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Pain models

Yi-Chen Lee, Shui-Chin Lu, Yu-Lin Hsieh
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or those experiencing the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents may develop sensation disorders due to degeneration and injury of small-diameter sensory neurons, referred to as small fiber neuropathy. Present animal models of small fiber neuropathy affect both large- and small-diameter sensory fibers and thus create a neuropathology too complex to properly assess the effects of injured small-diameter sensory fibers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an experimental model of pure small fiber neuropathy to adequately examine these issues...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Veronica Fassio, Sherrie L Aspinall, Xinhua Zhao, Donald R Miller, Jasvinder A Singh, Chester B Good, Francesca E Cunningham
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and incidence of opioid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use before and since the start of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Opioid Safety Initiative (OSI) and to assess rates of adverse events (AEs). STUDY DESIGN: Historical cohort study. METHODS: The OSI began in August 2012 and was fully implemented by the end of fiscal year (FY) 2013. The study timeframe was categorized into baseline (FY 2011-2012), transition (FY 2013), and postimplementation (FY 2014-2015) phases...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Liza Laquian, Salvatore T Scali, Thomas M Beaver, Paul Kubilis, Adam W Beck, Kristina Giles, Thomas S Huber, Robert J Feezor
PURPOSE: To compare uncomplicated acute type B aortic dissection (UATBAD) patients with intractable pain/refractory hypertension treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to UATBAD subjects without these features receiving best medical therapy (BMT). METHODS: Interrogation of the hospital database identified 101 consecutive UATBAD patients admitted between January 2011 and December 2014. Of these, 74 patients (mean age 62±13 years; 44 men) were treated with BMT; the other 27 UATBAD patients (mean age 63±13 years; 17 men) were subsequently treated with TEVAR for intractable pain (24, 89%) and/or refractory hypertension (3, 11%) at a mean 2...
April 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Ricardo Cáceda, W Sue T Griffin, Pedro L Delgado
BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation is linked to suicide risk. However, it is unclear whether increased inflammation drives suicidal crises or is a trait associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Limited data exist on the sources of increased inflammation observed in suicidal patients and on its downstream effects. AIMS: To examine factors associated with inflammation and with suicidal ideation severity in acutely suicidal depressed patients. METHODS: Fifty-two adult depressed patients of both sexes hospitalized for severe suicidal ideation were characterized for suicidality, depression, anxiety, medical comorbidity, psychological and physical pain, impulsivity, verbal fluency, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL) 6...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Ming-San Miao, Li-Ling Xiang, Ming Bai, Li-Hua Cao
Frostbite is a common disease in winter, and systemic or local injury caused by low temperature invasion. Frostbite sites are commonly face, ears, nose, hands, feet and other peripheral blood circulation parts. The main symptoms are pale skin, cold, pain and numbness, skin itching in high temperature, and severe cases may suffer from skin erosions and ulcers. Frostbite model is a pathological model mainly based on Western medicine index. Based on the analysis of clinical symptoms of frostbite in traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, and a large number of experimental studies on the existing animal models, the animal model preparation of specifications (draft) was formulated as follows...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ying Wang, Chenyang Feng, Haoying He, Jinjin He, Jun Wang, Xiaomin Li, Shasha Wang, Wei Li, Jiuzhou Hou, Tong Liu, Dong Fang, Song-Qiang Xie
Vincristine is one of the most common anticancer drugs clinically employed in the treatment of various malignancies. A major side effect associated with vincristine is the development of neuropathic pain, which is not readily relieved by available analgesics. Although efforts have been made to identify the pathogenesis of vincristine-induced neuropathic pain, the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a neuropathic pain model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of vincristine sulfate...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jennifer Luk, Yong Lu, Amanda Ackermann, Xiaoxue Peng, Diane Bogdan, Michelino Puopolo, David E Komatsu, Simon Tong, Iwao Ojima, Mario J Rebecchi, Martin Kaczocha
Background: Metabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) yields arachidonic acid (AA), the precursor to proalgesic eicosanoids including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). Diacylglycerol lipase β (DAGLβ) is an enzyme that synthesizes 2-AG and its inhibition reduces eicosanoid levels and produces antinociceptive effects in models of inflammatory pain. Here we test whether inhibition of DAGLβ produces antinociceptive effects in a model of postoperative pain. Methods: Rats were administered the selective DAGLβ inhibitor KT109 or vehicle and underwent plantar incision...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Sonia Torres-Sanchez, Gisela Borges, Juan A Mico, Esther Berrocoso
Tapentadol is an analgesic that acts as an agonist of mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and that inhibits noradrenaline reuptake. Data from healthy rats show that tapentadol inhibits neuronal activity in the locus coeruleus (LC), a nucleus regulated by both the noradrenergic and opioid systems. Thus, we set out to investigate the effect of tapentadol on LC activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, a model of diabetic polyneuropathy, by analyzing single-unit extracellular recordings of LC neurons. Four weeks after inducing diabetes, tapentadol dose-response curves were obtained from animals pre-treated with RX821002 or naloxone (alpha2-adrenoceptors and opioid receptors antagonists, respectively)...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Dianne J Crellin, Denise Harrison, Nick Santamaria, Hamidul Huque, Franz E Babl
The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability scale (FLACC) is one of the most commonly and widely used behavioural observation pain scales. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric and practical properties of the FLACC scale to quantify procedural pain in infants and young children. Twenty-six clinicians independently applied the FLACC scale to segments of video collected from 100 children aged six to 42 months undergoing a procedure. Video segments were scored by four reviewers. Inter- and intra-rater reliability coefficients were high (0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Loveth O Linus, Shi-Lei Wang, Ning Shi, Christian Hanson, Yi-Tong Lu, Raphael N Alolga, Qun Liu, Reginald C Njokuocha, Lian-Wen Qi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Parinari kerstingii Engl. extract is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, bronchopneumonia, feverish pains, and breast cancer. However, there have not been any scientific reports regarding the medicinal properties of this plant, and no experiments have been done to ascertain the safety of the extract. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of Parinari kerstingii Engl. extracts as an herbal remedy and to investigate its anti-inflammatory potential in vivo...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Britt Elin Øiestad, Inger Holm, May Arna Risberg
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between return to pivoting sport following ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and knee osteoarthritis (OA), and self-reported knee symptoms, function and quality of life after 15 years. METHODS: Study sample included 258 participants with ACLR 15 years previously. Return to pivoting sport (handball, soccer and basketball) data were collected by interviews, and symptomatic OA was defined as Kellgren and Lawrence grade ≥2 plus almost daily knee pain in the last month...
March 17, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Ying Lu, De-Li Cao, Lin-Xia Zhao, Yu Han, You-Li Zhang
Visceral pain, observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, is a challenging medical problem and remains poorly understood because the mechanisms underlying it are unclear. Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pain. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential role of miR-146a-5p (the mature form of miR-146a) in a mouse model of colitis induced by intracolonic injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). We found that induction of colitis resulted in visceral hyperalgesia manifested by a decreased pain threshold to colorectal distension and upregulation of miR-146a-5p expression in the lumbosacral spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
J Q Fang, J Y Du, J F Fang, T Xiao, X Q Le, N F Pan, J Yu, B Y Liu
AIMS: Observing the parameter-specific anti-hyperalgesic effects of EA with different stimulation times and frequencies on painful hyperalgesia mediated by the level of TRPV1 and P2X3 expression in DRG after CFA injection. MAIN METHODS: The model was induced by the injection of CFA in each rat's right hind paw. EA treatment was applied to the bilateral ST36 and BL60. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were tested with Von Frey filaments and the radiant heat source of the test instrument, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Life Sciences
Guiliang Wang, Gui Xiao, Linfang Xu, Ping Qiu, Ting Li, Xiaoli Wang, Ping Wen, Jianbo Wen, Xianzhong Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of all available studies on the effect of prophylactic somatostatin administration on prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) and post-ERCP hyperamylasemia (PEHA). METHODS: Electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and the Science Citation Index were searched to retrieve relevant trials. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials in adult patients that compared somatostatin versus placebo in prevention of PEP were included...
March 10, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Timothy T Brown, Juulia Partanen, Linh Chuong, Vaughn Villaverde, Ann Chantal Griffin, Aaron Mendelson
We examine the hypothesis that psychological distress due to perceived discrimination can result in chronic pain, where perceived discrimination is based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, height/weight, religion, and other characteristics. Using a sample of 1908 individuals from the two most recent waves (2004-2006 and 2013-2014) of panel data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, we apply instrumental variables regression where measures of daily and lifetime perceived discrimination are instruments whose effects on chronic pain are mediated by psychological distress...
March 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Marco Morsch, Dario A Protti, Delfine Cheng, Filip Braet, Roger S Chung, Stephen W Reddel, William D Phillips
Cannabinoids exert dynamic control over many physiological processes including memory formation, cognition and pain perception. In the central nervous system endocannabinoids mediate negative feedback of quantal transmitter release following postsynaptic depolarization. The influence of cannabinoids in the peripheral nervous system is less clear and might have broad implications for the therapeutic application of cannabinoids. We report a novel cannabinoid effect upon the mouse neuromuscular synapse: acutely increasing synaptic vesicle volume and raising the quantal amplitudes...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sven Vanneste, Jae-Jin Song, Dirk De Ridder
Thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) is a model proposed to explain divergent neurological disorders. It is characterized by a common oscillatory pattern in which resting-state alpha activity is replaced by cross-frequency coupling of low- and high-frequency oscillations. We undertook a data-driven approach using support vector machine learning for analyzing resting-state electroencephalography oscillatory patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease, neuropathic pain, tinnitus, and depression. We show a spectrally equivalent but spatially distinct form of TCD that depends on the specific disorder...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Jeffrey A Leibowitz, Brandi K Ormerod
A large proportion of Gulf War Veterans suffer from Gulf War Illness (GWI) - a devastating chronic disorder characterized by heterogeneous fatigue, pain and neuropsychological symptoms. In their recent Brain, Behavior and Immunity publication entitled "Curcumin Treatment Leads to Better Cognitive and Mood Function in a Model of Gulf War Illness with Enhanced Neurogenesis, and Alleviation of Inflammation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Hippocampus", Kodali and colleagues (2018) report that the polyphenol curcumin improves cognition and mood in a rat model of GWI, potentially by increasing the expression of antioxidant genes and by reversing the effects of chronic combined acetylcholinesterase inhibitor exposure on neuroinflammation, mitochondrial respiration and hippocampal neurogenesis...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Nicholas Beazley-Long, Catherine Elizabeth Moss, William Robert Ashby, Samuel Marcus Bestall, Fatimah Almahasneh, Alexandra Margaret Durrant, Andrew Vaughan Benest, Zoe Blackley, Kurt Ballmer-Hofer, Masanori Hirashima, Richard Phillip Hulse, David Owen Bates, Lucy Frances Donaldson
Chronic pain can develop in response to conditions such as inflammatory arthritis. The central mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of chronic pain in humans are not well elucidated although there is evidence for a role of microglia and astrocytes. However in pre-clinical models of pain, including models of inflammatory arthritis, there is a wealth of evidence indicating roles for pathological glial reactivity within the CNS. In the spinal dorsal horn of rats with painful inflammatory arthritis we found both a significant increase in CD11b+ microglia-like cells and GFAP+ astrocytes associated with blood vessels, and the number of activated blood vessels expressing the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, indicating potential glio-vascular activation...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Manuel Martínez-Lavín
Independent investigators have described the onset of a chronic painful dysautonomic syndrome soon after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The veracity of this syndrome is hotly debated. Many of the reported post-HPV vaccination cases fullfill fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. This article discusses the arguments favoring the existence of a syndrome associated to HPV vaccination. We propose that fibromyalgia dysautonomic-neuropathic model could help in the diagnostic and therapeutic process in those patients in whom the onset of a painful chronic illness began after HPV immunization...
March 13, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
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