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Luiza Helena S Almeida, Rafael R Moraes, Renata D Morgental, Sérgio S Cava, Wellington Luiz O Rosa, Patrícia Rodrigues, Anderson S Ribeiro, Marcus Só, Fernanda G Pappen
OBJECTIVE: To synthetize calcium aluminate (C3A) and silver-containing C3A particles (C3A+Ag) testing their effects on the properties of a MTA-based endodontic sealer in comparison to an epoxy resin- and a calcium silicate-based sealer. METHODS: Pure C3A and C3A+Ag particles were synthesized by a chemical method and characterized using XRD to identify crystalline phases. SEM/EDS analysis investigated morphology, particle size, and elemental composition of particles...
May 19, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Athina Andrea, Natalia Molchanova, Håvard Jenssen
Bacterial biofilms pose a major threat to public health, as they are associated with at least two thirds of all infections. They are highly resilient and render conventional antibiotics inefficient. As a part of the innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides have drawn attention within the last decades, as some of them are able to eradicate biofilms at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels. However, peptides possess a number of disadvantages, such as susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, pH and/or salinity-dependent activity and loss of activity due to binding to serum proteins...
May 16, 2018: Biomolecules
Rongtao Zhao, Wen Kong, Mingxuan Sun, Yi Yang, Wanying Liu, Min Lv, Shiping Song, Lihua Wang, Hongbin Song, Rongzhang Hao
Various silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites (GO-Ag) have received increasing attention owing to their antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility; however, their aggregation in physiological solutions and the generally complex synthesis methods warrant improvement. This study aimed to synthesize a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified and AgNP-decorated GO nanocomposite (GO-PEI-Ag) through a facile approach through microwave irradiation without any extra reductants and surfactants; its antimicrobial activity was investigated on Gram-negative/-positive bacteria (including drug-resistant bacteria) and fungi...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christopher T Johnson, James A Wroe, Rachit Agarwal, Karen E Martin, Robert E Guldberg, Rodney M Donlan, Lars F Westblade, Andrés J García
Orthopedic implant infections are a significant clinical problem, with current therapies limited to surgical debridement and systemic antibiotic regimens. Lysostaphin is a bacteriolytic enzyme with high antistaphylococcal activity. We engineered a lysostaphin-delivering injectable PEG hydrogel to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections in bone fractures. The injectable hydrogel formulation adheres to exposed tissue and fracture surfaces, ensuring efficient, local delivery of lysostaphin. Lysostaphin encapsulation within this synthetic hydrogel maintained enzyme stability and activity...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ramachandran Ishwarya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Suganya Subbaiah, Abdul Khudus Nazar, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Mohammed N Al-Anbr
The green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using phytochemical from marine seaweeds is a fast-growing research field in nanotechnology. Here, the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was achieved using the hot water extract of Sargassum wightii. The hot water extract prepared from S. wightii (H Sw) and ZnO NPs were studied by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and XRD. Then, both products were evaluated for antibiofilm activity towards aquatic pathogens. The nanoparticles' immunostimulating potential on green tiger prawns, Penaeus semisulcatus was studied through immersion and dietary administration...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Laura Escolà-Vergé, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Laura Morata, Oscar Murillo, Helem Vilchez, Luisa Sorli, Laura Guío Carrión, José Mª Barbero, Julián Palomino-Nicás, Alberto Bahamonde, Alfredo Jover-Sáenz, Natividad Benito, Rosa Escudero, Marta Fernandez- Sampedro, Rafael Pérez Vidal, Lucía Gómez, Pablo S Corona, Benito Almirante, Javier Ariza, Carles Pigrau
BACKGROUND: Candida periprosthetic joint infection (CPJI) is a rare, difficult-to-treat disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of CPJI treated with various surgical and antifungal strategies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of all CPJI diagnosed between 2003 and 2015 in 16 Spanish hospitals. RESULTS: Forty-three patients included: median age, 75 years, and median Charlson Comorbidity Index score, 4...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infection
Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho, Cristiane Duque, Paula Fernanda Kreling, Jesse Augusto Pereira, Andreia Bolzan de Paula, Mario Alexandre Coelho Sinhoreti, Regina Maria Puppin-Rontani
In a previous study, we demonstrated that the incorporation of doxycycline hyclate (DOX) into resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) inhibited important cariogenic microorganisms, without modifying its biological and mechanical characteristics. In this study, we keep focused on the effect of that experimental material as a potential therapy for arresting residual caries by analyzing other in vitro properties and conducting a pilot clinical trial assessing the in vivo effect of DOX-containing RMGIC on residual mutans streptococci after partial carious removal in primary molars...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Tal Hassanov, Iris Karunker, Nitai Steinberg, Ayelet Erez, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
Bacteria in nature often reside in differentiated communities termed biofilms, which are an active interphase between uni-cellular and multicellular life states for bacteria. Here we demonstrate that the development of B. subtilis biofilms is dependent on the use of glutamine or glutamate as a nitrogen source. We show a differential metabolic requirement within the biofilm; while glutamine is necessary for the dividing cells at the edges, the inner cell mass utilizes lactic acid. Our results indicate that biofilm cells preserve a short-term memory of glutamate metabolism...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Philip G Bowler
Since the introduction of antibiotics into human medicine in the 1940's, antibiotic resistance has emerged at an alarming rate and is now a major threat to public health. This problem is amplified by pathogenic bacteria existing most commonly in biofilm form, creating additional bacterial tolerance to antimicrobial agents. Biofilm is now considered to be a primary cause of chronic infection, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria are prevalent in biofilm form. In particular, chronic non-healing wounds commonly harbour complex polymicrobial, pathogenic biofilm that is tolerant to systemic and topical antimicrobial therapy...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Wound Care
Paola Saporito, Michelle Vang Mouritzen, Anders Løbner-Olesen, Håvard Jenssen
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common nosocomial pathogen able to form biofilms in indwelling devices, resulting in chronic infections, which are refractory to antibiotics treatment. Staphylococcal biofilms are also associated with the delayed reepithelization and healing of chronic wounds. The human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 has been proven active against S. epidermidis biofilms in vitro and to promote wound healing. As previous studies have demonstrated that fragments of LL-37 could possess an equal antibacterial activity as the parent peptide, we tested whether shorter (12-mer) synthetic fragments of LL-37 maintained the antibiofilm and/or immune modulating activity, aiming at the identification of essential regions within the LL-37 parent sequence...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Gianna Palmieri, Marco Balestrieri, Federico Capuano, Yolande T R Proroga, Francesco Pomilio, Patrizia Centorame, Alessia Riccio, Raffaele Marrone, Aniello Anastasio
Antimicrobial peptides have received great attention for their potential benefits to extend the shelf-life of food-products. Innate defense regulator peptide-1018 (IDR-1018) represents a promising candidate for such applications, due to its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, although food-isolated pathogens have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe the design and the structural-functional characterization of a new 1018-derivative peptide named 1018-K6, in which the alanine in position 6 was replaced with a lysine...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Vaishali Pawar, Harshad Topkar, Rohit Srivastava
Implant associated infections are the most serious complications in the orthopedic surgery. Such complications are of major concern unless encountered during initial stages of contamination due to the bacterial biofilm formation. Thus, our aim is to eradicate bacteria at the early stages of infection. Herein, we develop a vancomycin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and povidone-iodine (PI) containing in situ alginate (CNPs-PI-Alg) gel for antibacterial and antibiofilm activity, respectively. The CNPs were synthesized by ionic gelation method and the processing parameters were optimized to attain nanoparticles of 200-250 nm size and 37...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Indu Raj, Miran Mozetic, Jayachandran V Prabhu, Jiya Jose, Sabu Thomas, Nandakumar Kalarikkal
Antimicrobial, antibiofilm adherent, fracture resistant nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO NP) formulations based on poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix were developed by ex situ compression moulding technique in a facile manner. These formulations demonstrated potent, long-term biofilm-resisting effects against Candida Albicans (9000 CFU to 1000CFU) and Streptococcal Mutans. Proposed mechanism of biofilm resistance was the release of metallic ions/metal oxide by 'particle-corrosion'. MTT and cellular proliferation assays confirmed both qualitatively and quantitatively equal human skin fibroblast cell line proliferations (approximately 75%) on both PMMA/ZnO formulation and on neat PMMA...
May 4, 2018: Nanotechnology
Karthikeyan Ramalingam, Valerie A Lee
Acinetobacter baumannii have evolved as an exceedingly troublesome pathogenic microorganisms and prevention and controlling this pathogen is considered to be a public health problem. Nanoemulsions (NE) are a distinctive type of decontaminator produced by integration of immiscible oil phase with aqueous phase under extreme shear forces. The effectiveness of NEs and their components was determined against four stains of A. baumannii by MBC, adherence assay, biofilm assay and SEM studies. NE dilutions ranging from 125 to 225 reduced adhesion by from 61...
May 2, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Mohini Mohan Konai, Brinta Bhattacharjee, Sreyan Ghosh, Jayanta Haldar
Global health is increasingly threatened by the rapid emergence of drug-resistant microbes. The ability of these microbes to form biofilm has further exacerbated the scenario leading to notorious infections which are almost impossible to treat. To address this clinical threat, various antimicrobial polymers, polymer-based antimicrobial hydrogels and polymer-coated antimicrobial surfaces have been developed in the recent past. This review aims to discuss such polymer-based antimicrobial strategies, with a focus on their current advancement in the field...
May 2, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Jonggwan Park, Hee Kyoung Kang, Moon-Chang Choi, Jeong Don Chae, Byoung Kwan Son, Yong Pil Chong, Chang Ho Seo, Yoonkyung Park
Objectives: The worldwide increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing threat to public health. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potentially effective alternatives to conventional antibiotics. We therefore tested analogues of the AMP mBjAMP1 from Branchiostoma japonicum, which we produced by adding and/or replacing amino acids to increase antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Methods: We compared the antimicrobial activities of mBjAMP1 analogues against Gram-negative bacteria reference strains and 52 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Robert Lotha, Niranjana SriSundaramoorthy, Bhanuvalli R Shamprasad, Saisubramanian Nagarajan, Aravind Sivasubramanian
Purified plant nutraceuticals afzelin and quercetrin from an edible plant- Crotolaria tetragona was employed for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a sunlight mediated process. From among a panel of strains tested, AgNPs displayed potent bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect against P. aeruginosa and S. typhimurium. Time kill studies revealed green synthesized AgNPs displayed comparable bactericidal effect with chemically synthesized AgNPs against S. typhimurium. Antibiofilm potential of AgNPs showed that they were highly effective at sub MIC concentrations in causing 50% biofilm inhibition against food borne pathogen S...
April 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ari S O Lemos, Lara M Campos, Lívia Melo, Maria C M R Guedes, Luiz G Oliveira, Thiago P Silva, Rossana C N Melo, Vinícius N Rocha, Jair A K Aguiar, Ana C M Apolônio, Elita Scio, Rodrigo L Fabri
Psychorubrin, a natural pyranonaphthoquinone found in different plants, has become an interesting compound in the search for new antimicrobial therapeutic agents. Here, we investigated the potential antagonistic activity of psychorubrin against planktonic and biofilm bacteria. First, psychorubrin was tested against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains by a broth microdilution susceptibility method. Second, bacterial killing assay, bacterial abundance, and membrane viability were evaluated...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Muthukumar Abinaya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Mani Divya, Sekar Vijayakumar, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Jamal M Khaled, Mohammed N Al-Anbr, Giovanni Benelli
Microbial polysaccharides produced by marine species play a key role in food and cosmetic industry, as they are nontoxic and biodegradable polymers. This investigation reports the isolation of exopolysaccharide from Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 and its biomedical applications. Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 exopolysaccharide (Bl-EPS) was extracted using the ethanol precipitation method and structurally characterized. FTIR and 1 H-NMR pointed out the presence of various functional groups and primary aromatic compounds, respectively...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Naiem H Nadaf, Rishikesh S Parulekar, Rahul S Patil, Trupti K Gade, Anjum A Momin, Shailesh R Waghmare, Maruti J Dhanavade, Akalpita U Arvindekar, Kailas D Sonawane
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb. has been referred as beach spider lily and commonly known for its rich phytochemical diversity. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, volatile constituents, phenols, flavonoids, flavonols extracted from different parts of these plants like bulbs, flowers, leaf, stem and root had been used in folk medicines from ancient times because of their excellent antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The leaf and bulb extract of H...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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