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Pneumococcal invasive disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633889/serious-pneumococcal-disease-outbreak-in-men-exposed-to-metal-fume-detection-response-and-future-prevention-through-pneumococcal-vaccination
#1
Judith Ewing, Lynsey Patterson, Neil Irvine, Lorraine Doherty, Anne Loughrey, Joe Kidney, Carmen Sheppard, Georgia Kapatai, Norman K Fry, Mary Ramsay, Lucy Jessop
Welders and those exposed to metal fume are known to be at increased risk of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Current UK guidance recommends that vaccination against pneumococcus be considered in those at risk of frequent or continuous occupational exposure to metal fume, taking into account the exposure control measures in place. We report an outbreak of serious pneumococcal disease that occurred between April and June 2015 among a multinational workforce exposed to metal fumes while working on the refurbishment of an oil rig in a Belfast shipyard...
June 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632827/-occult-bacteremia-in-s%C3%A3-tero-del-r%C3%A3-o-hospital-experience-after-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccine
#2
Isolda Budnik, Alejandra Sandoval, Alejandra Prado, Marcela Labbé, Anamaría Peña, Tamara Viviani
BACKGROUND: Occult bacteremia (OB) is one of the possible diagnoses of children younger than 3 years with fever without source in the emergency room. OBJECTIVE: describe OB in the era after introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective descriptive review of data of children with possible OB diagnosis, referred from the emergency department between 2010-2013. RESULTS: Possible OB was diagnosed on 391 patients...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630198/genome-evolution-to-penicillin-resistance-in-serotype-3-streptococcus-pneumoniae-by-capsular-switching
#3
Naoko Chiba, Somay Y Murayama, Miyuki Morozumi, Satoshi Iwata, Kimiko Ubukata
Streptococcus pneumoniae of serotype 3 was collected from cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (n = 124) throughout Japan from April 2010 to March 2013. A penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) isolate from an adult patient, KK0981 of serotype 3, was identified among these strains. Whole-genome analysis characterized this PRSP as a recombinant strain derived from PRSP of serotype 23F with the cps-locus (20.3 kb) replaced by that of a penicillin-susceptible strain of serotype 3.
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628455/concurrent-infection-with-hepatitis-c-virus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#4
Thomas J Marrie, Gregory J Tyrrell, Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich
Little is known about concurrent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, which causes invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We hypothesized that co-infection with HCV and S. pneumoniae would increase risk for death and complications. We captured sociodemographic and serologic data for adults with IPD in a population-based cohort study in northern Alberta, Canada, during 2000-2014. IPD patients infected with HCV were compared with IPD patients not infected with HCV for risk of in-hospital deaths and complications by using multivariable logistic regression...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626738/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-young-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#5
Savitha Nagaraj, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
INTRODUCTION: We performed a study to describe the clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalent serotypes of pneumococcal isolates from children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: Hospitalized children, ≤ 5 years with fever (>38 °C); increased respiratory rate or neurological symptoms were recruited, (as part of the Alliance for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococci - ASIP - project) from January 2011 to March 2013...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623916/using-record-linkage-to-validate-notification-and-laboratory-data-for-a-more-accurate-assessment-of-notifiable-infectious-diseases
#6
Faye J Lim, Christopher C Blyth, Avram Levy, Parveen Fathima, Nicholas de Klerk, Carolien Giele, Hannah C Moore
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease burden is commonly assessed using notification data. Using retrospective record linkage in Western Australia, we described how well notification data captures laboratory detections of influenza, pertussis and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS: We linked data from the Western Australian Notifiable Infectious Diseases Database (WANIDD) and the PathWest Laboratory Database (PathWest) pertaining to the Triple I birth cohort, born in Western Australia in 1996-2012...
June 17, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619234/what-is-the-heterogeneity-in-the-impact-seen-with-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-telling-us
#7
William P Hausdorff, Steve Black
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have proven highly effective in decreasing invasive disease and pneumonia in young children. However, there is considerable geographic variability in the impact of these vaccines on other disease endpoints and in other age groups. Investigation of the possible causes of this variability would greatly improve our understanding of pneumococcal pathophysiology and stimulate the effort to design more broadly effective vaccines.
June 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612153/streptococcus-pneumoniae-antimicrobial-resistance-decreased-in-the-helsinki-metropolitan-area-after-routine-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-of-infants-in-finland
#8
R Sihvonen, L Siira, M Toropainen, P Kuusela, A Pätäri-Sampo
Since the introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) into the Finnish national vaccination program in September 2010, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in children has decreased steeply in Finland. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) isolated in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area during 2009-2014. We divided the data into two age groups: isolates from patients <5 years old and ≥5 years old. We also studied the serotype distribution of invasive isolates and of a subset of non-invasive multidrug-resistant isolates...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605414/childhood-deaths-attributable-to-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-england-and-wales-2006-2014
#9
Godwin Oligbu, Sarah Collins, Carmen L Sheppard, Norman K Fry, Mary Slack, Ray Borrow, Shamez N Ladhani
Background.: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are highly effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), but deaths due to IPD still occur. We aimed to describe children who died of IPD since PCV introduction in England and Wales. Methods.: Public Health England conducts enhanced IPD surveillance in England and Wales. IPD cases in PCV-eligible children aged <5 years (born since 4 September 2004 and diagnosed between 4 September 2006 and 3 September 2014) were actively followed up by postal questionnaires and, for fatal cases, detailed information was requested prospectively from multiple sources...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605238/mucin-1-protects-against-severe-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#10
Poshmaal Dhar, Garrett Z Ng, Eileen M Dunne, Philip Sutton
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen that commonly resides in the human nasopharynx, typically without causing any disease. However, in some cases these bacteria migrate from the nasopharynx to other sites of the body such as the lungs and bloodstream causing pneumonia and sepsis, respectively. This study used a mouse model of infection to investigate the potential role of Mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell membrane-associated glycoprotein known for playing a key barrier role at mucosal surfaces, in regulating this process...
June 12, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596792/a-case-series-evaluating-the-serological-response-of-adult-asthma-patients-to-the-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine
#11
C R Laratta, K Williams, D Vethanayagam, M Ulanova, H Vliagoftis
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an independent risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease; however, the immune response of adult asthma patients to pneumococcal vaccination is unknown. We explore the serologic response of patients with moderate to severe asthma to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). METHODS: Seventeen moderate to severe adult asthma patients that had not been vaccinated against pneumococcus over the 5 previous years were prospectively recruited from a tertiary care asthma clinic...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592303/assessing-the-efficiency-of-catch-up-campaigns-for-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-a-modelling-study-based-on-data-from-pcv10-introduction-in-kilifi-kenya
#12
Stefan Flasche, John Ojal, Olivier Le Polain de Waroux, Mark Otiende, Katherine L O'Brien, Moses Kiti, D James Nokes, W John Edmunds, J Anthony G Scott
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation recommends the use of catch-up campaigns as part of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to accelerate herd protection and hence PCV impact. The value of a catch-up campaign is a trade-off between the costs of vaccinating additional age groups and the benefit of additional direct and indirect protection. There is a paucity of observational data, particularly from low- and middle-income countries, to quantify the optimal breadth of such catch-up campaigns...
June 7, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586394/polyamine-transporter-potabcd-is-required-for-virulence-of-encapsulated-but-not-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#13
Haley R Pipkins, Jessica L Bradshaw, Lance E Keller, Edwin Swiatlo, Larry S McDaniel
Streptococcus pneumoniae is commonly found in the human nasopharynx and is the causative agent of multiple diseases. Since invasive pneumococcal infections are associated with encapsulated pneumococci, the capsular polysaccharide is the target of licensed pneumococcal vaccines. However, there is an increasing distribution of non-vaccine serotypes, as well as nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (NESp). Both encapsulated and nonencapsulated pneumococci possess the polyamine oligo-transport operon (potABCD). Previous research has shown inactivation of the pot operon in encapsulated pneumococci alters protein expression and leads to a significant reduction in pneumococcal murine colonization, but the role of the pot operon in NESp is unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579230/comparative-incidence-dynamics-and-serotypes-of-meningitis-bacteremic-pneumonia-and-other-ipd-in-young-children-in-the-pcv-era-insights-from-israeli-surveillance-studies
#14
Shalom Ben-Shimol, Noga Givon-Lavi, Galia Grisaru-Soen, Orli Megged, David Greenberg, Ron Dagan
INTRODUCTION: Widespread introduction of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) impacted on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, IPD reduction may not be similar in all outcomes within IPD. We assessed PCV7/PCV13 impact on pneumococcal meningitis, bacteremic pneumonia (BP) and other (non-meningitis, non-pneumonia) IPD episodes in children <5years in Israel. METHODS: A prospective, population-based, active nationwide surveillance. All pneumococcal invasive episodes with positive blood/CSF cultures, July 2000 through June 2016, were included...
June 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562692/mannose-binding-lectin-deficient-genotypes-as-a-risk-factor-of-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-infants
#15
Carles Bautista-Rodriguez, Cristian Launes, Iolanda Jordan, Maria Andres, Maria Teresa Arias, Francisco Lozano, Juan Jose Garcia-Garcia, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate to evaluate the role of mannose-binding-lectin deficient genotypes in pneumococcal meningitis (PM) in children. METHODS: We performed a 16-year retrospective study (January 2001 to March 2016) including patients ≤ 18 years with PM. Variables including attack rate of pneumococcal serotype (high or low invasive capacity) and MBL2 genotypes associated with low serum MBL levels were recorded. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554501/burden-of-vaccine-preventable-pneumococcal-disease-in-hospitalized-adults-a-canadian-immunization-research-network-cirn-serious-outcomes-surveillance-sos-network-study
#16
Jason J LeBlanc, May ElSherif, Lingyun Ye, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Li Li, Ardith Ambrose, Todd F Hatchette, Amanda L Lang, Hayley Gillis, Irene Martin, Melissa K Andrew, Guy Boivin, William Bowie, Karen Green, Jennie Johnstone, Mark Loeb, Anne McCarthy, Allison McGeer, Sanela Moraca, Makeda Semret, Grant Stiver, Sylvie Trottier, Louis Valiquette, Duncan Webster, Shelly A McNeil
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia (CAPSpn) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although childhood immunization programs have reduced the overall burden of pneumococcal disease, there is insufficient data in Canada to inform immunization policy in immunocompetent adults. This study aimed to describe clinical outcomes of pneumococcal disease in hospitalized Canadian adults, and determine the proportion of cases caused by vaccine-preventable serotypes...
June 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550292/proteomic-comparisons-of-opaque-and-transparent-variants-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-by-two-dimensional-differential-gel-electrophoresis
#17
Melissa H Chai, Florian Weiland, Richard M Harvey, Peter Hoffmann, Abiodun D Ogunniyi, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a human pathogen, accounting for massive global morbidity and mortality. Although asymptomatic colonization of the nasopharynx almost invariably precedes disease, the critical determinants enabling pneumococcal progression from this niche to cause invasive disease are poorly understood. One mechanism proposed to be central to this transition involves opacity phase variation, whereby pneumococci harvested from the nasopharynx are typically transparent, while those simultaneously harvested from the blood are opaque...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547724/costs-associated-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-france
#18
Grèce Saba, Luiz Flavio Andrade, Jacques Gaillat, Pierre Bonnin, Christian Chidiac, Hajnal-Gabriela Illes, Henri Laurichesse, Jonathan Messika, Jean-Damien Ricard, Bruno Detournay, Patrick Petitpretz, Gérard de Pouvourville
OBJECTIVES: Pneumocost is a prospective study that aimed at documenting the costs of the management of patients hospitalized with a pneumococcal pneumonia and the post-discharge costs during a 6-month period in the French context. METHODS: Billing data were used to document hospital costs. Resource use during the follow-up period was collected through phone interviews at month 1, 3 and 6. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were performed. We used generalized linear models with log-link functions to estimate parameters associated with hospital and follow-up costs of patients...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542347/effectiveness-of-pneumococcal-vaccines-in-preventing-pneumonia-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-observational-studies
#19
Myint Tin Tin Htar, Anke L Stuurman, Germano Ferreira, Cristiano Alicino, Kaatje Bollaerts, Chiara Paganino, Ralf René Reinert, Heinz-Josef Schmitt, Cecilia Trucchi, Thomas Vestraeten, Filippo Ansaldi
INTRODUCTION: S. pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, including invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia. Two types of pneumococcal vaccines are indicated for use in adults: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPV23) and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature assessing pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness (VE) against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults among the general population, the immunocompromised and subjects with underlying risk factors in real-world settings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538501/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#20
Pournima Navalkele, Bülent Özgönenel, Eric McGrath, Paul Lephart, Sharada Sarnaik
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of fatal sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, because of the inherent autosplenectomy that occurs in SCD. This risk is thwarted with oral penicillin prophylaxis during the first 5 years of life, and with stringent vaccination against S. pneumoniae alongside routine childhood immunization. But compared with the general African American pediatric population, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with SCD still remains high, resulting in hospitalization and fatality...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
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