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Emerging evidence

Ashley L Greene, Nicholas R Eaton
BACKGROUND: Structural models of psychopathology indicate that common mental disorder comorbidity reflects latent transdiagnostic factors. Multiple studies have replicated transdiagnostic internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (substance use, antisociality-, and impulsivity-related disorders) factors; other studies support distress and fear sub-factors of internalizing. These factors show a high degree of temporal stability. Recently, a bifactor conceptualization of multivariate comorbidity has emerged, positing the existence of an orthogonal general psychopathology factor that saturates all diagnoses in addition to internalizing/distress/fear and externalizing, although no studies have examined the temporal stability of the factors in this competing model over time among adults...
September 28, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder, Seymon M Slobounov, John Henry Challis, Karl Maxim Newell
This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe) Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe) Up) and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure-CoP (displacement, area and length) had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat) platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both facing up and down directions. The virtual time to collision (VTC) dynamics revealed that the spatio-temporal margins to the functional stability boundary were progressively smaller and the VTC time series also more regular (SampEn-Sample Entropy) as slope angle increased...
2016: PloS One
Danielle Bloch, Nicole M Roth, Elba V Caraballo, Jorge Muñoz-Jordan, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Aidsa Rivera, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Brenda Rivera Garcia, Tyler M Sharp
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes and is the cause of an acute febrile illness characterized by potentially debilitating arthralgia. After emerging in the Caribbean in late 2013, the first locally-acquired case reported to public health authorities in Puerto Rico occurred in May 2014. During June-August 2014, household-based cluster investigations were conducted to identify factors associated with infection, development of disease, and case reporting...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kateki Vinod, Steven J Gedde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent studies evaluating the efficacy and complication profiles of novel glaucoma procedures promoting aqueous outflow. RECENT FINDINGS: Literature from the 2015 to 2016 review period includes abundant data regarding new and emerging glaucoma procedures. Notable findings from recent randomized clinical trials include titratability of intraocular pressure with multiple trabecular microbypass stents (iStent; Glaukos, Laguna Hills, California, USA) and greater reduction in intraocular pressure and medication usage following intracanalicular scaffolding (Hydrus Microstent; Ivantis Inc...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Matteo Bonini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease and represents a relevant socioeconomic burden. e-Health has the potential to improve disease control and adherence to treatment in asthmatic patients. Available data are, however, scarce and inconsistent limiting the use of e-health in clinical practice. This article aims to provide a systematic review of the literature published in the last year regarding the real place and impact of e-health in the management of asthma...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Hendrik J F Helmerhorst, Derk L Arts, Marcus J Schultz, Peter H J van der Voort, Ameen Abu-Hanna, Evert de Jonge, David J van Westerloo
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence has shown the potential risks of arterial hyperoxia, but the lack of a clinical definition and methodologic limitations hamper the interpretation and clinical relevance of previous studies. Our purpose was to evaluate previously used and newly constructed metrics of arterial hyperoxia and systematically assess their association with clinical outcomes in different subgroups in the ICU. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Three large tertiary care ICUs in the Netherlands...
October 19, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Natalya Bildyug
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes, including contraction, migration, differentiation, and proliferation. These processes all involve cell phenotype changes, known to be accompanied by reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. Growing evidence indicates a correlation between MMP activity and the dynamics of actin system, suggesting their mutual regulation. Here, data on the influence of MMPs on the actin microfilament system, on the one hand, and the dependence of MMP expression and activation on the organization of actin structures, on the other hand, are reviewed...
October 20, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
Jennifer R Ballard, Randall Mickley, Samantha E J Gibbs, Chris Dwyer, Catherine Soos, N Jane Harms, H Grant Gilchrist, Jeffrey S Hall, J Christian Franson, G Randy Milton, Glen Parsons, Brad Allen, Jean-Francois Giroux, Stéphane Lair, Daniel G Mead, John R Fischer
Between 1998 and 2014, recurrent mortality events were reported in the Dresser's subspecies of the Common Eider ( Somateria mollissima dresseri) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA near Wellfleet Harbor. The early die-offs were attributed to parasitism and emaciation, but beginning in 2006 a suite of distinct lesions was observed concomitant with the isolation of a previously unknown RNA virus. This novel pathogen was identified as an orthomyxovirus in the genus Quaranjavirus and was named Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
B Mishra, B Behera
Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV) inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Giacomo Tirabassi, Gianmaria Salvio, Barbara Altieri, Cristina L Ronchi, Silvia Della Casa, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Giancarlo Balercia
An emerging branch of research is examining the linkage between Vitamin D and nonskeletal disorders, including endocrine diseases. In this regard, a still little studied aspect concerns the involvement of vitamin D in adrenal gland disorders. Adrenal gland disorders, which might be theoretically affected by vitamin D unbalance, include adrenal insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, adrenocortical tumors and hyperaldosteronism. In this review, we provide an updated document, which tries to collect and discuss the limited evidence to be found in the literature about the relationship between vitamin D and adrenal disorders...
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Emma V Morris, Claire M Edwards
Adipocytes are a significant component of the bone marrow microenvironment. Although bone marrow adipocytes were first identified more than 100 years ago, it is only in recent years that an understanding of their complex physiological role is emerging. Bone marrow adipocytes act as local regulators of skeletal biology and homeostasis, with recent studies suggesting that marrow adipose tissue is metabolically active, and can function as an endocrine organ. As such, bone marrow adipocytes have the potential to interact with tumour cells, influencing both tumour growth and bone disease...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Outi Laatikainen, Sami Sneck, Risto Bloigu, Minna Lahtinen, Timo Lauri, Miia Turpeinen
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are more likely to affect geriatric patients due to physiological changes occurring with aging. Even though this is an internationally recognized problem, similar research data in Finland is still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the number of geriatric medication-related hospitalizations in the Finnish patient population and to discover the potential means of recognizing patients particularly at risk of ADEs. The study was conducted retrospectively from the 2014 emergency department patient records in Oulu University Hospital...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
George M Slavich
Life stress is a central construct in many models of human health and disease. The present article reviews research on stress and health, with a focus on (a) how life stress has been conceptualized and measured over time, (b) recent evidence linking stress and disease, and (c) mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Emerging from this body of work is evidence that stress is involved in the development, maintenance, or exacerbation of several mental and physical health conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, anxiety disorders, depression, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, stroke, and certain types of cancer...
October 2016: Teaching of Psychology
Samhita Kumar, Alys Willman
Populations living in fragile and conflict-affected settings (FCS) endure serious hardship, often including witnessing or having direct exposure to violence. These experiences adversely affect the mind, body, and spirit, and diminish the capacity of individuals and communities to take full advantage of economic empowerment opportunities. A small but growing number of programs have begun to combine psychosocial support with livelihood support in FCS, with some promising indication that this combination can enhance project outcomes...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Manuel Eisner, Amy Nivette, Aja Louise Murray, Maria Krisch
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations for the period 2016-2030 aim to achieve a substantial reduction of interpersonal violence. An increasing body of evidence of what works, emerging from randomized controlled trials, can inform public health policy decisions. However, there is very limited evidence on the kinds of mechanisms that lead to sustained declines in interpersonal violence at the population level. We discuss the implications of what is known about recent major declines in violence to guide violence-reduction policies...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
C F Barenghi, Y A Sergeev, A W Baggaley
Experiments and numerical simulations of turbulent (4)He and (3)He-B have established that, at hydrodynamic length scales larger than the average distance between quantum vortices, the energy spectrum obeys the same 5/3 Kolmogorov law which is observed in the homogeneous isotropic turbulence of ordinary fluids. The importance of the 5/3 law is that it points to the existence of a Richardson energy cascade from large eddies to small eddies. However, there is also evidence of quantum turbulent regimes without Kolmogorov scaling...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Evangelos Giannitsis, Hugo A Katus
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high all-cause and PE-related mortality and requires individualized management. After confirmation of PE, a refined risk stratification is particularly warranted among normotensive patients. Previous prognostic models favored combinations of echocardiography or computed tomography suggestive of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction together with biomarkers of RV dysfunction (natriuretic peptides) or myocardial injury (cardiac troponins) to identify candidates for thrombolysis or embolectomy...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Rosalind L Coleman, Susie McLean
INTRODUCTION: The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Carlos F Cáceres, Annick Borquez, Jeffrey D Klausner, Rachel Baggaley, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. DISCUSSION: The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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