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Bertrand Jordan
Analysis of a huge human pedigree constructed using public genealogy databases indicates that the heritability of longevity is probably lower than previously accepted (0.10 to 0.15 instead of 0.25 to 0.30). This makes the search for "longevity genes" even harder than expected; nevertheless, some significant results emerge and may eventually, after confirmation and extension, provide useful insights.
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Ichiro Tamaki, Saori Tani, Suzuki Setsuko, Saneyoshi Ueno, Naotaka Wadasaki, Nobuhiro Tomaru
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Hybrid zones are areas where gene flow between related species is currently occurring, so information on the compatibility between related species and their hybrids is essential for predicting the dynamics of such zones generated by introgressive hybridization. In this study, we quantified the compatibility among Magnolia stellata, M. salicifolia, and their hybrids in a hybrid zone using gene dispersal modeling. METHODS: After determining the genealogical classes of adult trees in the hybrid zone, the paternity of 574 open-pollinated seeds from 37 known maternal trees was analyzed with microsatellite markers...
October 2017: American Journal of Botany
Natalie Ram, Christi J Guerrini, Amy L McGuire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Science
Anabela Lopes, Benedetto T Linaldeddu, Alan J L Phillips, Artur Alves
Cryptic species are common in Diplodia, a genus that includes some well-known and economically important plant pathogens. Thus, species delimitation has been based on the phylogenetic species recognition approach using multigene genealogies. We assessed the potential of mating type (MAT) genes sequences as phylogenetic markers for species delimitation in the genus Diplodia. A PCR-based mating type diagnostic assay was developed that allowed amplification and sequencing of the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes, and determination of the mating strategies used by different species...
July 2018: Fungal Biology
J T Paiva, M D V de Resende, R T Resende, H R de Oliveira, H T Silva, G C Caetano, P S Lopes, F F Silva
We aimed to estimate transgenerational epigenetic variance for body weight using genealogical and phenotypic information in meat quails. Animals were individually weighted from 1 week after hatching, with weight records at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age (BW7, BW14, BW21, BW28, BW35 and BW42, respectively). Single-trait genetic analyses were performed using mixed models with random epigenetic effects. Variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. A grid search for values of autorecursive parameter (λ) ranging from 0 to 0...
June 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
Tony R Merriman, Phillip L Wilcox
CONTEXT: Cardio-metabolic conditions in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) Māori and non-indigenous Polynesian (Pacific) populations have been increasing in prevalence and severity, especially over the last two decades. OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge on genetic and non-genetic risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease in the Māori and Pacific populations residing in Aotearoa NZ by a semi-systematic review of the PubMed database. To outline possible future directions in genetic epidemiological research with Māori and Pacific communities...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Daniel E Brown, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Lincoln A Gotshalk
BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in Native Hawaiians, is an important health risk. A possible contributing factor to obesity is reduced physical activity levels. AIM: This study investigates the relationship between measured levels of physical activity and body composition in two grade cohorts of school children of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NHPI) and non-NHPI ethnicity. METHODS: A sample of 105 Kindergarteners and third graders were measured for adiposity, physical fitness, and physical activity levels...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Angie Díaz, Karin Gérard, Claudio González-Wevar, Claudia Maturana, Jean-Pierre Féral, Bruno David, Thomas Saucède, Elie Poulin
One of the most relevant characteristics of the extant Southern Ocean fauna is its resiliency to survive glacial processes of the Quaternary. These climatic events produced catastrophic habitat reductions and forced some marine benthic species to move, adapt or go extinct. The marine benthic species inhabiting the Antarctic upper continental shelf faced the Quaternary glaciations with different strategies that drastically modified population sizes and thus affected the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation...
2018: PloS One
Igor J Chybicki, Andrzej Oleksa
Background and Aims: Dispersal is crucial due to its direct impact on dynamics of a species' distribution as well as having a role in shaping adaptive potential through gene flow. In plants forming scarce and small populations, knowledge about the dispersal process is required to assess the potential for colonizing new habitats and connectivity of present and future populations. This study aimed to assess dispersal potential in Taxus baccata, a dioecious gymnosperm tree with a wide but highly fragmented distribution...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Botany
Nir Stern, Carlos Jimenez, Mehmet Fatih Huseyinoglu, Vasilis Andreou, Louis Hadijioannou, Antonis Petrou, Bayram Öztürk, Daniel Golani, Shevy B S Rothman
The recent invasion of the lionfish Pterois miles to the Mediterranean draws major concerns to the fate of the indigenous ecosystem, based on previous knowledge of the species' detrimental capabilities as an introduced species in the Western Atlantic Ocean. In order to determine invasive patterns in the Eastern Mediterranean, we compared the genetic divergence of two mtDNA markers, the COI and D-loop, between and within the introduced Levantine and native range Red Sea populations of the lionfish. COI region presented a remarkably shallow genealogy, and both genes have failed to show a definite geographic population structure, with non-significant AMOVA and low pairwise FST values...
June 6, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Elvis Almeida Pereira, Lucas Custódio Lomba Rocha, Henrique Folly, Hélio Ricardo da Silva, Diego José Santana
Based on concordant differences in male advertisement call, tadpole morphology, and absence of haplotype sharing in the barcoding 16S mitochondrial DNA, we describe here a new species of spotted leaf frog of the genus Phasmahyla from Atlantic Forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil. The new species is most similar to P. cochranae (type locality) and P. spectabilis (type locality). It differs from these species by the size of the calcar, moderate-sized body (snout-vent length 30.4-34.4 mm in adult eight males), and in the advertisement call...
2018: PeerJ
Emily Walsh, Weijun Duan, Maryem Mehdi, Kamal Naphri, Swapneel Khiste, Adam Scalera, Ning Zhang
Two new species of Cadophora are described based on multigene phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic and ecological characters. The species delimitation was based on concordance of gene genealogies. The cultures of the Cadophora species were isolated from the roots of long-beaked sedge and white spruce from a subalpine forest in western Canada; however, they probably have a broader distribution because their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences have high similarity with a number of GenBank sequences from ecological studies of plant roots...
January 2018: Mycologia
Benjamin E Berkman, Wynter K Miller, Christine Grady
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
A Giontella, C Pieramati, M Silvestrelli, F M Sarti
The Maremmano is an autochthonous Italian horse breed, which probably descended from the native horses of the Etruscans (VI century B.C.); the Studbook was acknowledged in 1980, and it includes 12 368 horses born from that year up to 2015. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the selection program on the genetic variability of the Maremmano population; the analysis was performed using both the 'Endog v 4.8' program available at and in-house software on official pedigree data...
May 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Paul Jay, Annabel Whibley, Lise Frézal, María Ángeles Rodríguez de Cara, Reuben W Nowell, James Mallet, Kanchon K Dasmahapatra, Mathieu Joron
Supergenes are groups of tightly linked loci whose variation is inherited as a single Mendelian locus and are a common genetic architecture for complex traits under balancing selection [1-8]. Supergene alleles are long-range haplotypes with numerous mutations underlying distinct adaptive strategies, often maintained in linkage disequilibrium through the suppression of recombination by chromosomal rearrangements [1, 5, 7-9]. However, the mechanism governing the formation of supergenes is not well understood and poses the paradox of establishing divergent functional haplotypes in the face of recombination...
May 16, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Edward Higgs
Calls for reform of the United Kingdom (UK) birth registration system to allow it to be more flexible regarding subsequent name changes, gender recording and to contain information about 'third parties' involved in procreation are justified and important. However, we need to ask exactly when discussions about the birth registration system in the country became primarily about the welfare of the individual child being registered? This was hardly the case at the system's inception in 1836, or during much of its history...
April 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
Charith B Karunarathna, Jinko Graham
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many methods can detect trait association with causal variants in candidate genomic regions; however, a comparison of their ability to localize causal variants is lacking. We extend a previous study of the detection abilities of these methods to a comparison of their localization abilities. METHODS: Through coalescent simulation, we compare several popular association methods. Cases and controls are sampled from a diploid population to mimic human studies...
May 16, 2018: Human Heredity
Lily C Hughes, Guillermo Ortí, Yu Huang, Ying Sun, Carole C Baldwin, Andrew W Thompson, Dahiana Arcila, Ricardo Betancur-R, Chenhong Li, Leandro Becker, Nicolás Bellora, Xiaomeng Zhao, Xiaofeng Li, Min Wang, Chao Fang, Bing Xie, Zhuocheng Zhou, Hai Huang, Songlin Chen, Byrappa Venkatesh, Qiong Shi
Our understanding of phylogenetic relationships among bony fishes has been transformed by analysis of a small number of genes, but uncertainty remains around critical nodes. Genome-scale inferences so far have sampled a limited number of taxa and genes. Here we leveraged 144 genomes and 159 transcriptomes to investigate fish evolution with an unparalleled scale of data: >0.5 Mb from 1,105 orthologous exon sequences from 303 species, representing 66 out of 72 ray-finned fish orders. We apply phylogenetic tests designed to trace the effect of whole-genome duplication events on gene trees and find paralogy-free loci using a bioinformatics approach...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yutaka Kobayashi, Joe Yuichiro Wakano, Hisashi Ohtsuki
A finite-population, discrete-generation model of cultural evolution is described, in which multiple discrete traits are transmitted independently. In this model, each newborn may inherit a trait from multiple cultural parents. Transmission fails with a positive probability unlike in population genetics. An ancestral process simulating the cultural genealogy of a sample of individuals is derived for this model. This ancestral process, denoted by M- , is shown to be dual to a process M+ describing the change in the frequency of a trait...
May 9, 2018: Theoretical Population Biology
Lorena Endara, Hong Cui, J Gordon Burleigh
Premise of the Study: Phenotypic data sets are necessary to elucidate the genealogy of life, but assembling phenotypic data for taxa across the tree of life can be technically challenging and prohibitively time consuming. We describe a semi-automated protocol to facilitate and expedite the assembly of phenotypic character matrices of plants from formal taxonomic descriptions. This pipeline uses new natural language processing (NLP) techniques and a glossary of over 9000 botanical terms...
March 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
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