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Sylvina Alvarado, Ernesto Paya, María Teresa Valenzuela, Rodolfo Villena
INTRODUCTION: Special vaccines recommendation patients are a growing population. The Ministry of Health has developed a special vaccination program for these cases, through which our hospital manages vaccine forms by an established flowchart. OBJECTIVE: To describe the special vaccines model of management results in the period between March 2015 and September 2016, and the clinical and demographics characterization of the pediatric population benefited with this program in Dr...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Anna King, Anna Brain, Kelsey Hanson, Justin Dittmann, James Vickers, Carmen Fernandez-Martos
Disruption of leptin signalling has been implicated as playing a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Leptin has previously been shown to be affected by amyloid-beta (Aβ)-related signalling; however, pathways that link leptin to the disease pathogenesis have not been determined. To characterize the association between increasing age-dependent Aβ levels with leptin signalling and the vulnerable brain regions in AD, we assessed the mRNA and protein expression profile of leptin and leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) at 9 and 18-month-age in APP/PS1 mice...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Marnie J Meylor de Mooij, Rachael L Hodny, Daniel A O'Neil, Matthew R Gardner, Mekayla Beaver, Andrea T Brown, Barbara A Barry, Lorna M Ross, Amy J Jasik, Katharine M Nesbitt, Susan M Sobolewski, Susan M Skinner, Rajeev Chaudhry, Brian C Brost, Bobbie S Gostout, Roger W Harms
Using a human-centered design method, our team sought to envision a new model of care for women experiencing low-risk pregnancy. This model, called OB Nest, aimed to demedicalize the experience of pregnancy by providing a supportive and empowering experience that fits within patients' daily lives. To explore this topic, we invited women to use self-monitoring tools, a text-based smartphone application to communicate with their care team, and moderated online communities to connect with other pregnant women...
March 9, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Sara Whetstone, Meg Autry
An unprecedented number of medical students and residents express the desire to participate in global health work during their training and beyond. Preparing learners for work in underserved settings makes it more likely that they will continue to work in areas of need. Training programs that focus on global health have been criticized as there is ample work to be done in the US, and often global health work becomes learner-centric, which is difficult to maintain and potentially burdensome and harmful to the host site...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Erdem Karadeniz, Mehmet Nuri Kocak, Ali Ahiskalioglu, Kemal Alp Nalci, Sevilay Ozmen, Mufide Nuran Akcay, Nazan Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu Aydin, Ahmet Hacimuftuoglu
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Hypofunctioning breasts are typically considered a dysfunction of higher brain centers that regulate hormonal feedback, and olfactory information has been proposed as a triggering factor for lactation in the maternal body. However, there are no substantive studies regarding whether olfaction disorders and/or loss of olfactory sense may result in breast gland atrophy by causing diminished olfactory stimulation. To fill this gap in the literature, we studied the histologic features of breast glands as a sample model in animals that had undergone an olfactory bulb lesion (OBL)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Margaret B Allison, Warren Pan, Alexander MacKenzie, Christa Patterson, Kimi Shah, Tammy Barnes, Wenwen Cheng, Alan Rupp, David P Olson, Martin G Myers
Leptin acts via its receptor (LepRb) to modulate gene expression in hypothalamic LepRb-expressing neurons, thereby controlling energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of the control of gene expression in hypothalamic LepRb neurons for leptin action, the transcriptional targets of LepRb signaling have remained undefined because LepRb cells contribute a small fraction to the aggregate transcriptome of the brain regions in which they reside. We thus employed Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP) followed by RNA-seq to isolate and analyze mRNA from the hypothalamic LepRb neurons of wild-type or leptin-deficient ( Lep ob/ob ) mice treated with vehicle or exogenous leptin...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes
Naoki Sawada, Takenori Kotani, Tasuku Konno, Jajar Setiawan, Yuka Nishigaito, Yasuyuki Saito, Yoji Murata, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Takashi Matozaki
In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells are continuously replaced by adult-born neurons, which are generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of such neuronal cell turnover in the adult mouse brain. Administration of mixture of antibiotics to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice markedly attenuated the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into the SVZ cells. The treatment with antibiotics also reduced newly generated BrdU-positive neurons in the mouse OB...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ronit Koren, Yifat Wiener, Karen Or, Carlos A Benbassat, Shlomit Koren
OBJECTIVES: To study the current practices in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and thyroid nodules during pregnancy of obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) and endocrinologists in Israel. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was sent by email to all members of the Israeli Endocrine Society and the Israel Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Questionnaires included demographic data and clinical scenarios with questions regarding the screening and management of pregnant women with SCH, hypothyroxinemia, and a palpable thyroid nodule...
March 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Riccardo Natoli, Nilisha Fernando, Tess Dahlenburg, Haihan Jiao, Riemke Aggio-Bruce, Nigel L Barnett, Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Guillaume Tcherkez, Pascal Reynier, Johnny Fang, Joshua A Chu-Tan, Krisztina Valter, Jan Provis, Matt Rutar
Purpose: Systemic increases in reactive oxygen species, and their association with inflammation, have been proposed as an underlying mechanism linking obesity and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Studies have found increased levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines in obese individuals; however, the correlation between obesity and retinal inflammation has yet to be assessed. We used the leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mouse to further our understanding of the contribution of obesity to retinal oxidative stress and inflammation...
2018: Molecular Vision
Jacki L Coburn, Toby B Cole, Khoi T Dao, Lucio G Costa
Adult neurogenesis is the process by which neural stem cells give rise to new functional neurons in specific regions of the adult brain, a process that occurs throughout life. Significantly, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders present suppressed neurogenesis, activated microglia, and neuroinflammation. Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to adversely affect the central nervous system. As the cardinal effects of air pollution exposure are microglial activation, and ensuing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, we investigated whether acute exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) would inhibit adult neurogenesis in mice...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Timothy J Fairchild, Heidi Klakk, Malene Heidemann, Anders Grøntved, Niels Wedderkopp
PURPOSE: To examine the association between insulin sensitivity and adiposity in children stratified according to their body mass index (BMI: normal weight, NW; overweight or obese, OW/OB) and body-fat percentage (BF%: adipose or NonAdipose), and determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) ameliorates any deleterious associations. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprises a cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of data collected at baseline and 2 years later on children (7...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Yan Weng, Tetsuya Ishino, Annette Sievers, Saswata Talukdar, Jeffrey R Chabot, Amy Tam, Weili Duan, Kelvin Kerns, Eric Sousa, Tao He, Alison Logan, Darwin Lee, Dongmei Li, Yingjiang Zhou, Barbara Bernardo, Alison Joyce, Mania Kavosi, Denise M O'Hara, Tracey Clark, Jie Guo, Craig Giragossian, Mark Stahl, Roberto A Calle, Ron Kriz, Will Somers, Laura Lin
Pharmacological administration of FGF21 analogues has shown robust body weight reduction and lipid profile improvement in both dysmetabolic animal models and metabolic disease patients. Here we report the design, optimization, and characterization of a long acting glyco-variant of FGF21. Using a combination of N-glycan engineering for enhanced protease resistance and improved solubility, Fc fusion for further half-life extension, and a single point mutation for improving manufacturability in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, we created a novel FGF21 analogue, Fc-FGF21[R19V][N171] or PF-06645849, with substantially improved solubility and stability profile that is compatible with subcutaneous (SC) administration...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Niklas Zwettler, Simon Walg, Ferdinand Belaj, Nadia C Mösch-Zanetti
Reaction of a molybdenum(VI) oxido imido complex with the strong Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 gave access to the Lewis adduct [Mo{OB(C6F5)3}(NtBu)L2] featuring reversible B-O bonding in solution. The resulting FLP-like reactivity is reflected by the compound's ability to heterolytically cleave Si-H bonds, leading to a clean formation of the novel cationic Mo(VI) species 3a (R=Et) and 3b (R=Ph) of the general formula [Mo(OSiR3)(NtBu)L2][HB(C6F5)3]. These compounds possess properties highly unusual for molybdenum d0 species such as an intensive, charge-transfer based color as well as a reversible redox couple at very low potentials, both dependent on the employed silane...
March 9, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Eva M Luo, Henry S Opare-Ado, Joseph Adomako, Kwabena A Danso, Talya Peltzman, Frank W J Anderson
Introduction To provide a qualitative perspective on the changes that occurred after newly placed OB/GYNs began working at district hospitals in Ashanti, Ghana. Methods Structured interviews of healthcare professionals were conducted at eight district hospitals located throughout the Ashanti district of Ghana, four with and four without a full-time OB/GYN on staff. Individuals interviewed include: medical superintendents, medical officers, district hospital administrators, OB/GYNs (where applicable), and nurse-midwives...
March 8, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Paula P Perissinotti, María Celeste Rivero-Echeto, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that controls appetite and energy expenditure. Leptin receptors are expressed on extra-hypothalamic ventrobasal (VB) and reticular thalamic (RTN) nuclei from embryonic stages. Here, we studied the effects of pressure-puff, local application of leptin on both synaptic transmission and action potential properties of thalamic neurons in thalamocortical slices. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of thalamocortical VB neurons from wild-type (WT) and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice...
March 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Jobin Varghese, Tuomo Siponkoski, Maciej Sobocinski, Timo Vahera, Heli Jantunen
This paper reports the first ultralow sintering temperature (450 oC) co-fired multifunctional ceramic substrate based on a commercial lead zirconium titanate (PZ29)-glass composite and fabricated by tape casting, isostatic lamination, and sintering. This substrate was prepared from a novel tape casting slurry composition suitable for co-firing at this low temperature with commercial Ag electrodes at 450 oC. The green cast tape and sintered substrate showed a surface roughness of 146 nm and 355 nm, respectively, suitable for device level fabrication by post-processing...
March 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hanlin Yao, Zhen Yao, Shaocheng Zhang, Wenjun Zhang, Wen Zhou
Osteoporosis is a disease that significantly influences life expectancy and quality in humans. Oxidative stress may stimulate bone marrow osteoclast differentiation and inhibit osteoblast (OB) differentiation. OB proliferation and differentiation are affected by the forkhead box O (FoxO)1/β‑catenin signaling pathway. The osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be promoted by silent information regulator type‑1 [sirtuin (SIRT)1]. However, the molecular mechanism of SIRT1 regulation of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs remains unclear, and further elucidation is needed...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Olatz Leonet, Luis Colmenares, Andriy Kvasha, Mikel Oyarbide, Aroa Mainar, Tobias Glossmann, J Alberto Blazquez, Zhengcheng Zhang
2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)benzene (DBBB) is studied as an overcharge protecting additive in 1.5 Ah graphite/C-LFP lithium-ion pouch cells for the first time. The elec-trochemical performance demonstrated that the protecting additive remains inert during the extended standard cycling for 4000 cycles as compared with the baseline cell. However, when a 100% overcharge is introduced in the charging protocol, the baseline cell fails rapidly during the first abusive event whereas the cell containing DBBB additive withstands 700 overcharge cycles with 87% capacity retention and no gas evolution or cell swelling was ob-served...
March 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Luca De Carli, Elena Spada, Silvano Milani, Gian Pasquale Ganzit, Lucia Ghizzoni, Melissa Raia, Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Simona Bo
BACKGROUND: Since populations are becoming increasingly multi-ethnic, the use of local or international charts is a matter of debate. This study aimed to evaluate how the choice of cut-off thresholds affected prevalence of underweight (UW), overweight (OW), obesity (OB) in 1200 11-12-year Italian adolescents, and how their somatic growth depended on parental origin. METHODS: The height, weight and body mass index were expressed as standard deviation score (SDS) using Italian (ISPED-2006) and UK (UK-1990) charts...
March 5, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Yochai Birnbaum, Mandeep Bajaj, Hsiu-Chiung Yang, Yumei Ye
BACGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4I) are used to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM). DPP4 inhibitors (DPP4) attenuate Nlrp3 inflammasome activation in the kidney. SGLT2 inhibition reduces inflammation and attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The effects of dapagliflozin (Dapa) on the activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome and the combined effect of SGLT2 and DPP4 on T2DM-induced inflammasome activation and progression of DN have not been previously studied...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
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