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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221625/population-health-for-ckd-and-diabetes-lessons-from%C3%A2-the-indian-health-service
#1
Andrew Narva
Despite extensive clinical guidelines, innovative efforts to improve care, and well-funded efforts to raise awareness, limited progress has been made in reducing the burden of kidney disease in the United States, and the prevalence continues to increase worldwide. The Indian Health Service and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently reported a 54% decrease in the incidence of kidney failure among American Indian and Alaska Native people with diabetes. This decrease in end-stage renal disease incidence was associated with a population health approach to diabetes care based in the community and the primary clinical setting...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218265/the-role-of-imaging-and-radiation-oncology-core-for-precision-medicine-era-of-clinical-trial
#2
Ying Xiao, Mark Rosen
Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) services have been established for the quality assurance (QA) of imaging and radiotherapy (RT) for NCI's Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) for any trials that contain imaging or RT. The randomized clinical trial is the gold standard for evidence-based medicine. QA ensures data quality, preventing noise from inferior treatments obscuring clinical trial outcome. QA is also found to be cost-effective. IROC has made great progress in multi-institution standardization and is expected to lead QA standardization, QA science in imaging and RT and to advance quality data analysis with big data in the future...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216874/factors-influencing-the-experience-of-sexual-and-reproductive-healthcare-for-female-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-a-qualitative-case-study
#3
Gertrude Mwalabu, Catrin Evans, Sarah Redsell
BACKGROUND: Young people living with perinatally-acquired HIV require age-appropriate support regarding sex and relationships as they progress towards adulthood. HIV affects both genders but evidence suggests that young women are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse and more prone to engaging in sexual behaviours to meet their daily survival needs. This can result in poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. HIV services in Malawi provide support for young women's HIV-related clinical needs, but it is unclear whether there is sufficient provision for their SRH needs as they become adults...
December 8, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216816/acute-kidney-injury-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-investigations-management-and-prevention
#4
Mohamed B Abdelraheem
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a relatively common condition, encountered in everyday paediatric clinical practice. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children both inside and outside intensive care units. It is associated with prolonged hospital stay and progression to chronic kidney disease. The burden of AKI is particularly high in low- and middle-income countries where rural areas and smaller cities in the countryside predominate. Most of these areas suffer from poverty, poor sanitation, water quality and hygiene, lack of education and poor access to health care...
November 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216336/managing-diabetic-kidney-disease
#5
Sagen Zac-Varghese, Peter Winocour
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review covers the pillars of care essential for the management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) including (1) early diagnosis, (2) improved glycaemic control, (3) treatment of hypertension, (4) identification and treatment of associated metabolic bone disease and (5) identification and effective management of dyslipidaemia and additional cardiovascular risk factors. Sources of data: We searched PubMed for articles using search terms: diabetic nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease...
December 5, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215978/state-public-health-actions-to-prevent-and-control-diabetes-heart-disease-obesity-and-associated-risk-factors-and-promote-school-health
#6
Barbara Z Park, Letitia Cantrell, Holly Hunt, Rosanne P Farris, Patricia Schumacher, Ursula E Bauer
The National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funds a program to boost progress in reducing the prevalence and incidence of multiple chronic diseases and their associated risk factors. This article describes the program, State Public Health Actions to Prevent and Control Diabetes, Heart Disease, Obesity and Associated Risk Factors, and Promote School Health, and the program's action model, design, and administration and management structure...
December 7, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215132/may-car-washing-represent-a-risk-for-legionella-infection
#7
T Baldovin, A Pierobon, C Bertoncello, E Destefani, M Gennari, A Stano, V Baldo
BACKGROUND: Legionella is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium naturally found in aquatic environments. It can pose a health problem when it grows and spreads in man-made water systems. Legionella pneumophila is the most common cause of Legionnaires' disease nowadays, a community-acquired pneumonia with pulmonary symptoms and chest radiography no different from any other form of infectious pneumonia. Legionella monitoring is important for public health reasons, including the identification of unusual environmental sources of Legionella...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214975/home-based-health-promotion-for-older-people-with-mild-frailty-the-homehealth-intervention-development-and-feasibility-rct
#8
Kate Walters, Rachael Frost, Kalpa Kharicha, Christina Avgerinou, Benjamin Gardner, Federico Ricciardi, Rachael Hunter, Ann Liljas, Jill Manthorpe, Vari Drennan, John Wood, Claire Goodman, Ana Jovicic, Steve Iliffe
BACKGROUND: Mild frailty or pre-frailty is common and yet is potentially reversible. Preventing progression to worsening frailty may benefit individuals and lower health/social care costs. However, we know little about effective approaches to preventing frailty progression. OBJECTIVES: (1) To develop an evidence- and theory-based home-based health promotion intervention for older people with mild frailty. (2) To assess feasibility, costs and acceptability of (i) the intervention and (ii) a full-scale clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness randomised controlled trial (RCT)...
December 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212624/clinical-indices-can-standardize-and-monitor-pediatric-care-a-novel-mechanism-to-improve-quality-and-safety
#9
Wallace Crandall, J Terrance Davis, Jennifer Dotson, Charles Elmaraghy, Mike Fetzer, Don Hayes, Edwin Horwitz, Amy Kogon, Randal Olshefski, Hiren Patel, Richard J Brilli
OBJECTIVE: The Cancer Care Index (CCI), a single metric that sums the number of undesirable patient events in a given time frame (either preventable harm events or missed opportunities to provide optimal care), resulted in a 42% improvement in performance. Our objective was to test the index concept in other service lines to determine whether similar performance improvement occurred. STUDY DESIGN: Care indices were developed and introduced in 3 additional service lines: Nephrology (Chronic Kidney Disease Care Index; CKDCI), Pulmonology (Lung Transplantation Care Index; LTCI), and Otolaryngology (Tracheostomy Care Index; TCI)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212477/nurse-health-and-lifestyle-modification-versus-standard-care-in-40-to-70-year-old-regional-adults-study-protocol-of-the-management-to-optimise-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome-risk-reduction-via-nurse-led-intervention-modern-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Melinda J Carrington, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of multiple leading risk factors, predisposes individuals to increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardio-metabolic disease risk increases with greater remoteness where specialist services are scarce. Nurse-led interventions are effective for the management of chronic disease. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether a nurse-implemented health and lifestyle modification program is more beneficial than standard care to reduce cardio-metabolic abnormalities and future risk of CVD and diabetes in individuals with MetS...
December 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212460/-the-co-authors-of-pregnancy-leveraging-men-s-sense-of-responsibility-and-other-factors-for-male-involvement-in-antenatal-services-in-kinshasa-drc
#11
Michelle M Gill, John Ditekemena, Aimé Loando, Vicky Ilunga, Marleen Temmerman, Franck Fwamba
BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to improve male involvement (MI), few male partners typically attend antenatal care (ANC). MI in ANC and interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission have been demonstrated to be beneficial for the HIV-positive mother and her child. This study aimed to explore factors influencing partner attendance and highlight interventions with potential to improve MI within a Congolese context. METHODS: This was an exploratory, qualitative study conducted in two urban and two semi-urban catchment areas of Kinshasa, DRC in June-September 2016...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211194/telephone-interventions-in-adherence-to-receiving-the-pap-test-report-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Ana Izabel Oliveira Nicolau, Thaís Marques Lima, Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos, Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho, Priscila de Souza Aquino, Ana Karina Bezerra Pinheiro
OBJECTIVE: to test the efficacy of the behavioral and educational interventions undertaken by telephone, for women's attendance at the consultation to receive the Pap test report. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial, with a sample randomized in three groups: telephone call - educational (n=171), telephone call - reminder (n=171) and comparison (n=169). The inclusion criteria were to be of legal age, to have become sexually active, to undertake the preventive examination during the study and to have a mobile or fixed telephone...
December 4, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210501/women-s-experiences-of-seeking-and-receiving-psychological-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-postpartum-depression-a-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis-of-the-qualitative-literature
#13
REVIEW
Holly Hadfield, Anja Wittkowski
INTRODUCTION: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious maternal disorder that can have adverse effects on maternal and infant health. The importance of offering effective and acceptable treatments is well recognized, particularly given the numerous barriers women in many settings face in accessing interventions for PPD. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize qualitative research exploring women's experiences of professional psychological and psychosocial support for PPD. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in April 2017 by searching 5 electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210207/prevalence-of-knee-osteoarthritis-in-a-suburban-srilankan-adult-female-population-a-population-based-study
#14
Akalanka Prashansanie Hettihewa, Nalika S Gunawardena, Inoshi Atukorala, Fazliya Hassan, Indra N Lekamge, David J Hunter
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) has not been assessed in Sri Lanka, since 2006. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of clinical KOA and radiographic KOA and to assess the severity of it, among adult females of a suburban setting in Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a representative sample of 666 females aged 50 years or more resident in Pita Kotte Medical Officer of Health area. Four physiotherapy graduates applied American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria by performing the clinical assessment in the households...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210031/adjuvant-statin-therapy-for-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-cost-utility-analysis
#15
Rebekah Fong Soe Khioe, Chris Skedgel, Andrew Hart, Michael Philip Nelson Lewis, Leo Alexandre
BACKGROUND: Emerging preclinical evidence indicates statins, medications commonly used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), inhibit proliferation, promote apoptosis and limit invasiveness of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Population-based observational data demonstrate statin treatment after diagnosis of EAC is associated with significant reductions in all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. A feasibility study of adjuvant statin therapy following potentially curative resection for EAC has been completed, with planned progression to a full phase III, randomized controlled trial...
December 5, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209694/workers-safety-in-public-psychiatric-services-problems-laws-and-protections
#16
F Carabellese, M Urbano, A Coluccia, G Gualtieri
The dramatic case of murder of a psychiatrist during her service in her public office (Centro di Salute Mentale of Bari-Libertà) has led the authors to reflect on the safety of workplaces, in detail of public psychiatric services. It is in the light of current legislation, represented by the Legislative Decree of April 9th, 2008 no. 81, which states the implementing rules of Law 123/2007. In particular, the Authors analyzed the criticalities of the application of this Law, with the aim of safeguarding the health and safety of the workers in all psychiatric services (nursing departments, outpatient clinics, community centers, day care centers, etc...
November 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208621/retrospective-multicohort-analysis-of-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink-cprd-to-determine-differences-in-the-cost-of-medication-wastage-dispensing-fees-and-prescriber-time-of-issuing-either-short-60-days-or-long-%C3%A2-60-days-prescription-lengths-in-primary
#17
Brett Doble, Rupert Payne, Amelia Harshfield, Edward C F Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To investigate patterns of early repeat prescriptions and treatment switching over an 11-year period to estimate differences in the cost of medication wastage, dispensing fees and prescriber time for short (<60 days) and long (≥60 days) prescription lengths from the perspective of the National Health Service in the UK. SETTING: Retrospective, multiple cohort study of primary care prescriptions from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS: Five random samples of 50 000 patients each prescribed oral drugs for (1) glucose control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); (2) hypertension in T2DM; (3) statins (lipid management) in T2DM; (4) secondary prevention of myocardial infarction; and (5) depression...
December 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206360/effect-of-a-children-s-at-home-nursing-team-on-reducing-emergency-admissions
#18
Laura Farnham, Hannah Harwood, Meredith Robertson
This article explores the effect of a children's at-home nursing team, Hospital at Home (H@H), which aimed to reduce demand on acute hospital beds, support families to improve patient experience, and empower parents to care safely for their unwell children and help prevent emergency department (ED) reattendance. Data on demographics and clinical presentation of H@H and ED attendances were collected and compared. A survey measuring parents' confidence in managing their unwell children was also conducted. Of 72 patients treated by the H@H service between May and July 2016, 32 (44%) would have been admitted to hospital from the ED if the H@H service had not existed...
December 5, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206192/evaluation-of-chronic-disease-prevention-and-control-public-service-advertisement-on-the-awareness-and-attitude-change-among-urban-population-in-chongqing-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Tingting Wu, Ping Hu, Hao Huang, Chengbin Wu, Zhirong Fu, Lei Du, Xianglong Xu, Zumin Shi, Yong Zhao
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204620/should-this-patient-receive-aspirin-grand-rounds-discussion-from-beth-israel-deaconess-medical-center
#20
Risa B Burns, Kelly Graham, Mandeep S Sawhney, Eileen E Reynolds
Aspirin exerts antiplatelet effects through irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1, whereas its anticancer effects may be due to inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and other pathways. In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force endorsed aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, aspirin's role in cancer prevention is still emerging, and no groups currently recommend its use for this purpose. To help physicians balance the benefits and harms of aspirin in primary disease prevention, the Task Force issued a guideline titled, "Aspirin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer" in 2016...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
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