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Pneumococcal invasive disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224962/incidence-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-before-and-during-an-era-of-use-of-three-different-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-quebec
#1
Philippe De Wals, Brigitte Lefebvre, Geneviève Deceuninck, Jean Longtin
BACKGROUND: In Quebec, 7-valent (PCV7), 10-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13) pneumococcal conjugate vaccines were successively used for the immunization of children according to a 2+1 doses schedule. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the impact of this program on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children and adults. METHODS: Notification and laboratory surveillance data were analyzed and the immunization status of IPD cases in children was checked...
December 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223483/differences-by-sex-in-igg-levels-following-infant-and-childhood-vaccinations-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis-of-vaccination-studies
#2
Anna G C Boef, Fiona R M van der Klis, Guy A M Berbers, Anne-Marie Buisman, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Jeanet M Kemmeren, Arie van der Ende, Hester E de Melker, Nynke Y Rots, Mirjam J Knol
BACKGROUND: If immune responses to vaccination differ between males and females, sex-specific vaccination schedules may be indicated. We systematically reanalysed childhood vaccination studies conducted in The Netherlands for sex-differences in IgG-responses. To assess the impact of potential sex-differences in IgG-responses, we explored sex-differences in vaccine failure/effectiveness and reactogenicity. METHODS: Six studies with IgG-measurements for 1577 children following infant pneumococcal (PCV7/PCV10/PCV13) and/or DTaP-IPV-Hib(-HepB) vaccinations, or the pre-school DTaP-IPV booster were included...
December 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221826/trends-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-its-serotypes-in-the-autonomous-community-of-madrid
#3
Pello Latasa Zamalloa, Juan Carlos Sanz Moreno, María Ordobás Gavín, María Dolores Barranco Ordoñez, Esther Insúa Marisquerena, Ángel Gil de Miguel, Abelardo Claudio Fernández Chávez, Luis García-Comas
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of morbidity. Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent it. The aim of this study is to analyse the evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational study of IPD cases notified to the Epidemiological Surveillance Network of the Autonomous Community of Madrid between 2008 and 2015. The IPD case was defined as the disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, with isolation and DNA or antigen detection, in samples from normally sterile sites...
December 5, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183235/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-for-the-prevention-of-pneumococcal-disease-in-adults-50-years-of-age
#4
Raul E Isturiz, Cassandra Hall-Murray, John M McLaughlin, Vincenza Snow, Beate Schmoele-Thoma, Chris Webber, Allison Thompson, Daniel A Scott
Adults, particularly those with underlying chronic conditions, eg, cardiovascular, liver, and pulmonary diseases and diabetes mellitus, have a persistent pneumococcal disease burden. Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is recommended in the United States for all adults aged ≥65 years and immunocompromised adults aged <65 years to protect against vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia. PCV13 is not recommended for immunocompetent adults aged ≥18 years with comorbidities associated with increased pneumococcal disease risk...
November 29, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179982/paediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-on-the-island-of-gran-canaria-16-year-prospective-study-2001-2016
#5
Milagrosa Santana Hernández, Ione Ahedey Aguiar-Santana, Fernando Artiles Campelo, Elena Colino Gil
OBJECTIVES: To calculate the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the paediatric population of Gran Canaria (Spain), its clinical and epidemiological characteristics, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance, and variations in these variables before and after the introduction of the PCV13 vaccine. METHODS: Prospective hospital-based study including all patients (190) aged 0-14 years admitted with confirmed IPD between January 2001-May 2010 (152 cases) and June 2010-December 2016 (38 cases)...
November 24, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164952/review-of-vaccine-effectiveness-assumptions-used-in-economic-evaluations-of-infant-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#6
Matthew Wasserman, Heather Sings, Dylan Jones, Sarah Pugh, Margaret Moffatt, Raymond Farkouh
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have provided a significant clinical and economic impact globally. The majority of countries which have implemented an infant PCV program have observed a substantial reduction in the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumococcal pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) due to vaccine serotypes. After 17 years of use, many countries have evaluated and re-evaluated the value of their vaccine program using cost-effectiveness analyses; however, many of these analyses do not reflect the current body of evidence...
November 22, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152579/streptococcus-pneumoniae-tigr4-phase-locked-opacity-variants-differ-in-virulence-phenotypes
#7
Melissa B Oliver, Ankita Basu Roy, Ranjit Kumar, Elliot J Lefkowitz, W Edward Swords
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading human pathogen that can cause serious localized and invasive diseases. Pneumococci can undergo a spontaneous and reversible phase variation that is reflected in colony opacity and which allows the population to adapt to different host environments. Generally, transparent variants are adapted for nasopharyngeal colonization, whereas opaque variants are associated with invasive disease. In recent work, colony phase variation was shown to occur by means of recombination events to generate multiple alleles of the hsdS targeting domain of a DNA methylase complex, which mediates epigenetic changes in gene expression...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#8
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137652/characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-austrian-companion-animals-and-horses
#9
Maximilian Ginders, Michael Leschnik, Frank Künzel, Doris Kampner, Claudia Mikula, Georg Steindl, Inga Eichhorn, Andrea T Feßler, Stefan Schwarz, Joachim Spergser, Igor Loncaric
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of a collection of Austrian Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 12 non-repetitive isolates presumptively identified as S. pneumoniae were obtained during routinely diagnostic activities between March 2009 and January 2017. RESULTS: Isolates were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by bile solubility and optochin susceptibility testing, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and sequence analysis of a part recA and the 16S rRNA genes...
November 14, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130395/pneumococcal-whole-cell-and-protein-based-vaccines-changing-the-paradigm
#10
Michael E Pichichero
Epidemiologic evaluations of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and pneumococcal disease suggest that newer serotypes in future formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are needed and there may need to be continued reformulations because there are many new emerging serotypes expressed by pneumococci. Areas covered: Mechanisms of protection by next-generation whole-cell vaccine (WCV) and/or multi-component pneumococcal purified protein vaccines (PPVs) in development for prevention of pneumococcal infections...
December 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120946/early-onset-neonatal-pneumococcal-sepsis-a-fatal-case-report-and-brief-literature-review
#11
Daniel Jrovsky, Ivan Cese Marchetti, Mariana Alves da Silva Mori, Ricardo Magalhães de Souza, Flávia Jacqueline Almeida, Marco Aurélio Palazzi Sáfadi, Eitan Naaman Berezin
Sepsis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is rare in neonates, although associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report a fatal case of invasive pneumococcal disease (NIPD) in a term neonate whose mother was healthy and did not receive any pneumococcal vaccine. Investigation of the infection source yielded negative results. Acquisition of infection through the birth canal was considered unlikely.
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119074/case-report-on-a-defective-antibody-response-against-pneumococcal-serotype-9v-in-a-patient-with-a-single-episode-of-pneumonia
#12
Diana van Kessel, Thijs Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Bob Meek, Suzan van Mens, Jan Grutters, Ger Rijkers
Background: Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal pneumonia an impaired antibody response to the infecting pneumococcal serotype can sometimes be found. It is unknown whether these patients are unable to produce an adequate anti-polysaccharide antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination after recovery. Case presentation: The authors describe a case of invasive pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9V in a previously healthy 35-year-old female...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118167/invasive-disease-caused-simultaneously-by-dual-serotypes-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#13
Kedibone Ndlangisa, Mignon du Plessis, Mushal Allam, Nicole Wolter, Linda de Gouveia, Keith P Klugman, Cheryl Cohen, Rebecca A Gladstone, Anne von Gottberg
There are at least 98 known pneumococcal serotypes. Invasive pneumococcal (IPD) disease is usually caused by a single serotype, and dual serotype IPD is rare. To assess factors associated with dual serotype IPD, patient information obtained through laboratory-based surveillance for IPD from 2005 through 2014 in South Africa was reviewed. Genomes of isolate pairs from co-infected individuals were sequenced to determine their molecular characteristics. For 30 (91%) of 33 patients with dual serotypes, one or both isolates were a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotype...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115905/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-infant-pneumococcal-vaccination-with-phid-cv-in-korea
#14
Xu-Hao Zhang, Oscar Leeuwenkamp, Kyu-Bin Oh, Young Eun Lee, Chul-Min Kim
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) can cause invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD), pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM). Both the 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) are included in the National Immunization Program for infants in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the 3+1 schedule of PHiD-CV versus that of PCV-13 for National Immunization Program in Korea...
November 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111412/serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-in-the-south-of-tunisia-a-five-year-study-2012-2016-of-pediatric-and-adult-populations
#15
Sonia Ktari, Ikram Jmal, Manel Mroua, Sonda Maalej, Nour ElHouda Ben Ayed, Basma Mnif, Faouzia Rhimi, Adnene Hammami
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates collected in the south of Tunisia over a 5-year period in different age groups and to assess their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. METHODS: A total of 305 non-duplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected between January 2012 and December 2016 at the university hospital in Sfax, Tunisia. All isolates were serotyped by multiplex PCR. The antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates was determined using the disk diffusion test or Etest assay...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104430/pitfalls-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-invasive-pneumococcal-meningoencephalitis-what-we-can-learn-from-a-case
#16
Pascale S Grzonka, Raoul Sutter
Invasive pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease affecting the central nervous system. It continues to be the most common type of community-acquired acute bacterial meningitides. Despite advances in neuro-critical care, the case fatality rate remains high. Rapid diagnosis and initiation of antibiotic therapy precludes mortality and long-term neurological sequelae in survivors. However, not all cases are easily recognised, and unanticipated complications may impede optimal course and outcome...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104181/evaluation-of-newborn-sickle-cell-screening-programme-in-england-2010-2016
#17
Allison Streetly, Rupa Sisodia, Moira Dick, Radoslav Latinovic, Kirsty Hounsell, Elizabeth Dormandy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate England's NHS newborn sickle cell screening programme performance in children up to the age of 5 years. DESIGN: Cohort of resident infants with sickle cell disease (SCD) born between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2015 and followed until August 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 1317 infants with SCD were notified to the study from all centres in England and 1313 (99%) were followed up. INTERVENTIONS: Early enrolment in clinical follow-up, parental education and routine penicillin prophylaxis...
November 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096014/effects-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-infants-aged-0-to-90-days-in-madrid-spain
#18
Jesús Ruiz-Contreras, María Del Amo, Juan Picazo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093131/exploring-the-role-of-competition-induced-by-non-vaccine-serotypes-for-herd-protection-following-pneumococcal-vaccination
#19
G L Masala, M Lipsitch, C Bottomley, S Flasche
The competitive pressure from non-vaccine serotypes may have helped pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to limit vaccine-type (VT) serotype prevalence. We aimed to investigate if, consequently, the indirect protection of vaccines targeting most pneumococcal serotypes could fall short of the profound effects of current formulations. We compared three previously described pneumococcal models harmonized to simulate 20 serotypes with a combined pre-vaccination prevalence in children younger than 5-years-old of 40%...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076932/evaluation-of-the-clinical-utility-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-bacteremia-in-children-a-retrospective-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#20
Jane Murphy, Sadhbh O' Rourke, Mary Corcoran, Nicola O' Sullivan, Robert Cunney, Richard Drew
BACKGROUND: The widespread uptake of pneumococcal vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, such that pneumococcal bacteremia in children is now considered a relatively rare event. The objective of this study was to ascertain the clinical utility of a Streptococcus pneumoniae real-time PCR assay compared with standard blood culture for the diagnosis of pneumococcal bacteremia in children in the post-vaccine era. METHODS: A systematic retrospective review of laboratory and patient records from Children's University Hospital, Temple Street during a 6 year period was performed...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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