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Pneumococcal invasive disease

Maria-Cristina C Brandileone, Samanta C G Almeida, Ruth Minamisava, Ana-Lucia Andrade
BACKGROUND: In March 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the routine immunization program in Brazil. We describe the pneumococcal serotypes that caused invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) before and after the introduction of PCV10 using data from a national laboratory-based surveillance system. METHOD: We compared the prevalence of vaccine types (VT) and non-vaccine types (NVT) of Streptococcus pneumoniae in three periods, pre-PCV10 (January/2005-December/2009), early post-PCV10 (January/2010-December/2013), and late post-PCV10 (January/2014-December/2015), by episode in meningitis and non-meningitis cases and by age group...
April 9, 2018: Vaccine
H F Gidding, L McCallum, P Fathima, H C Moore, T L Snelling, C C Blyth, S Jayasinghe, C Giele, N de Klerk, R M Andrews, P B McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Most studies use indirect cohort or case-control methods to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Neither method can measure the benefit vaccination programs afford the unvaccinated and many studies were unable to estimate dose-specific VE. We linked Australia's national immunisation register with health data from two states to calculate IPD incidence by vaccination status and VE for a 3 + 0 PCV schedule (doses at 2, 4, 6 months, no booster) among a cohort of 1...
April 4, 2018: Vaccine
Naomi Hauser, Miguel E Cervera-Hernandez, John Lonks, Najam Zaidi
Despite the dramatic decrease in invasive pneumococcal disease since the widespread use of the first pneumococcal vaccine, invasive and resistant disease still occurs. We present a case of ceftriaxone-resistant pneumococcal meningitis suggesting that continued vigilance is warranted for empiric treatment of meningitis when Streptococcus pneumoniae is a concern.
2018: IDCases
Johanna Fritscher, Daniel Amberger, Susanne Dyckhoff, Jan Philipp Bewersdorf, Ilias Masouris, Stefanie Voelk, Sven Hammerschmidt, Helga Maria Schmetzer, Matthias Klein, Hans-Walter Pfister, Uwe Koedel
Mast cells reside on and near the cerebral vasculature, the predominant site of pneumococcal entry into the central nervous system (CNS). Although mast cells have been reported to be crucial in protecting from systemic bacterial infections, their role in bacterial infections of the CNS remained elusive. Here, we assessed the role of mast cells in pneumococcal infection in vitro and in vivo . In introductory experiments using mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC), we found that (i) BMMC degranulate and release selected cytokines upon exposure to Streptococcus pneumoniae , (ii) the response of BMMC varies between different pneumococcal serotypes and (iii) is dependent on pneumolysin...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jinfei Yu, Bo Li, Xiaorui Chen, Jingcai Lu, Dandan Wang, Tiejun Gu, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of invasive pneumococcal disease, septicemia and meningitis that can result in high morbidity rates in children under five years old. The current polysaccharide-based vaccines can provide type-specific immunity, but a broad spectrum vaccine would provide greater coverage. Therefore, developing pneumococcal protein-based vaccines that can extend to more sera types is highly important.In this study, we vaccinated mice with a systemic vaccine via the subcutaneous (s.c...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Sara Tomczyk, Fernanda C Lessa, Jacqueline Sánchez, Chabela Peña, Josefina Fernández, M Gloria Carvalho, Fabiana Pimenta, Doraliza Cedano, Cynthia G Whitney, Jennifer R Verani, Hilma Coradin, Zacarías Garib, Lucia Helena De Oliveira, Jesús Feris-Iglesias
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in resource-poor settings and PCV naïve populations. The Dominican Republic introduced PCV13 in September 2013 using a 2 + 1 schedule (2, 4, and 12 months) without a catch-up campaign. We evaluated PCV13 effectiveness against vaccine-type (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study...
April 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Marloes Vissers, Alienke J Wijmenga-Monsuur, Mirjam J Knol, Paul Badoux, Marlies A van Houten, Arie van der Ende, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Nynke Y Rots
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in The Netherlands in 2006 and was replaced by PHiD-CV10 in 2011. Data on carriage prevalence of S. pneumoniae serotypes in children and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children and older adults were collected to examine the impact of PCVs on carriage and IPD in The Netherlands. Pneumococcal carriage prevalence was determined by conventional culture of nasopharyngeal swabs in 24-month-old children in 2015/2016. Data were compared to similar carriage studies in 2005 (pre-PCV7 introduction), 2009, 2010/2011 and 2012/2013...
2018: PloS One
Jeffrey N Weiser, Daniela M Ferreira, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae has a complex relationship with its obligate human host. On the one hand, the pneumococci are highly adapted commensals, and their main reservoir on the mucosal surface of the upper airways of carriers enables transmission. On the other hand, they can cause severe disease when bacterial and host factors allow them to invade essentially sterile sites, such as the middle ear spaces, lungs, bloodstream and meninges. Transmission, colonization and invasion depend on the remarkable ability of S...
March 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Jung Yeon Heo, Yu Bin Seo, Won Suk Choi, Jacob Lee, Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Jin-Young Ahn, Hye Won Jeong, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Hee Young Lee, Joon Young Song
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality among adults. Pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) is the most common vaccine-preventable bacterial etiology of pneumonia. In this study, we estimated the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal diseases among Korean adults. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological databases from three hospitals were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and case fatality rates of CAP and pneumococcal diseases in Korean adults aged ≥19 years from 2011 to 2014...
2018: PloS One
Kevin E Bruce, Britta E Rued, Ho-Ching Tiffany Tsui, Malcolm E Winkler
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including chemokines, are produced during infections to kill pathogenic bacteria. To fill in gaps about the sensitivities of Streptococcus pneumoniae and related Streptococcus species to chemokines and AMPs, we performed a systematic, quantitative study of inhibition by chemokine CXCL10 and the AMPs, LL-37 and nisin. In a standard Tris-glucose buffer (TGS), all strains assayed lacked metabolic activity, as determined by resazurin (AlamarBlue®) reduction, and were extremely sensitive to CXCL10 and AMPs (IC50 ≈0...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
A A Palmu, H Rinta-Kokko, J P Nuorti, H Nohynek, J Jokinen
AIM: The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the Finnish national vaccination programme for children born since June 2010. We evaluated the changes in the rates of clinically suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in unvaccinated children to estimate the indirect herd protection impact of the programme. METHODS: The target cohort for this ecological before and after comparison were unvaccinated children born from January 2008 to May 2010 and ineligible for the vaccination programme, who were followed up from 2011-2014...
March 25, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Øystein Rolandsen Riise, Ida Laake, Didrik Vestrheim, Brita Askeland Winje, Dag Moster, Jann Storsæter
BACKGROUND: A few previous studies have reported an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children born preterm, but this has not been investigated in a cohort study. The impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on IPD incidence rates in preterm children is unknown. METHODS: Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (2002-2010) was linked to other national registries. In total, 628,138 children were included in our study and followed until two years of age...
March 21, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jayashree Veerasamy, Jayalakshmi Jayarajan
Pneumonia with bacteremia accounts for the majority (70%) of cases of invasive pneumococcal diseases. Laboratory characterization of pneumococci is routinely done by sensitivity to optochin. We identified an atypical presentation of optochin-resistant pneumococci in blood isolate of a patient with sepsis. Polymerase chain reaction for autolysin (lytA) and pneumolysin (ply) was positive in the bile soluble isolate. Gene sequencing revealed synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism type of functional mutation in lytA gene...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Anne Dommaschk, Lara F Lang, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Tobias Welte, Ulrich A Maus
Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is known to mount protective adaptive immune responses in rodents and humans. However, the cellular response of the nasopharyngeal compartment to pneumococcal colonization and its importance for the ensuing adaptive immune response is only partially defined. Here we show that nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae triggered substantial expansion of both integrin αE (CD103) positive dendritic cells (DC) and T lymphocytes in nasopharynx, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and cervical lymph nodes (CLN) of WT mice...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Toumi Sano, Tamaho Suzuki, Ayako Nishigori, Chiharu Miyatake, Shinya Koizumi, Kiyohiko Kaizu, Atsushi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Kamisago, Bin Chang, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Takeshi Asano
The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has led to dramatic reductions in cases of invasive H. influenzae disease and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). After the introduction of the PCV7 and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), the number of children with IPD markedly decreased in our hospital. However, since 2015, three children with IPD have been admitted to our hospital. We analyzed the serotype, multilocus sequence type, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in these newly diagnosed cases...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Carlos M Luna, Laura Pulido, Diego Burgos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As Streptococcus pneumoniae was considered the etiological agent of nearly all the cases of pneumonia at the beginning of the 20th century, and today is identified in fewer than 10-15% of cases, we analyze the possible causes of such a decline. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive use of early empiric antimicrobial therapy, discovery of previously unrecognized pathogens, availability to newer diagnostic methods for the recognition of the pneumonia pathogens (PCR, urinary antigens, monoclonal antibodies etc...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Hanna Rinta-Kokko, Arto A Palmu, Kari Auranen, J Pekka Nuorti, Maija Toropainen, Lotta Siira, Mikko J Virtanen, Hanna Nohynek, Jukka Jokinen
BACKGROUND: The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Programme (NVP) in September 2010. The impact of PCV10 vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in vaccine-eligible children has been high. We evaluated the long-term impact of PCV10 vaccination against IPD in vaccine-eligible and older, unvaccinated children six years after PCV10 introduction with a special focus on cross-protection against PCV10-related serotypes (serotypes in the same serogroups as the PCV10 types)...
March 8, 2018: Vaccine
Claire Dendle, Rhonda L Stuart, Kevan R Polkinghorne, Anne Balloch, John Kanellis, Johnathan Ling, Megan Kummrow, Chelsea Moore, Karin Thursky, Jim Buttery, Kim Mulholland, Poh-Yi Gan, Stephen Holdsworth, William R Mulley
BACKGROUND: Conjugated pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for kidney transplant recipients however their immunogenicity and potential to trigger allograft rejection though generation of de-novo anti-human leucocyte antigen antibodies has not been well studied. METHODS: Clinically stable kidney transplant recipients participated in a prospective cohort study and received a single dose of 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. Anti-pneumococcal IgG was measured for the 13 vaccine serotypes pre and post vaccination and functional anti-pneumococcal IgG for 4 serotypes post-vaccination...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Tahereh Haji, Adam Byrne, Tom Kovesi
Following the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7), while overall rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia in children declined, rates of empyema increased. We examined changes in the incidence of hospitalization for pediatric complicated pneumonia (PCOMP) in Eastern Ontario, Canada, particularly since the introduction of the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13). A retrospective chart review was carried out evaluating previously healthy children admitted with PCOMP, which included empyema, parapneumonic effusion, necrotizing pneumonia, and lung abscess between 2002 and 2015...
March 3, 2018: Children
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