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Calcineurin fungi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507606/mn-2-modulates-the-expression-of-cellulase-genes-in-trichoderma-reesei-rut-c30-via-calcium-signaling
#1
Yumeng Chen, Yaling Shen, Wei Wang, Dongzhi Wei
Background: The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 is one of the most vital fungi for the production of cellulases, which can be used for biofuel production from lignocellulose. Nevertheless, the mechanism of transmission of external stimuli and signals in modulating cellulase production in T. reesei Rut-C30 remains unclear. Calcium is a known second messenger regulating cellulase gene expression in T. reesei . Results: In this study, we found that a biologically relevant extracellular Mn2+ concentration markedly stimulates cellulase production, total protein secretion, and the intracellular Mn2+ concentration of Rut-C30, a cellulase hyper-producing strain of T...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495448/calcium-signalling-in-plant-biotic-interactions
#2
REVIEW
Didier Aldon, Malick Mbengue, Christian Mazars, Jean-Philippe Galaud
Calcium (Ca2+ ) is a universal second messenger involved in various cellular processes, leading to plant development and to biotic and abiotic stress responses. Intracellular variation in free Ca2+ concentration is among the earliest events following the plant perception of environmental change. These Ca2+ variations differ in their spatio-temporal properties according to the nature, strength and duration of the stimulus. However, their conversion into biological responses requires Ca2+ sensors for decoding and relaying...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300778/from-phagocytosis-to-metaforosis-calcineurin-s-deadly-role-in-innate-processing-of-fungi
#3
Darius Armstrong-James, Leon de Boer, Amelia Bercusson, Anand Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248112/cooperation-between-er-stress-and-calcineurin-signaling-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-cell-wall-integrity-in-candida-glabrata
#4
Yutaka Tanaka, Masato Sasaki, Fumie Ito, Toshio Aoyama, Michiyo Sato-Okamoto, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Hiroji Chibana, Nobuyuki Shibata
Candida glabrata is the second most common source of Candida infections in humans. In this pathogen, the maintenance of cell wall integrity (CWI) frequently precludes effective pharmacological treatment by antifungal agents. In numerous fungi, cell wall modulation is reported to be controlled by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, but how the latter affects CWI maintenance in C. glabrata is not clearly understood. Here, we characterized a C. glabrata strain harboring a mutation in the CNE1 gene, which encodes a molecular chaperone associated with nascent glycoprotein maturation in the ER...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922497/mutual-independence-of-alkaline-and-calcium-mediated-signalling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-refutes-the-existence-of-a-conserved-druggable-signalling-nexus
#5
Omar Loss, Margherita Bertuzzi, Yu Yan, Natalie Fedorova, Bethany L McCann, Darius Armstrong-James, Eduardo A Espeso, Nick D Read, William C Nierman, Elaine M Bignell
Functional coupling of calcium- and alkaline responsive signalling occurs in multiple fungi to afford efficient cation homeostasis. Host microenvironments exert alkaline stress and potentially toxic concentrations of Ca2+ , such that highly conserved regulators of both calcium- (Crz) and pH- (PacC/Rim101) responsive signalling are crucial for fungal pathogenicity. Drugs targeting calcineurin are potent antifungal agents but also perturb human immunity thereby negating their use as anti-infectives, abrogation of alkaline signalling has, therefore, been postulated as an adjunctive antifungal strategy...
December 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904958/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-genes-mediating-salt-tolerance-through-calcineurin-ccha-independent-signaling-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#6
Sha Wang, Hongchang Zhou, Jun Wu, Jiangyu Han, Shasha Li, Shengwen Shao
Adaptation to changes in the environment is crucial for the viability of all organisms. Although the importance of calcineurin in the stress response has been highlighted in filamentous fungi, little is known about the involvement of ion-responsive genes and pathways in conferring salt tolerance without calcium signaling. In this study, high-throughput RNA-seq was used to investigate salt stress-induced genes in the parent, ΔcnaB, and ΔcnaBΔcchA strains of Aspergillus nidulans, which differ greatly in salt adaption...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697720/early-onset-pneumonia-after-liver-transplant-microbial-causes-risk-factors-and-outcomes-mansoura-university-egypt-experience
#7
Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy, Raed El-Metwaly Ali, Amr Yassen, Mohammad Ahmad AbouElela, Rehab Ahmad Elmorsey
OBJECTIVES: Pneumonia has a negative effect on the outcome of liver transplant. Our aim was to analyze early-onset pneumonia that developed within the first month after transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective single-center study included 56 adult living-donor liver transplant recipients; those who developed early-onset pneumonia based on clinical and radiologic criteria were investigated as to causative pathogens and then followed up and compared with other recipients without pneumonia to illustrate risk factors, outcomes, and related mortality of posttransplant pneumonia...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594271/treatment-of-cyclosporin-a-retains-host-defense-against-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-a-non-immunosuppressive-murine-model-by-preserving-the-myeloid-cell-population
#8
Sarah Sze Wah Wong, Orhan Rasid, Paris Laskaris, Arnaud Fekkar, Jean-Marc Cavaillon, William J Steinbach, Oumaima Ibrahim-Granet
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is widely used as an immunosuppressive agent for organ transplant recipients. CsA inhibits calcineurin, which is highly conserved in mammals and fungi, and thus affects both types of organism. In mammals, the immunosuppressive effect of CsA is via hampering T cell activation. In fungi, the growth inhibitory effect of CsA is via interference with hyphal growth. The aim of this study was to determine whether CsA renders mice susceptible to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and whether it can protect immunosuppressed mice from infection...
November 17, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576356/quantitative-proteomics-reveals-new-insights-into-calcium-mediated-resistance-mechanisms-in-aspergillus-flavus-against-the-antifungal-protein-pgafp-in-cheese
#9
Josué Delgado, Rebecca A Owens, Sean Doyle, Félix Núñez, Miguel A Asensio
The ability of Aspergillus flavus to produce aflatoxins in dairy products presents a potential hazard. The antifungal protein PgAFP from Penicillium chrysogenum inhibits various foodborne toxigenic fungi, including Aspergillus flavus. However, PgAFP did not inhibit A. flavus growth in cheese, which was related to the associated cation content. CaCl2 increased A. flavus permeability and prevented PgAFP-mediated inhibition in potato dextrose broth (PDB). PgAFP did not elicit any additional increase in permeability of CaCl2-incubated A...
September 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550061/the-lectin-chaperone-calnexin-is-involved-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-by-regulating-ca-2-homeostasis-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#10
Shenghua Zhang, Hailin Zheng, Qiuyi Chen, Yuan Chen, Sha Wang, Ling Lu, Shizhu Zhang
The Ca2+ -mediated signaling pathway is crucial for environmental adaptation in fungi. Here we show that calnexin, a molecular chaperone located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays an important role in regulating the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]c ) in Aspergillus nidulans Inactivation of calnexin (ClxA) in A. nidulans caused severe defects in hyphal growth and conidiation under ER stress caused by the ER stress-inducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) or high temperature. Importantly, defects in the Δ clxA mutant were restored by the addition of extracellular calcium...
August 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476909/construction-of-a-recyclable-genetic-marker-and-serial-gene-deletions-in-the-human-pathogenic-mucorales-mucor-circinelloides
#11
Alexis Garcia, Gloria Adedoyin, Joseph Heitman, Soo Chan Lee
Mucor circinelloides is a human pathogen, biofuel producer, and model system that belongs to a basal fungal lineage; however, the genetics of this fungus are limited. In contrast to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, basal fungal lineages have been understudied. This may be caused by a lack of attention given to these fungi, as well as limited tools for genetic analysis. Nonetheless, the importance of these fungi as pathogens and model systems has increased. M. circinelloides is one of a few genetically tractable organisms in the basal fungi, but it is far from a robust genetic system when compared to model fungi in the subkingdom Dikarya...
July 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424845/the-regulatory-role-of-the-transcription-factor-crz1-in-stress-tolerance-pathogenicity-and-its-target-gene-expression-in-metarhizium-acridum
#12
Xing Chen, Yuanze Liu, Nemat O Keyhani, Yuxian Xia, Yueqing Cao
In fungi, the Ca2+ /calcineurin signaling pathway is critical in mediating growth, morphology, stress responses, and pathogenicity. Crz1 is a calcineurin-responsive zinc finger transcription factor. Here, MaCrz1 was identified and functionally characterized in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum by characterization of a targeted gene knockout strain. Conidia of the ΔMacrz1 mutant were aberrant in cell surface features and lacked the characteristic hydrophobic rodlet layer, and the mutant displayed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, cell wall perturbing agents, heat stress, and ultraviolet irradiation as compared to the wild-type and complemented strains...
June 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412204/a-calcineurin-antifungal-strategy-with-analogs-of-fk506
#13
Mitchell Nambu, Jonathan A Covel, Mili Kapoor, Xiaoming Li, Molly K Moloney, Mehdi M Numa, Quinlyn A Soltow, Michael Trzoss, Peter Webb, Robert R Webb, Mitchell Mutz
A novel antifungal strategy targeting the inhibition of calcineurin is described. To develop a calcineurin based inhibitor of pathogenic fungi, analogs of FK506 were synthesized that were able to permeate mammalian but not fungal cells. Antagonists in combination with FK506 were not immunosuppressive and retained antifungal activity in A. fumigatus. To reduce the dosage burden of the antagonist, murine oral PK was improved an order of magnitude relative to previous FK506 antagonists.
June 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381925/molecular-insights-into-pathogenesis-and-infection-with-aspergillus-fumigatus
#14
REVIEW
Ciamak Ghazaei
The virulence of fungi is dependent on multiple factors, including the immune status of patients and biological features of fungi. In particular, the virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus is due to the complex interaction among various molecules involved in thermotolerance (such as ribosomal biogenesis proteins, α-mannosyltransferase and heat shock proteins), pigment production (DHN-melanin), immune evasion (like melanin and hydrophobin) and nutrient uptake (such as siderophores and zinc transporters). Other molecules also play important roles in the virulence of A...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376087/elucidation-of-the-calcineurin-crz1-stress-response-transcriptional-network-in-the-human-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#15
Eve W L Chow, Shelly A Clancey, R Blake Billmyre, Anna Floyd Averette, Joshua A Granek, Piotr Mieczkowski, Maria E Cardenas, Joseph Heitman
Calcineurin is a highly conserved Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase that orchestrates cellular Ca2+ signaling responses. In Cryptococcus neoformans, calcineurin is activated by multiple stresses including high temperature, and is essential for stress adaptation and virulence. The transcription factor Crz1 is a major calcineurin effector in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. Calcineurin dephosphorylates Crz1, thereby enabling Crz1 nuclear translocation and transcription of target genes...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832964/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-the-calcineurin-target-crza
#16
Patricia Hernández-Ortiz, Eduardo A Espeso
The response of Aspergilli to elevated concentrations of extracellular calcium and manganese, or environmental alkalinization is mediated by CrzA, a calcineurin-responsive transcription factor (TF). CrzA is the effector of a signaling pathway which includes the apical protein's calmodulin and calcineurin, and the protein kinases GskA and CkiA. Preferentially located in the cytoplasm, CrzA is the only element of the pathway modifying its localization under those stress conditions, being imported into nuclei...
January 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761133/the-hsp90-co-chaperones-sti1-aha1-and-p23-regulate-adaptive-responses-to-antifungal-azoles
#17
Xiaokui Gu, Wei Xue, Yajing Yin, Hongwei Liu, Shaojie Li, Xianyun Sun
Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. However, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. In this study, by susceptibility test of Neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 Hsp90/Calcineurin system member genes (including 8 Hsp90 co-chaperone genes) to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1 (Hop1 in yeast), Aha1, and P23 (Sba1 in yeast) were required for the basal resistance to antifungal azoles and heat stress...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548283/kre5-suppression-induces-cell-wall-stress-and-alternative-er-stress-response-required-for-maintaining-cell-wall-integrity-in-candida-glabrata
#18
Yutaka Tanaka, Masato Sasaki, Fumie Ito, Toshio Aoyama, Michiyo Sato-Okamoto, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Hiroji Chibana, Nobuyuki Shibata
The maintenance of cell wall integrity in fungi is required for normal cell growth, division, hyphae formation, and antifungal tolerance. We observed that endoplasmic reticulum stress regulated cell wall integrity in Candida glabrata, which possesses uniquely evolved mechanisms for unfolded protein response mechanisms. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of KRE5, which encodes a predicted UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, significantly increased cell wall chitin content and decreased cell wall β-1,6-glucan content...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394712/manuscript-title-antifungal-proteins-from-moulds-analytical-tools-and-potential-application-to-dry-ripened-foods
#19
REVIEW
Josué Delgado, Rebecca A Owens, Sean Doyle, Miguel A Asensio, Félix Núñez
Moulds growing on the surface of dry-ripened foods contribute to their sensory qualities, but some of them are able to produce mycotoxins that pose a hazard to consumers. Small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins (AFPs) from moulds are highly stable to pH and proteolysis and exhibit a broad inhibition spectrum against filamentous fungi, providing new chances to control hazardous moulds in fermented foods. The analytical tools for characterizing the cellular targets and affected pathways are reviewed. Strategies currently employed to study these mechanisms of action include 'omics' approaches that have come to the forefront in recent years, developing in tandem with genome sequencing of relevant organisms...
August 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363478/inhibition-of-the-calcineurin-pathway-by-two-flavonoids-isolated-from-miliusa-sinensis-finet-gagnep
#20
Won Jeong Lee, Jae Sun Moon, Young Tae Kim, Tran The Bach, Do Van Hai, Sung Uk Kim
In order to discover plant-derived signaling pathway inhibitors with antifungal properties, a two-component screening system utilizing the calcineurin and Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways responsible for the virulence networks of Cryptococcus neoformans was employed, owing to the counter-regulatory actions of these pathways. Of the 1,000 plant extracts tested, two bioactive compounds from Miliusa sinensis were found to act specifically on the calcineurin pathway of C. neoformans. These compounds, identified as pashanone and 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone, exhibited potent antifungal activities against various human pathogenic fungi with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 4...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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