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Pneumococcal invasive disease

Marita Debess Magnussen, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Shahin Gaini, Thorolfur Gudnason, Karl G Kristinsson
Knowledge about pneumococcal carriage, antibacterial resistance, serotype prevalence, and prevalence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) is lacking in the Faroe Islands. PCV-7 was introduced in 2008 and PCV-13 in 2010. The aim was to obtain knowledge on serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in pneumococci from carriage in children attending day-care centers (DCCs) and invasive isolates. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 607 healthy children attending DCCs in the Faroe Islands in January to March in 2009, 2010, and 2011...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Catarina Silva-Costa, Maria João Brito, Marcos D Pinho, Ana Friães, Sandra I Aguiar, M Ramirez, Jose Melo-Cristino
Despite use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, incidence of pleural effusion and empyema (pediatric complicated pneumococcal pneumonia [PCPP]) is reportedly increasing globally. We cultured and performed PCR on 152 pleural fluid samples recovered from pediatric patients in Portugal during 2010-2015 to identify and serotype Streptococcus pneumoniae. We identified only 17 cases by culture, but molecular methods identified S. pneumoniae in 68% (92/135) of culture-negative samples. The most frequent serotypes were 3, 1, and 19A, together accounting for 62% (68/109) of cases...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Gili Regev-Yochay, Klaris Reisenberg, Michal Katzir, Yonit Wiener-Well, Galia Rahav, Jacob Strahilevitz, Valery Istomin, Evgenia Tsyba, Avi Peretz, Shirley Khakshoor, Ron Dagan
The indirect effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on adult pneumococcal meningitis has not been thoroughly investigated. We present data from active surveillance on pneumococcal meningitis in adults in Israel occurring during July 2009-June 2015. Pneumococcal meningitis was diagnosed for 221 patients, 9.4% of all invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases. Although overall IPD incidence decreased during the study period, meningitis increased nonsignificantly from 0.66 to 0.85 cases/100,000 population. Incidence of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcal meningitis (VT13) decreased by 70%, but non-VT13 pneumococcal meningitis increased from 0...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mona Mohammadzadeh, Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Abbas Keshtkar, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi, Setareh Mamishi
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have significantly reduced the rate of invasive pneumococcal diseases through the use of vaccine serotypes, infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major public health hazard. Serotype-independent vaccines that are economically viable species of common protein antigens such as whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) are needed. Considering the ongoing debate about the effectiveness of WCVs, a systematic literature review and meta-analysis was carried out to determine the efficacy of WCVs against colonization in mice...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sarah L Reeves, Hannah K Jary, Jennifer P Gondhi, Mary Kleyn, Abram L Wagner, Kevin J Dombkowski
BACKGROUND: Children with sickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait are at an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease compared to children with normal hemoglobin. We assessed and compared pneumococcal vaccination status among these three groups. PROCEDURE: Children with sickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait were identified using Michigan newborn screening records (1997-2014); each child was matched to four children with normal hemoglobin based on age, Medicaid enrollment (at least 1 year from 2012-2014), race, and census tract...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Ana María Correa, María Ángeles Onieva-García, Inma López, Natalia Montiel, José Alberto Maldonado Segura
OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause invasive and noninvasive diseases. Invasive pneumococcal disease causes infections in tissues, organs and fluids that are normally sterile and is associated with severe clinical processes generally. The aim of this study was to characterize ENI episodes as well as to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of serotypes (vaccinal and non-vacunal) of S. pneumoniae strains isolated in blood cultures of patients treated at the Hospital Costa del Sol between September 2012 and January 2017...
June 14, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Megan Clancy, Ryan McGhan, Jeremy Gitomer, Ana Marie Inocencio, Christina Aldrich, Roberto Iaderosa, Ryan Stevens
PURPOSE: A case report of fatal disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient treated with eculizumab is presented along with a review of literature suggesting a possible etiologic mechanism. SUMMARY: A 23-year-old man with a history of minimal change nephrotic syndrome was hospitalized for acute kidney injury and abdominal pain and swelling. He was found to have disseminated pneumococcal disease, including peritonitis, bacteremia, and pulmonic endocarditis. The patient developed evidence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, leading to a diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and was started on eculizumab...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Sue Hill, Claire Entwisle, Yin Pang, Michael Joachim, Ann McIlgorm, Kate Dalton, Polly Burbidge, Camilo Colaco, Jeremy Brown, David Goldblatt, Chris Bailey
Streptococcus pneumoniae has multiple protein antigens on the surface in addition to the serotype specific polysaccharide capsule antigen. Whilst the capsule antigen is the target of the polysaccharide vaccines, bacterial proteins can also act as targets for the immune system. PnuBioVax (PBV) is being developed as a multi-antigen, serotype-independent prophylactic vaccine against S. pneumoniae disease. In this study we have sought to elucidate the immune response to PBV in immunised rabbits. Sera from PBV immunised rabbits contained high levels of IgG antibodies to the PBV vaccine, and pneumococcal antigens PspA, Ply, PsaA and PiuA which are components of PBV, when compared with control sera...
June 9, 2018: Vaccine
Ashley Makwana, Carmen Sheppard, Ray Borrow, Norman Fry, Nick J Andrews, Shamez N Ladhani
BACKGROUND: In England and Wales, replacement of childhood 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) with a 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) in 2010 was associated with a significant reduction in PCV13-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), with a small increase in IPD due to non-vaccine serotypes. Here, we describe the clinical presentation, comorbidity prevalence, serotype distribution and outcomes of childhood IPD during the first 6 years after PCV13 introduction. METHODS: Public Health England conducts enhanced IPD surveillance in England and Wales, with detailed information requested from general practitioners for all cases in children <5 years of age...
July 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ranjith Jayaraman, Rosemol Varghese, Jones Lionel Kumar, Ayyanraj Neeravi, Devika Shanmugasundaram, Ravikar Ralph, Kurien Thomas, Balaji Veeraraghavan
PURPOSE: To investigate the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), prevalent serotypes, and pattern of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Indian adults. METHODS: Prospective laboratory based surveillance of IPD was carried out in >18 years age group between January 2007 and July 2017, from a tertiary care hospital in South India. All Streptococcus pneumoniae culture positives from blood, CSF and sterile body fluids were characterized to identify the serotypes and AMR...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Guido Santos, Xin Lai, Martin Eberhardt, Julio Vera
Pneumococcal infection is the most frequent cause of pneumonia, and one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. The population groups at high risk of death from bacterial pneumonia are infants, elderly and immunosuppressed people. These groups are more vulnerable because they have immature or impaired immune systems, the efficacy of their response to vaccines is lower, and antibiotic treatment often does not take place until the inflammatory response triggered is already overwhelming. The immune response to bacterial lung infections involves dynamic interactions between several types of cells whose activation is driven by intracellular molecular networks...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kate Pennington
The number of notified cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the second quarter of 2017 was greater than the previous quarter and also the second quarter of 2016. Following the July 2011 replacement of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) in the childhood immunisation program with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (13vPCV), there was an initial relatively rapid decline in disease due to the additional six serotypes covered by the 13vPCV across all age groups, however more recently this rate of decline has slowed...
December 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Kate Pennington
The number of notified cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the first quarter of 2017 was less than the previous quarter, but greater than the number of notified cases in the first quarter of 2016. Overall, the decline in disease due to the serotypes targeted by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (13vPCV) has been maintained across all age groups since the 13vPCV replaced the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) in the childhood immunisation program from July 2011 (Figure 1).
December 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Bradford D Gessner, Qin Jiang, Cornelis H Van Werkhoven, Heather L Sings, Chris Webber, Daniel Scott, Kathleen M Neuzil, Katherine L O'Brien, Richard G Wunderink, Diederick E Grobbee, Marc J M Bonten, Luis Jodar
BACKGROUND: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) among adults aged 65 years or older to assess public health impact. METHODS: For all outcomes, we included all randomized subjects, using a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) approach to determine vaccine efficacy (VE), vaccine preventable disease incidence (VPDI) defined as control minus vaccinated group incidence, and numbers needed to vaccinate (NNV) (based on a five-year duration of protection)...
May 31, 2018: Vaccine
Mariëlle van Aalst, Felix Lötsch, René Spijker, Jan T M van der Meer, Miranda W Langendam, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch, Godelieve J de Bree
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, with immunocompromised patients (ICPs) at particular risk. Therefore, guidelines recommend pneumococcal vaccination for these patients. However, guidelines are scarcely underpinned with references to incidence studies of IPD in this population. This, potentially results in unawareness of the importance of vaccination and low vaccination rates. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the incidence of IPD in ICPs...
May 31, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
R Willis, M Smikle, O Heslop, N Bodonaik, M Thame, U Kumar, M Aung, A Kellier, S Drysdale, V Leon
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal serotypes circulating in any population vary over time and between countries and impacts the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease in Jamaica. METHODS: Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (n= 349) along with demographic and clinical information were collected from patients presenting at the 4 major hospitals in Jamaica over a 2-year period...
May 16, 2018: Human Antibodies
Neil D Ritchie, Ryan Ritchie, Hannah K Bayes, Tim J Mitchell, Tom J Evans
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia, and the leading agent of childhood pneumonia deaths worldwide. Nasal colonization is an essential step prior to infection. The cytokine IL-17 protects against such colonization and vaccines that enhance IL-17 responses to pneumococcal colonization are being developed. The role of IL-17 in host defence against pneumonia is not known. To address this issue, we have utilized a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia in which the gene for the IL-17 cytokine family receptor, Il17ra, has been inactivated...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
L Setchanova, A Alexandrova, D Pencheva, I Sirakov, K Mihova, R Kaneva, I Mitov
OBJECTIVES: Conjugate vaccines have reduced pneumococcal disease, but nonvaccine serotypes (NVTs) are of concern, particularly if antibiotic-resistant. We evaluated retrospectively serotype-specific clonality of pediatric multidrug-resistant (MDR) invasive and noninvasive S. pneumoniae isolates collected after PCV10 introduction (2011-2017). METHODS: Capsular types, drug resistance patterns and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of the most common MDR S. pneumoniae serotypes sampled from children were determined...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Jo Southern, Nick Andrews, Pamela Sandu, Carmen L Sheppard, Pauline A Waight, Norman K Fry, Albert Jan Van Hoek, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: In April 2010, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the infant immunisation schedule in England and Wales. Despite limited serotype replacement in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) during the first four post-PCV13 years, non-vaccine type (NVT) IPD increased substantially in 2014/15. We undertook a carriage study in 2015/16 to help understand the reasons for this increase. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Families with a child aged <5 years attending a participating general practice in Gloucestershire or Hertfordshire were invited to provide nasopharyngeal swabs from all consenting members...
2018: PloS One
Ulrike Kuchenbecker, Daniela Chase, Anika Reichert, Julia Schiffner-Rohe, Mark Atwood
INTRODUCTION: In Germany, a 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) is recommended for elderly (60+) and patients 16+ with chronic diseases not associated with immune suppression. For all other patients at risk, sequential immunization with a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) first, followed by PPSV23 is recommended. Repeated vaccination with PPSV23 is recommended every 6 years after individual assessment by the physician. This was adopted into the vaccination directive with binding reimbursement and funding...
2018: PloS One
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