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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936448/flavivirus-transmission-focusing-on-zika
#1
REVIEW
Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
Flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. Taxonomically, this genus is one of the 4 recognized genera within the family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses of human public health significance, for example, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses, are arthropod-borne (arboviruses) and have two evolutionarily and ecologically distinct transmission cycles: a sylvatic transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between zoonotic vertebrate reservoir and amplification hosts and arboreal mosquitoes; and an urban transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between humans and peridomestic Aedes spp...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936374/testing-a-matching-hypothesis-for-emerging-adults-in-project-match-during-treatment-and-one-year-outcomes
#2
Jordan P Davis, Brandon G Bergman, Douglas C Smith, John F Kelly
OBJECTIVE: Compared with older adults, emerging adults (18-29 years old) entering treatment typically have less severe alcohol use consequences. Also, their unique clinical presentations (e.g., modest initial abstinence motivation) and developmental contexts (e.g., drinking-rich social networks) may make a straightforward implementation of treatments developed for adults less effective. Yet, this has seldom been examined empirically. This study was a secondary analysis of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) data examining (a) overall differences between emerging adults and older adults (≥30 years old) on outcomes during treatment and at 1-year follow-up, and (b) whether emerging adults had poorer outcomes on any of the three Project MATCH treatments in particular...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936288/staple-crops-biofortified-with-increased-vitamins-and-minerals-considerations-for-a-public-health-strategy
#3
Maria Nieves Garcia-Casal, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Boitshepo Giyose
Biofortification of staple crops has been proposed as a strategy to address micronutrient malnutrition, particularly with respect to insufficient intake of vitamin A, iron, zinc, and folate. The World Health Organization, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science at the New York Academy of Sciences, convened a technical consultation entitled "Staple Crops Biofortified with Vitamins and Minerals: Considerations for a Public Health Strategy" in April 2016...
December 9, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935961/emerging-infectious-disease-implications-of-invasive-mammalian-species-the-greater-white-toothed-shrew-crocidura-russula-is-associated-with-a-novel-serovar-of-pathogenic-leptospira-in-ireland
#4
Jarlath E Nally, Zbigniew Arent, Darrell O Bayles, Richard L Hornsby, Colm Gilmore, Siobhan Regan, Allan D McDevitt, Jon Yearsley, Séamus Fanning, Barry J McMahon
The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935775/anesthesia-information-management-systems
#5
Thomas Corey Davis
Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are rapidly gaining widespread acceptance. Aggressively promoted as an improvement to manual-entry recordkeeping systems in the areas of accuracy, completeness, quality improvement, billing, and vigilance, these systems record all patient vital signs and parameters, providing a legible hard copy and permanent electronic record. With well-documented financial incentives, as well as government subsidies, AIMS are becoming adopted at an unprecedented rate. With the goals of the federal government to enhance the use of the electronic medical record, there is an emerging belief that AIMS may soon be mandated, with more limited choices than currently available...
January 2017: Annual Review of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935284/thiophene-functionalized-hybrid-perovskite-micro-rods-and-their-application-in-photodetector-devices-for-investigating-charge-transport-through-interfaces-in-particle-based-materials
#6
Tom Kollek, Daniel Wurmbrand, Susanne T Birkhold, Eugen Zimmermann, Julian Kalb, Lukas Schmidt-Mende, Sebastian Polarz
Particle-based semiconductor materials are promising constituents of future technologies. They are described by unique features resulting from the combination of discrete nanoparticle characteristics and the emergence of cooperative phenomena based on long-range interaction within their superstructure. (Nano)particles of outstanding quality with regards to size and shape can be prepared via colloidal synthesis using appropriate capping agents. The classical capping agents are electrically insulating, which impedes particle-particle electronic communication...
December 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935210/mechanistic-insight-on-the-oxidation-of-organic-phenylselenides-by-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2
#7
Giovanni Ribaudo, Massimo Bellanda, Ileana Menegazzo, Lando Peter Wolters, Marco Bortoli, Gerardo Ferrer-Sueta, Giuseppe Zagotto, Laura Orian
The oxidation of organic phenylselenides by H₂O₂ is investigated in model compounds, i.e. n-butyl phenyl selenide (PhSe(n-Bu)), bis(phenylselanyl)methane (PhSeMeSePh), diphenyl diselenide (PhSeSePh) and 1,2-bis(phenylselanyl)ethane (PhSeEtSePh). Through a combined experimental (¹H and ⁷⁷Se NMR) and computational approach, we characterize the direct oxidation of monoselenide to selenoxide, the stepwise double oxidation of PhSeMeSePh leading to different diastereomeric diselenoxides, the complete oxidation of the diphenyldiselenide leading to selenium-selenium bond cleavage and subsequent formation of the phenylseleninic product...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935057/crosstalk-among-uv-induced-inflammatory-mediators-dna-damage-and-epigenetic-regulators-facilitates-suppression-of-the-immune-system
#8
Ram Prasad, Santosh K Katiyar
The suppression of the immune system by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of photocarcinogenesis. Numerous changes occur in the skin on UVB exposure, including the generation of inflammatory mediators, DNA damage, epigenetic modifications, and migration and functional alterations in the antigen-presenting dendritic cells. Although each of these alterations can elicit a cascade of events that have the potential to modulate immune sensitivity alone, there is emerging evidence that there is considerable crosstalk between these cascades...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934583/bacillus-cereus-induced-food-borne-outbreaks-in-france-2007-to-2014-epidemiology-and-genetic-characterisation
#9
Benjamin Glasset, Sabine Herbin, Laurent Guillier, Sabrina Cadel-Six, Marie-Léone Vignaud, Joel Grout, Sylvie Pairaud, Valérie Michel, Jacques-Antoine Hennekinne, Nalini Ramarao, Anne Brisabois
The aim of this study was to identify and characterise Bacillus cereus from a unique national collection of 564 strains associated with 140 strong-evidence food-borne outbreaks (FBOs) occurring in France during 2007 to 2014. Starchy food and vegetables were the most frequent food vehicles identified; 747 of 911 human cases occurred in institutional catering contexts. Incubation period was significantly shorter for emetic strains compared with diarrhoeal strains A sub-panel of 149 strains strictly associated to 74 FBOs and selected on Coliphage M13-PCR pattern, was studied for detection of the genes encoding cereulide, diarrhoeic toxins (Nhe, Hbl, CytK1 and CytK2) and haemolysin (HlyII), as well as panC phylogenetic classification...
December 1, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933902/3-sulfanyl-4-methylpentan-1-ol-in-dry-hopped-beers-first-evidence-of-glutathione-s-conjugates-in-hop-humulus-lupulus-l
#10
Marie-Lucie Kankolongo Cibaka, Laura Decourrière, Celso-José Lorenzo-Alonso, Etienne Bodart, Raphaël Robiette, Sonia Collin
Monovarietal dry-hopped beers were produced with the dual-purpose hop cultivars Amarillo, Hallertau Blanc, and Mosaic. The grapefruit-like 3-sulfanyl-4-methylpentan-1-ol was found in all three beers at concentrations much higher than expected on the basis of the free thiol content in hop. Even cysteinylated precursors proved unable to explain our results. As observed in wine, the occurrence of S-glutathione precursors was therefore suspected in hop. The analytical standards of S-3-(4-methyl-1-hydroxypentyl)glutathione, never described before, and of S-3-(1-hydroxyhexyl)glutathione, previously evidenced in grapes, were chemically synthesized...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933876/inhibition-of-human-monoamine-oxidase-biological-and-molecular-modeling-studies-on-selected-natural-flavonoids
#11
Simone Carradori, Maria Concetta Gidaro, Anél Petzer, Giosuè Costa, Paolo Guglielmi, Paola Chimenti, Stefano Alcaro, Jacobus P Petzer
Naturally occurring flavonoids display a plethora of different biological activities, but emerging evidence suggests that this class of compounds may also act as antidepressant agents endowed with multiple mechanisms of action in the central nervous system, increasing central neurotransmission, limiting the reabsorption of bioamines by synaptosomes, and modulating the neuroendocrine and GABAA systems. Due to their presence in foods, food-derived products, and nutraceuticals, we established their role and structure-activity relationships as reversible and competitive human monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933449/clearing-the-fog-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-added-sugars-on-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-deficits
#12
REVIEW
Tonya S Orchard, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Kellie R Weinhold, A Courtney DeVries
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933429/establishing-the-values-for-patient-engagement-pe-in-health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-research-an-international-multiple-stakeholder-perspective
#13
Kirstie Haywood, Anne Lyddiatt, Samantha J Brace-McDonnell, Sophie Staniszewska, Sam Salek
PURPOSE: Active patient engagement is increasingly viewed as essential to ensuring that patient-driven perspectives are considered throughout the research process. However, guidance for patient engagement (PE) in HRQoL research does not exist, the evidence-base for practice is limited, and we know relatively little about underpinning values that can impact on PE practice. This is the first study to explore the values that should underpin PE in contemporary HRQoL research to help inform future good practice guidance...
December 8, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933358/embodiment-and-the-origin-of-interval-timing-kinematic-and-electromyographic-data
#14
Caspar Addyman, Sinead Rocha, Lilian Fautrelle, Robert M French, Elizabeth Thomas, Denis Mareschal
Recent evidence suggests that interval timing (the judgment of durations lasting from approximately 500 ms. to a few minutes) is closely coupled to the action control system. We used surface electromyography (EMG) and motion capture technology to explore the emergence of this coupling in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-olds. We engaged infants in an active and socially relevant arm-raising task with seven cycles and response period. In one condition, cycles were slow (every 4 s); in another, they were fast (every 2 s)...
December 9, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933211/systematic-review-and-quality-analysis-of-emerging-diagnostic-measures-for-calcium-pyrophosphate-crystal-deposition-disease
#15
Y Wu, K Chen, R Terkeltaub
OBJECTIVES: Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPPD) is common, yet prevalence and overall clinical impact remain unclear. Sensitivity and specificity of CPPD reference standards (conventional crystal analysis (CCA) and radiography (CR)) were meta-analysed by EULAR (published 2011). Since then, new diagnostic modalities are emerging. Hence, we updated 2009-2016 literature findings by systematic review and evidence grading, and assessed unmet needs. METHODS: We performed systematic search of full papers (PubMed, Scopus/EMBASE, Cochrane 2009-2016 databases)...
2016: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933033/central-amino-acid-sensing-in-the-control-of-feeding-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Nicholas Heeley, Clemence Blouet
Dietary protein quantity and quality greatly impact metabolic health via evolutionary-conserved mechanisms that ensure avoidance of amino acid imbalanced food sources, promote hyperphagia when dietary protein density is low, and conversely produce satiety when dietary protein density is high. Growing evidence supports the emerging concept of protein homeostasis in mammals, where protein intake is maintained within a tight range independently of energy intake to reach a target protein intake. The behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these adaptations are unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932869/person-centered-dementia-care-current-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Jill Manthorpe, Kritika Samsi
Person-centered dementia care is widely accepted as a value-based commitment to supporting people with dementia and is a guiding principle in care services. Policy ambitions to put people at the center of their own care are being developed internationally. These may be seen as part of the evolution of person-centered care which has its origins in critical perspectives on practice and social responses to people with dementia. In England, one further development of person-centered care has been personalization - a government policy to extend individuals' choice and control over their social care and, latterly, ways to meet their health care needs...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932608/antiviral-activity-of-pocapavir-in-a-randomized-blinded-placebo-controlled-human-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-challenge-model
#18
Marc S Collett, Jeffrey R Hincks, Kimberley Benschop, Erwin Duizer, Harrie van der Avoort, Eric Rhoden, Hongmei Liu, M Steven Oberste, Mark A McKinlay, Marianne Hartford
BACKGROUND: Immunodeficient individuals who excrete vaccine-derived polioviruses threaten polio eradication. Antivirals address this threat. METHODS: In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study, adults were challenged with oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 (mOPV1) and subsequently treated with capsid inhibitor pocapavir or placebo. Time to virus negativity in stool was determined. RESULTS: 144 participants were enrolled; 98% became infected upon OPV challenge...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932546/what-can-a-participatory-approach-to-evaluation-contribute-to-the-field-of-integrated-care
#19
Laura Eyre, Michael Farrelly, Martin Marshall
Better integration of care within the health sector and between health and social care is seen in many countries as an essential way of addressing the enduring problems of dwindling resources, changing demographics and unacceptable variation in quality of care. Current research evidence about the effectiveness of integration efforts supports neither the enthusiasm of those promoting and designing integrated care programmes nor the growing efforts of practitioners attempting to integrate care on the ground. In this paper we present a methodological approach, based on the principles of participatory research, that attempts to address this challenge...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932391/healthy-dietary-patterns-and-risk-of-mortality-and-esrd-in-ckd-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#20
Jaimon T Kelly, Suetonia C Palmer, Shu Ning Wai, Marinella Ruospo, Juan-Jesus Carrero, Katrina L Campbell, Giovanni F M Strippoli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with CKD are advised to follow dietary recommendations that restrict individual nutrients. Emerging evidence indicates overall eating patterns may better predict clinical outcomes, however, current data on dietary patterns in kidney disease are limited. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and mortality or ESRD among adults with CKD. Medline, Embase, and reference lists were systematically searched up to November 24, 2015 by two independent review authors...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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