, Stephen W Feist, Irene Cano
Puffy skin disease (PSD) is an emerging skin condition which affects rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). The transmission pattern of PSD suggests an infectious aetiology, however, the actual causative infectious agent(s) remain(s) unknown. In the present study, the rainbow trout epidermal immune response to PSD was characterised. Skin samples from infected fish were analysed and classified as mild, moderate or severe PSD by gross pathology and histological assessment. The level of expression of 26 immune-associated genes including cytokines, immunoglobulins and cell markers were examined by TaqMan qPCR assays...
April 27, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Kihong Lee, Bonnie Choi, Ilan Jen-La Plante, Maria Paley, Xinjue Zhong, Andrew Crowther, Jonathan Owen, Xiaoyang Zhu, Xavier Roy
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are commonly prepared by exfoliating bulk layered van der Waals crystals. The creation of "synthetic" 2D materials from bottom-up methods represents an important challenge as their structural flexibility will enable chemists to tune the materials' properties. Here we describe a new 2D material assembled using C60 as a polymerizable monomer. The C60 building blocks are first assembled into a layered solid using a molecular cluster as structure director. The resulting hierarchical crystal is used as a template to polymerize its C60 monolayers, which can be exfoliated down to 2D crystalline nanosheets...
March 30, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Elena L Paley, George Perry
Transgenic mice used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) preclinical experiments do not recapitulate the human disease. In our models, the dietary tryptophan metabolite tryptamine produced by human gut microbiome induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) deficiency with consequent neurodegeneration in cells and mice. Dietary supplements, antibiotics and certain drugs increase tryptamine content in vivo. TrpRS catalyzes tryptophan attachment to tRNAtrp at initial step of protein biosynthesis. Tryptamine that easily crosses the blood-brain barrier induces vasculopathies, neurodegeneration and cell death via TrpRS competitive inhibition...
March 26, 2018: Nutrients
Benjamin D Bray, Lizz Paley, Alex Hoffman, Martin James, Patrick Gompertz, Charles D A Wolfe, Harry Hemingway, Anthony G Rudd
BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate socioeconomic disparities in the incidence of hospitalisation for first-ever stroke, quality of care, and post-stroke survival for the adult population of England. METHODS: In this cohort study, we obtained data collected by a nationwide register on patients aged 18 years or older hospitalised for first-ever acute ischaemic stroke or primary intracerebral haemorrhage in England from July 1, 2013, to March 31, 2016. We classified socioeconomic status at the level of Lower Super Output Areas using the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a neighbourhood measure of deprivation...
April 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Christopher A Iobst, S Robert Rozbruch, Scott Nelson, Austin Fragomen
INTRODUCTION: Patients with limb-length discrepancies often have concomitant deformity. We describe the outcomes of acute, fixator-assisted deformity correction with gradual lengthening using the retrograde femoral Precice nail (NuVasive). METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective series of 27 patients in whom an external fixator was combined with a Precice nail to correct angular or rotational deformity and limb-length discrepancy. The fixator was applied temporarily to restore normal alignment...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Chirag D Gheewala, Jennifer S Hirschi, Wai-Hang Lee, Daniel W Paley, Mathew J Vetticatt, Tristan H Lambert
An enantioselective catalytic inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of salicylaldehyde acetal-derived oxocarbenium ions and vinyl ethers to generate 2,4-dioxychromanes is described. Chiral pentacarboxycyclopentadiene (PCCP) acids are found to be effective for a variety of substrates. Computational and X-ray crystallographic analyses support the unique hypothesis that an anion with point-chirality-induced helical chirality dictates the absolute sense of stereochemistry in this reaction.
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Grace L Paley, Nathan H Kung, Robert C Bucelli, Todd P Margolis, Gregory P Van Stavern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Alejandro P Gutierrez, Tim P Bean, Chantelle Hooper, Craig A Stenton, Matthew B Sanders, Richard K Paley, Pasi Rastas, Michaela Bryrom, Oswald Matika, Ross D Houston
Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV) can cause mass mortality events in Pacific oyster aquaculture. While various factors impact on the severity of outbreaks, it is clear that genetic resistance of the host is an important determinant of mortality levels. This raises the possibility of selective breeding strategies to improve the genetic resistance of farmed oyster stocks, thereby contributing to disease control. Traditional selective breeding can be augmented by use of genetic markers, either via marker-assisted or genomic selection...
March 28, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Dympna Gallagher, Barak Rosenn, Tatiana Toro-Ramos, Charles Paley, Sonia Gidwani, Michelle Horowitz, Janet Crane, Susan Lin, John C Thornton, Xavier Pi-Sunyer
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlling maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) in the second and third trimesters on neonate body composition. METHODS: Two hundred ten healthy women with overweight (25 > BMI < 30) or obesity (BMI ≥ 30) were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention (LI) program focused on controlling GWG through nutrition and activity behaviors or to usual obstetrical care (UC). Infant fat and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth were measured by using air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) and by using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR)...
March 2018: Obesity
Peter D Karp, Richard Billington, Ron Caspi, Carol A Fulcher, Mario Latendresse, Anamika Kothari, Ingrid M Keseler, Markus Krummenacker, Peter E Midford, Quang Ong, Wai Kit Ong, Suzanne M Paley, Pallavi Subhraveti is a microbial genome Web portal that combines thousands of genomes with additional information inferred by computer programs, imported from other databases and curated from the biomedical literature by biologist curators. BioCyc also provides an extensive range of query tools, visualization services and analysis software. Recent advances in BioCyc include an expansion in the content of BioCyc in terms of both the number of genomes and the types of information available for each genome; an expansion in the amount of curated content within BioCyc; and new developments in the BioCyc software tools including redesigned gene/protein pages and metabolite pages; new search tools; a new sequence-alignment tool; a new tool for visualizing groups of related metabolic pathways; and a facility called SmartTables, which enables biologists to perform analyses that previously would have required a programmer's assistance...
August 17, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Salma Sana, Chris Williams, Emilie A Hardouin, Adrian Blake, Phil Davison, Josie Pegg, Richard Paley, Tiantian Zhang, Demetra Andreou
Species translocation leads to disease emergence in native species of considerable economic importance. Generalist parasites are more likely to be transported, become established and infect new hosts, thus their risk needs to be evaluated. Freshwater systems are particularly at risk from parasite introductions due to the frequency of fish movements, lack of international legislative controls for non-listed pathogens and inherent difficulties with monitoring disease introductions in wild fish populations. Here we used one of the world's most invasive freshwater fish, the topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva, to demonstrate the risk posed by an emergent generalist parasite, Sphaerothecum destruens...
May 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
B L Murphy, D S Ubl, J Zhang, E B Habermann, D Farley, K Paley
PURPOSE: Recurrence rates after femoral hernia repair (FHR) have not been reliably established in the USA. We sought to determine this trend over time. METHODS: The proportion of primary and recurrent FHRs was determined for patients age ≥ 18 from: ACS-NSQIP (1/2005-12/2014), Premier (1/2010-09/2015), and institutional (1/2005-12/2014) data. Trends were analyzed using a one-tailed Cochran-Armitage test. RESULTS: In the NSQIP database, 6649 patients underwent a FHR...
February 6, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Elena L Paley, Tatiana Merkulova-Rainon, Aleksandr Faynboym, Valery I Shestopalov, Igor Aksenoff
Earlier we reported induction of neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration by tryptophan metabolites that link the metabolic alterations to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tryptophan is a product of Shikimate pathway (SP). Human cells lack SP, which is found in human gut bacteria exclusively using SP to produce aromatic amino acids (AAA). This study is a first attempt toward gene-targeted analysis of human gut microbiota in AD fecal samples. The oligonucleotide primers newly-designed for this work target SP-AAA in environmental bacteria associated with human activity...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Brian A Free, Derek A Paley
Obstacles and swimming fish in flow create a wake with an alternating left/right vortex pattern known as a Kármán vortex street and reverse Kármán vortex street, respectively. An energy-efficient fish behavior resembling slaloming through the vortex street is called Kármán gaiting. This paper describes the use of a bioinspired array of pressure sensors on a Joukowski foil to estimate and control flow-relative position in a Kármán vortex street using potential flow theory, recursive Bayesian filtering, and trajectory-tracking feedback control...
March 14, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Jian Xiao, Zhao-Guang Mao, Hui-Hua Zhu, Liang Guo
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the curative effect of the early application of the antibiotic-laden bone cement (ALBC) combined with the external fixation support in treating the open fractures of lower limbs complicated with bone defect. METHODS: From December 2013 to January 2015, 36 cases of lower limb open comminuted fractures complicated with bone defects were treated by the vancomycin ALBC combined with the external fixation support, including 26 males and 10 females with an average age of 38...
March 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Yongwei Wu, Qudong Yin, Yongjun Rui, Zhenzhong Sun, Sanjun Gu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of bone transport and bone shortening-lengthening by Ilizarov technique for treatment of tibial bone and soft-tissue defects. METHODS: Fifty patients with tibial bone and soft-tissue defects were treated by Ilizarov technique from January 2007 to June 2016. Two subgroups were treated by either bone transport (group A) containing 28 cases or bone shortening-lengthening (group B) including 22 cases. RESULTS: Bony union was achieved at the distracted sites with a mean of 236 days in group A, while 240 days in group B, showing no significant difference (t = -0...
March 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
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