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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820718/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-rural-health-care-facilities-a-cross-sectional-study-in-ethiopia-kenya-mozambique-rwanda-uganda-and-zambia
#1
Amy Guo, J Michael Bowling, Jamie Bartram, Georgia Kayser
Safe and sufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) prevent the spread of disease in health-care facilities (HCFs). Little research has been conducted on WaSH in HCF in sub-Saharan Africa. We carried out a cross-sectional study of WaSH in 1,318 randomly selected rural HCF (hospitals, health centers, health posts, and clinics) in regions throughout Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Methods included questionnaires with head doctors and nurses to document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity and reliability, and analysis of drinking water samples for Escherichia coli...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820507/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipient-and-caregiver-factors-affecting-length-of-stay-and-readmission
#2
Thiruppavai Sundaramurthi, Leslie Wehrlen, Erika Friedman, Sue Thomas, Margaret Bevans
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the contributions of patient and caregiver factors to length of stay (LOS) and 30-day readmission status for recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis from a phase 2 clinical trial.
. SETTING: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.
. SAMPLE: 68 dyads (N = 136) comprised of patients receiving HSCT and their caregivers...
September 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819511/male-partner-involvement-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-infection-in-mwanza-region-tanzania
#3
Munda Elias, Elia John Mmbaga, Ahmed Abade Mohamed, Rogath Saika Kishimba
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there are 3.3 million children < 15 years of age living with HIV infection. About 95% of HIV infected children have acquired infection from their mothers. Although new pediatric HIV infection in Tanzania has declined by 48% and Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) coverage of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has increased to 77%, the MTCT rate remains high (15%). Poor male partner involvement in PMTCT services is one of the factors contributing to reduced effectiveness of the PMTCT and hence failure to achieve the elimination of maternal to child transmission of HIV...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818246/cancer-prevention-during-early-adulthood-highlights-from-a-meeting-of-experts
#4
Dawn M Holman, Mary C White, Meredith L Shoemaker, Greta M Massetti, Mary C Puckett, Claire D Brindis
Using a life course approach, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control and the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors co-hosted a 2-day meeting with 15 multidisciplinary experts to consider evidence linking factors in early adulthood to subsequent cancer risk and strategies for putting that evidence into practice to reduce cancer incidence. This paper provides an overview of key themes from those meeting discussions, drawing attention to the influence that early adulthood can have on lifetime cancer risk and potential strategies for intervention during this phase of life...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817864/tobacco-cessation-strategies-it-takes-a-village
#5
Debbie Anne Chiu Qua
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death and chronic diseases in the U.S. Identifying smokers and providing appropriate intervention is therefore an integral part of each clinic visit. A combination of pharmacotherapy as well as behavioral counseling provides the best results. Pharmacotherapy includes nicotine replacement (patch, gum, lozenges), bupropion and varenicline. More recently, electronic nicotinic delivery systems (such as e-cigarettes, vaporizers/vape pens, and hookah pens) have become popular...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816629/a-cascade-model-of-mentorship-for-frontline-health-workers-in-rural-health-facilities-in-eastern-uganda-processes-achievements-and-lessons
#6
Judith Ajeani, Richard Mangwi Ayiasi, Moses Tetui, Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Gertrude Namazzi, Ronald Muhumuza Kananura, Suzanne Namusoke Kiwanuka, Jolly Beyeza-Kashesya
BACKGROUND: There is increasing demand for trainers to shift from traditional didactic training to innovative approaches that are more results-oriented. Mentorship is one such approach that could bridge the clinical knowledge gap among health workers. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the experiences of an attempt to improve health-worker performance in maternal and newborn health in three rural districts through a mentoring process using the cascade model. The paper further highlights achievements and lessons learnt during implementation of the cascade model...
August 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815784/nursing-care-for-stroke-patients-a-survey-of-current-practice-in-eleven-european-countries
#7
Zeliha Tulek, Ingrid Poulsen, Katrin Gillis, Ann-Cathrin Jönsson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies (ESS) 2006, and to examine to what extent the ESS have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability globally. Optimal organisation of interdisciplinary stroke care is expected to ameliorate outcome after stroke. Consequently, universal access to stroke care based on evidence-based guidelines is a priority...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815325/stumbling-blocks-at-the-clinic-experiences-of-seeking-hiv-treatment-and-care-in-south-africa
#8
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Caroline Kuo, Omar Galárraga, Philip Smith, Mark N Lurie, Linda-Gail Bekker, Abigail Harrison
Prompt antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation maximises the therapeutic and prevention benefits of a treat-all strategy for HIV therapy. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews with men and women 18 years and older (N = 41), who were highly motivated and seeking treatment, this study examined salient factors that were associated with delays in treatment access and initiation. Results revealed clinic-related barriers including an onerous, inefficient multi-step process to initiate ART. Participants experienced additional delays due to difficulties accessing care (e...
August 16, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814110/engaging-hiv-positive-clients-in-care-acceptability-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-a-peer-navigation-program-in-south-africa
#9
Wayne T Steward, Jeri Sumitani, Mary E Moran, Mary-Jane Ratlhagana, Jessica L Morris, Lebogang Isidoro, Jennifer M Gilvydis, John Tumbo, Jessica Grignon, Scott Barnhart, Sheri A Lippman
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) could curtail the HIV epidemic, but its impact is diminished by low uptake. We developed a peer navigation program to enhance engagement in HIV care, ART adherence, and behavioral prevention. In preparation for a randomized controlled trial, the program was piloted over four months at two primary health clinics in South Africa's North West Province. Newly diagnosed, HIV-positive clients met regularly with navigators to address barriers to care, adherence, and prevention. To assess program acceptability and feasibility and characterize the mechanisms of action, we surveyed 25 clients who completed navigation services and conducted interviews with 10 clients, four navigators, and five clinic providers...
August 16, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812928/health-education-careers-in-a-post-health-reform-era
#10
M Elaine Auld
Since enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010, health education specialists (HES) have made important contributions in implementing the law's provisions at the individual, family, and population levels. Using their health education competencies and subcompetencies, HES are improving public understanding of health insurance literacy and enrollment options, conducting community health needs assessments required of nonprofit hospitals, modifying policies or systems to improve access to health screenings and preventive health services, strengthening clinical and community linkages, and working with employee benefit plans...
September 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812826/a-policy-analysis-on-the-proactive-prevention-of-chronic-disease-learnings-from-the-initial-implementation-of-integrated-measurement-for-early-detection-mido
#11
Roberto Tapia-Conyer, Rodrigo Saucedo-Martínez, Ricardo Mújica-Rosales, Héctor Gallardo-Rincón, Evan Lee, Craig Waugh, Lucía Guajardo, Braulio Torres-Beltrán, Úrsula Quijano-González, Mauricio López-Mendez, Elena Rose Atkinson
Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810993/prevalence-and-trends-of-cigarette-smoking-among-military-personnel-in-taiwan-results-of-10-year-anti-smoking-health-promotion-programs-in-military
#12
Nain-Feng Chu, Fu-Huang Lin, Yi-Chang Wu
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and trends of cigarette smoking among young military conscripts, military officers, and military university students during recently 10 years in Taiwan. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted annually among young military conscripts and military university students from 2006 to 2014. All the young conscripts were reviewed within 1 month at the military training center and before retiring after 1 year of military services...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810969/a-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-combat-and-operational-stress-control-restoration-center-in-afghanistan
#13
Jason L Judkins, Devvon L Bradley
BACKGROUND: The management of Combat and Operational Stress Reactions (COSR) within an operational environment is a multidimensional process. The aim is to help prevent behavioral health problems, preserve combat power, and increase return to duty rates for combat stress related casualties. In some COSR cases, enhanced services are required and the Combat and Operational Stress Control (COSC) Clinic refers Service Members (SMs) to the Freedom Restoration Clinic (FRC). The purpose was to describe a deployed restoration center in Afghanistan and examine the long-term effectiveness of those services...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810965/the-benefits-and-risks-of-energy-drinks-in-young-adults-and-military-service-members
#14
Julianne Manchester, Inbal Eshel, Donald W Marion
INTRODUCTION: Energy drinks (EDs) have become an integral part of the young adult, athletic, and military culture. Many athletes are convinced that EDs enhance performance, and service members as well as college students frequently use EDs as stimulants to counter sleep deprivation, or to improve academic performance. However, concerns have been raised by some military leaders about potential adverse effects of EDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of military health care providers was conducted and identified EDs as a top knowledge need for those providers working in the area of traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810956/the-reasons-for-living-scale-military-version-assessing-protective-factors-against-suicide-in-a-military-sample
#15
Anne-Marie Deutsch, R Gregory Lande
INTRODUCTION: Military suicide rates have been rising over the past decade and continue to challenge military treatment facilities. Assessing suicide risk and improving treatments are a large part of the mission for clinicians who work with uniformed service members. This study attempts to expand the toolkit of military suicide prevention by focusing on protective factors over risk factors. In 1983, Marsha Linehan published a checklist called the Reasons for Living Scale, which asked subjects to check the reasons they choose to continue living, rather than choosing suicide...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810669/hiv-status-disclosure-facility-based-delivery-and-postpartum-retention-of-mothers-in-a-prevention-clinical-trial-in-rural-nigeria
#16
Kidane A Sarko, Meridith Blevins, Aimalohi A Ahonkhai, Carolyn M Audet, Troy D Moon, Usman I Gebi, Ahmed M Gana, C William Wester, Sten H Vermund, Muktar H Aliyu
Background: Within the context of a cluster randomized prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) trial, we evaluated the impact of disclosure on selected PMTCT continuum of care measures. Methods: In 12 rural matched-pair clinics randomly assigned to an intervention package versus standard-of-care, we enrolled 372 HIV-infected pregnant women from April 2013 to March 2014. This secondary analysis included 327 (87.9%) women with unknown HIV status or who were treatment naïve at presentation to antenatal care...
July 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809768/missed-opportunities-for-chlamydia-screening-in-title-x-family-planning-clinics
#17
Sarah Goldenkranz Salomon, Elizabeth Torrone, Wendy Nakatsukasa-Ono, David N Fine
BACKGROUND: Annual chlamydia (CT) screening is recommended for women younger than 25 years, yet less than half of young women seeking health care are screened annually. We analyzed Title X family planning service data from the Northwest United States to assess factors associated with missed opportunities for CT screening. Our primary hypothesis was screening coverage is higher during annual preventive health visits compared to other visit types. Study objectives were: (1) identify gaps in screening coverage by patient demographics, visit characteristics, and clinic measures; and (2) examine the association between visit type and CT screening by controlling for other covariates and stratifying by state...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809084/practice-characteristics-and-service-provision-rates-of-dental-hygienists-in-australia
#18
N Amarasena, D N Teusner, D S Brennan, J Satur
INTRODUCTION: Dental hygienists (DHs) have been practising in Australia since the early 1970s. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the clinical activity of Australian DHs. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to members of two professional associations representing DHs. Practitioner characteristics, employment characteristics and clinical activity on a self-reported typical practice day were collected. The proportion of each service item of all services provided was estimated...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808222/perioperative-remote-acute-lung-injury-recent-update
#19
Zhaosheng Jin, Ka Chun Suen, Daqing Ma
Perioperative acute lung injury (ALI) is a syndrome characterised by hypoxia and chest radiograph changes. It is a serious post-operative complication, associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. In addition to mechanical ventilation, remote organ insult could also trigger systemic responses which induce ALI. Currently, there are limited treatment options available beyond conservative respiratory support. However, increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of ALI and the biochemical pathways involved will aid the development of novel treatments and help to improve patient outcome as well as to reduce cost to the health service...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807189/effect-of-non-monetary-incentives-on-uptake-of-couples-counselling-and-testing-among-clients-attending-mobile-hiv-services-in-rural-zimbabwe-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#20
Euphemia L Sibanda, Mary Tumushime, Juliet Mufuka, Sue Napierala Mavedzenge, Stephano Gudukeya, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Karin Hatzold, Harsha Thirumurthy, Sandra I McCoy, Nancy Padian, Andrew Copas, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: Couples' HIV testing and counselling (CHTC) is associated with greater engagement with HIV prevention and care than individual testing and is cost-effective, but uptake remains suboptimal. Initiating discussion of CHTC might result in distrust between partners. Offering incentives for CHTC could change the focus of the pre-test discussion. We aimed to determine the impact of incentives for CHTC on uptake of couples testing and HIV case diagnosis in rural Zimbabwe. METHODS: In this cluster-randomised trial, 68 rural communities (the clusters) in four districts receiving mobile HIV testing services were randomly assigned (1:1) to incentives for CHTC or not...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
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