Read by QxMD icon Read


Hugo Vianna Silva Rody, Luiz Orlando de Oliveira
Plants are successful paleopolyploids. The wide diversity of land plants is driven strongly by their gene duplicates undergoing distinct evolutionary fates after duplication. We used genomic resources from 35 model plant species to unravel the evolutionary fate of gene copies (paralogs) of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (metE) gene family across the land plants. To explore genealogical relationships and characterize positive selection as a driving force in the evolution of metE paralogs within a single species, we carried out complementary analyses on genomic data of 32 genotypes of soybean...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Oyetunji E Ogundijo, Xiaodong Wang
BACKGROUND: Samples of molecular sequence data of a locus obtained from random individuals in a population are often related by an unknown genealogy. More importantly, population genetics parameters, for instance, the scaled population mutation rate Θ=4N e μ for diploids or Θ=2N e μ for haploids (where N e is the effective population size and μ is the mutation rate per site per generation), which explains some of the evolutionary history and past qualities of the population that the samples are obtained from, is of significant interest...
December 8, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Andy Byford
Therapy is not simply a domain or form of medical practice, but also a metaphor for and a performance of medicine, of its functions and status, of its distinctive mode of action upon the world. This article examines medical treatment or therapy (in Russian lechenie), as concept and practice, in what came to be known in Russia as defectology (defektologiia) - the discipline and occupation concerned with the study and care of children with developmental pathologies, disabilities and special needs. Defectology formed an impure, occupationally ambiguous, therapeutic field, which emerged between different types of expertise in the niche populated by children considered 'difficult to cure', 'difficult to teach', and 'difficult to discipline'...
January 2018: Medical History
Stephan Peischl, I Dupanloup, A Foucal, M Jomphe, V Bruat, J-C Grenier, A Gouy, K J Gilbert, E Gbeha, L Bosshard, E Hip-Ki, M Agbessi, A Hodgkinson, H Vézina, P Awadalla, Laurent Excoffier
Humans have colonized the planet through a series of range expansions, which deeply impacted genetic diversity in newly settled areas and potentially increased the frequency of deleterious mutations on expanding wave fronts. To test this prediction, we studied the genomic diversity of French Canadians who colonized Quebec in the 17th 34 century. We used historical information and records from ~4000 ascending genealogies to select individuals whose ancestors lived mostly on the colonizing wave front and individuals whose ancestors remained in the core of the settlement...
November 29, 2017: Genetics
Chan Yang, Zushi Huang, Mei Li, Xiangyang Feng, Xinghui Qiu
BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is a major vector of malaria in China. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel, encoded by the RDL (Resistant to dieldrin) gene, is the important target for insecticides of widely varied structures. The use of various insecticides in agriculture and vector control has inevitably led to the development of insecticide resistance, which may reduce the control effectiveness. Therefore, it is important to investigate the presence and distribution frequency of the resistance related mutation(s) in An...
November 28, 2017: Malaria Journal
Mónica Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Christopher L Parkinson, Juan M Daza, Wolfgang Wüster, Mahmood Sasa
The uplift and final connection of the Central American land bridge is considered the major event that allowed biotic exchange between vertebrate lineages of northern and southern origin in the New World. However, given the complex tectonics that shaped Middle America, there is still substantial controversy over details of this geographical reconnection, and its role in determining biogeographic patterns in the region. Here, we examine the phylogeography of Bothrops asper, a widely distributed pitviper in Middle America and northwestern South America, in an attempt to evaluate how the final Isthmian uplift and other biogeographical boundaries in the region influenced genealogical lineage divergence in this species...
2017: PloS One
José Miguel Ponciano
Using a nonparametric Bayesian approach Palacios and Minin (2013) dramatically improved the accuracy, precision of Bayesian inference of population size trajectories from gene genealogies. These authors proposed an extension of a Gaussian Process (GP) nonparametric inferential method for the intensity function of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. They found that not only the statistical properties of the estimators were improved with their method, but also, that key aspects of the demographic histories were recovered...
November 22, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
Yoshihiro Matsuoka, Shigeo Takumi
The ability to cause reproductive isolation often varies among individuals within a plant species. We addressed whether such polymorphism influenced speciation of the allopolyploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome) by evaluating the expression of pre-pollination (outcrossing potential) and post-pollination (crossability) barriers in Aegilops tauschii Coss. (the D genome progenitor). In total, 201 Ae. tauschii accessions representing the entire natural habitat range of the species were used for anther length measurement and artificial crosses with a Triticum turgidum L...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tuuli Mustonen, Eeva-Kaisa Schmidt, Miko Valori, Pentti J Tienari, Sari Atula, Sari Kiuru-Enari
Finnish gelsolin amyloidosis (AGel amyloidosis) is an autosomal dominantly inherited systemic disorder with ophthalmologic, neurologic and dermatologic symptoms. Only the gelsolin (GSN) c.640G>A variant has been found in the Finnish patients thus far. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the Finnish patients have a common ancestor or whether multiple mutation events have occurred at c.640G, which is a known mutational hot spot. A total of 79 Finnish AGel amyloidosis families including 707 patients were first discovered by means of patient interviews, genealogic studies and civil and parish registers...
November 22, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Kenneth S Kendler
We can trace, with high congruence, the clinical syndromes of depression and mania as described over the 20th century in psychiatric textbooks back to 1880 and to the earliest writing of Kraepelin published in 1883. However, this is not the case for Kraepelin's 2 delusional syndromes central to his overall nosology: Dementia Paranoides (later paranoid schizophrenia) and Paranoia. A detailed examination of 28 textbook descriptions of delusional psychoses from 1880 to 1900 reveals a diverse and partially overlapping set of syndromes with an admixture of symptoms and signs that would later be considered indicative of Dementia Paranoides and Paranoia...
November 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Eran Elhaik, Leeban Yusuf, Ainan I J Anderson, Mehdi Pirooznia, Dimitrios Arnellos, Gregory Vilshansky, Gunes Ercal, Yontao Lu, Teresa Webster, Michael L Baird, Umberto Esposito
The human population displays wide variety in demographic history, ancestry, content of DNA derived from hominins or ancient populations, adaptation, traits, copy number variation (CNVs), drug response, and more. These polymorphisms are of broad interest to population geneticists, forensics investigators, and medical professionals. Historically, much of that knowledge was gained from population survey projects. While many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, their design specifications are limited and they do not allow a full exploration of biodiversity...
November 20, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
K T Örnolfsson, S Olafsson, O M Bergmann, M E Gershwin, E S Björnsson
Hereditary factors in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) have been well defined in genome wide-association studies but there is not much direct data available that define the relative risk for family members with an affected proband. An increased risk in first-degree relatives has been demonstrated in a variety of studies but data have been lacking on further detailed associations for subsequent generations. The objective of the study was to use the unique Icelandic genealogical database to study the familiality of PBC...
November 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Fei Yin, Dong Qian
BACKGROUND: False kelpfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) is one of the target species in artificial breeding in China, and is susceptible to infection by Cryptocaryon irritans, which is an obligate parasitic ciliate that lives in the epithelium of the fish gills, skin and fins. Here, we sought to understand the mechanisms of molecular immunity of S. marmoratus against C. irritans infection. METHODS: We carried out an extensive analysis of the transcriptome of S. marmoratus immune-related tissues...
November 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Elizabeth J Marsh
Scientific contributions take many forms, not all of which result in fame or are captured in traditional metrics of success (e.g., h factor). My focus is on one of the most lasting and important contributions a scientist can make: training scientists who go on to train scientists, who in turn train more scientists, etc. Academic genealogies provide many examples of scientists whose names might not be recognizable today but who trained psychologists that went on to publish very influential work. Of course success results from a combination of many factors (including but not limited to the student's abilities and motivation, luck, institutional resources, mentoring, etc...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Haipeng Zhao, Junxiao Yang, Chunping Wang, Pipeng Li, Robert W Murphy, Jing Che, Zhiyong Yuan
A new species of brown frog Rana luanchuanensis Zhao & Yuan, sp. n. is described from Luanchuan County, western Henan, central China. The mitochondrial genealogy suggests that the new species is the sister taxon to the clade including R. amurensis and R. coreana, and is separated by uncorrected pairwise distances more than 12.5%. Morphologically, this new species differs from its congeners by a suite of characters. Analyses of partial sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) resolve the new species as a single matriline...
2017: ZooKeys
Ilana M Arbisser, Ethan M Jewett, Noah A Rosenberg
Many statistics that examine genetic variation depend on the underlying shapes of genealogical trees. Under the coalescent model, we investigate the joint distribution of two quantities that describe genealogical tree shape: tree height and tree length. We derive a recursive formula for their exact joint distribution under a demographic model of a constant-sized population. We obtain approximations for the mean and variance of the ratio of tree height to tree length, using them to show that this ratio converges in probability to 0 as the sample size increases...
November 10, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
Sebastian Matuszewski, Marcel E Hildebrandt, Guillaume Achaz, Jeffrey D Jensen
Non-equilibrium demography impacts coalescent genealogies leaving detectable, well-studied signatures of variation. However, similar genomic footprints are also expected under models of large reproductive skew, posing a serious problem when trying to make inference. Furthermore, current approaches consider only one of the two processes at a time, neglecting any genomic signal that could arise from their simultaneous effects, preventing the possibility of jointly inferring parameters relating to both offspring distribution and population history...
November 10, 2017: Genetics
Mara Villa, Michael Lässig
Reassortment, which is the exchange of genome sequence between viruses co-infecting a host cell, plays an important role in the evolution of segmented viruses. In the human influenza virus, reassortment happens most frequently between co-existing variants within the same lineage. This process breaks genetic linkage and fitness correlations between viral genome segments, but the resulting net effect on viral fitness has remained unclear. In this paper, we determine rate and average selective effect of reassortment processes in the human influenza lineage A/H3N2...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Marcos de O R da Cruz, Marcelo Weksler
The use of genetic data and tree-based algorithms to delimit evolutionary lineages is becoming an important practice in taxonomic identification, especially in morphologically cryptic groups. The effects of different phylogenetic and/or coalescent models in the analyses of species delimitation, however, are not clear. In this paper, we assess the impact of different evolutionary priors in phylogenetic estimation, species delimitation, and molecular dating of the genus Oligoryzomys (Mammalia: Rodentia), a group with complex taxonomy and morphological cryptic species...
October 28, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Aline Sierp
This article is part of the special section titled The Genealogies of Memory, guest edited by Ferenc Laczó and Joanna Wawrzyniak This article analyses the wider context of policy conflict concerning public memory of the 1989 events. It uses Pierre Nora's concept of lieux de mémoire in trying to explain why 23 August 1939 has been turned into a European Remembrance Day whereas 9 November 1989 has not. By investigating closely the role that various memory actors played during debates at the European level, it advances the idea that the anniversary of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact has been more successful in establishing itself within the European remembrance landscape because it has allowed for the promotion of a unifying narrative of the European past...
August 2017: Eastern European Politics and Societies: EEPS
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"