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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214916/facial-expression-an-under-utilised-tool-for-the-assessment-of-welfare-in-mammals
#1
Kris A Descovich, Jennifer Wathan, Matthew C Leach, Hannah M Buchanan-Smith, Paul Flecknell, David Farningham, Sarah-Jane Vick
Animal welfare is a key issue for industries that use or impact upon animals. The accurate identification of welfare states is particularly relevant to the field of bioscience, where the 3Rs framework encourages refinement of experimental procedures involving animal models. The assessment and improvement of welfare states in animals is reliant on reliable and valid measurement tools. Behavioural measures (activity, attention, posture and vocalisation) are frequently used because they are immediate and non-invasive, however no single indicator can yield a complete picture of the internal state of an animal...
February 8, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214732/persistent-rna-virus-infections-do-pamps-drive-chronic-disease
#2
REVIEW
Mary K McCarthy, Thomas E Morrison
Chronic disease associated with persistent RNA virus infections represents a key public health concern. While human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus are perhaps the most well-known examples of persistent RNA viruses that cause chronic disease, evidence suggests that many other RNA viruses, including re-emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ebola virus and Zika virus, establish persistent infections. The mechanisms by which RNA viruses drive chronic disease are poorly understood. Here, we discuss how the persistence of viral RNA may drive chronic disease manifestations via the activation of RNA sensing pathways...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214290/evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-anti-epileptic-medications-for-partial-seizures-of-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis
#3
Teng Zhao, Xuemin Feng, Jingyao Liu, Jiguo Gao, Chunkui Zhou
Epilepsy is a brain and neurological disorder with high prevalence. It was reported that more than 70% of epileptic seizures were controlled by anti-epileptic medications, whereas the lack of evidence with respect to head-to-head comparisons motivated researchers to seek alternative approaches that are able to provide deep insights into the profile of anti-epileptic medications. In this study, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-epileptic medications for partial seizures of epilepsy...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214253/long-noncoding-rna-linc00673-is-activated-by-sp1-and-exerts-oncogenic-properties-by-interacting-with-lsd1-and-ezh2-in-gastric-cancer
#4
Mingde Huang, Jiakai Hou, Yunfei Wang, Min Xie, Chenchen Wei, Fengqi Nie, Zhaoxia Wang, Ming Sun
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in a variety of human diseases, including cancers. However, the biological function of these molecules and the mechanisms responsible for their alteration in gastric cancer (GC) are not fully understood. In this study, we found that lncRNA LINC00673 is significantly upregulated in gastric cancer. Knockdown of LINC00673 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion and induced cell apoptosis, whereas LINC00673 overexpression had the opposite effect...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214219/perpetuating-stigma-or-reducing-risk-perspectives-from-naloxone-consumers-and-pharmacists-on-pharmacy-based-naloxone-in-2-states
#5
Traci C Green, Patricia Case, Haley Fiske, Janette Baird, Shachan Cabral, Dina Burstein, Victoriana Schwartz, Nathan Potter, Alexander Y Walley, Jeffrey Bratberg
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about attitudes of pharmacists and consumers to pharmacy naloxone. We examined perceptions and experiences of pharmacy naloxone from people with opioid use disorder, patients taking chronic opioids for pain, caregivers of opioid users, and pharmacists from 2 early pharmacy naloxone adopter states: Massachusetts and Rhode Island. DESIGN: Eight focus groups (4 per state) were held in October to December 2015. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were recruited from pharmacies, health clinics, and community organizations; pharmacists were recruited from professional organizations and pharmacy colleges...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213888/transfusion-in-critical-care-a-uk-regional-audit-of-current-practice
#6
J O M Plumb, M G Taylor, E Clissold, M P W Grocott, R Gill
A consistent message within critical care publications has been that a restrictive transfusion strategy is non-inferior, and possibly superior, to a liberal strategy for stable, non-bleeding critically ill patients. Translation into clinical practice has, however, been slow. Here, we describe the degree of adherence to UK best practice guidelines in a regional network of nine intensive care units within Wessex. All transfusions given during a 2-month period were included (n = 444). Those given for active bleeding or within 24 h of major surgery, trauma or gastrointestinal bleeding were excluded (n = 148)...
February 18, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213767/mountaintop-removal-coal-mining-and-emergent-cases-of-psychological-disorder-in-kentucky
#7
Will H Canu, John Paul Jameson, Ellen H Steele, Michael Denslow
Although mountaintop removal (MTR) coal extraction techniques have been employed in Appalachia for decades, relatively little research has examined its potential psychological impact on people living in close proximity to MTR activity. The current study taps the State Emergency Department Database (Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Kentucky State Emergency Department Database, 2008) to examine the relative risk for diagnoses of depressive, substance use, and anxiety disorders originating in areas with and without MTR activity...
February 17, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213435/genetics-of-synucleinopathies
#8
Robert L Nussbaum
Parkinson's disease (PD), diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) constitute the three major neurodegenerative disorders referred to as synucleinopathies because both genetic and pathological results implicate the α-synuclein protein in their pathogenesis. PD and DLBD are recognized as closely related diseases with substantial clinical and pathological overlap. MSA, on the other hand, has a distinctive clinical presentation and neuropathological profile. In this review, we will summarize the evidence linking α-synuclein to these three disorders...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213317/developing-and-assessing-the-acceptability-of-an-epilepsy-first-aid-training-intervention-for-patients-who-visit-uk-emergency-departments-a-multi-method-study-of-patients-and-professionals
#9
Darlene A Snape, Myfanwy Morgan, Leone Ridsdale, Steve Goodacre, Anthony G Marson, Adam J Noble
Epilepsy affects around 1% of the UK population; 40% of whom experience two or more seizures annually. However, most Emergency Department (ED) visits by people with epilepsy (PWE) are clinically unnecessary. Evidence highlights that with correct training, seizures can be safely managed by patients and their families within the community. Arguably therefore, PWE who frequently visit the ED might benefit from a self-management intervention that improves their own and their families' confidence and ability in managing seizures...
February 14, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213158/pink1-parkin-mitophagy-and-neurodegeneration-what-do-we-really-know-in-vivo
#10
REVIEW
Alexander J Whitworth, Leo J Pallanck
Mitochondria are essential organelles that provide cellular energy and buffer cytoplasmic calcium. At the same time they produce damaging reactive oxygen species and sequester pro-apoptotic factors. Hence, eukaryotes have evolved exquisite homeostatic processes that maintain mitochondrial integrity, or ultimately remove damaged organelles. This subject has garnered intense interest recently following the discovery that two Parkinson's disease genes, PINK1 and parkin, regulate mitochondrial degradation (mitophagy)...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213124/reciprocal-relationships-between-substance-use-and-disorders-and-suicidal-ideation-and-suicide-attempts-in-the-collaborative-study-of-the-genetics-of-alcoholism
#11
Arpana Agrawal, Rebecca Tillman, Richard A Grucza, Elliot C Nelson, Vivia V McCutcheon, Lauren Few, Kenneth R Conner, Michael T Lynskey, Danielle M Dick, Howard J Edenberg, Victor M Hesselbrock, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Marc A Schuckit, Bernice Porjesz, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Substance use and misuse and suicidal thoughts and behaviors tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) suicidal ideation and attempt are related to onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence; (b) early use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is associated with onset of suicidal ideation and attempt; and (c) whether these associations persist while controlling for covariates, such as family history of alcohol problems, major depression and other internalizing and externalizing disorders...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213031/antimicrobial-resistance-and-its-association-with-tolerance-to-heavy-metals-in-agriculture-production
#12
REVIEW
Zhongyi Yu, Lynda Gunn, Patrick Wall, Séamus Fanning
Antimicrobial resistance is a recognized public health challenge that since its emergence limits the therapeutic options available to veterinarians and clinicians alike, when treatment is warranted. This development is further compounded by the paucity of new antibiotics. The agri-food industry benefits from the availability of antimicrobial compounds for food-animal production and crop protection. Nonetheless, their improper use can result in the selection for bacteria that are phenotypically resistant to these compounds...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212963/clinician-reported-outcome-assessments-of-treatment-benefit-report-of-the-ispor-clinical-outcome-assessment-emerging-good-practices-task-force
#13
John H Powers, Donald L Patrick, Marc K Walton, Patrick Marquis, Stefan Cano, Jeremy Hobart, Maria Isaac, Spiros Vamvakas, Ashley Slagle, Elizabeth Molsen, Laurie B Burke
A clinician-reported outcome (ClinRO) assessment is a type of clinical outcome assessment (COA). ClinRO assessments, like all COAs (patient-reported, observer-reported, or performance outcome assessments), are used to 1) measure patients' health status and 2) define end points that can be interpreted as treatment benefits of medical interventions on how patients feel, function, or survive in clinical trials. Like other COAs, ClinRO assessments can be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation. A ClinRO assessment is conducted and reported by a trained health care professional and requires specialized professional training to evaluate the patient's health status...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212847/risk-mapping-of-west-nile-virus-circulation-in-spain-2015
#14
Amaya Sánchez-Gómez, Carmen Amela, Eduardo Fernández-Carrión, Marta Martínez-Avilés, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, María José Sierra-Moros
West Nile fever is an emergent disease in Europe. The objective of this study was to conduct a predictive risk mapping of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Spain based on historical data of WNV circulation. Areas of Spain with evidence of WNV circulation were mapped based on data from notifications to the surveillance systems and a literature review. A logistic regression-based spatial model was used to assess the probability of WNV circulation. Data were analyzed at municipality level. Mean temperatures of the period from June to October, presence of wetlands and presence of Special Protection Areas for birds were considered as potential predictors...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212797/ca-2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-in-vascular-smooth-muscle
#15
F Z Saddouk, R Ginnan, H A Singer
Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways are central regulators of differentiated vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractile function. In addition, Ca(2+) signals regulate VSM gene transcription, proliferation, and migration of dedifferentiated or "synthetic" phenotype VSM cells. Synthetic phenotype VSM growth and hyperplasia are hallmarks of pervasive vascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, postangioplasty/in-stent restenosis, and vein graft failure. The serine/threonine protein kinase Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a ubiquitous mediator of intracellular Ca(2+) signals...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212683/evidence-for-benefit-of-statins-to-modify-cognitive-decline-and-risk-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Nophar Geifman, Roberta Diaz Brinton, Richard E Kennedy, Lon S Schneider, Atul J Butte
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial research and development investment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), effective therapeutics remain elusive. Significant emerging evidence has linked cholesterol, β-amyloid and AD, and several studies have shown a reduced risk for AD and dementia in populations treated with statins. However, while some clinical trials evaluating statins in general AD populations have been conducted, these resulted in no significant therapeutic benefit. By focusing on subgroups of the AD population, it may be possible to detect endotypes responsive to statin therapy...
February 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212647/an-interpretive-review-of-consensus-statements-on-clinical-guideline-development-and-their-application-in-the-field-of-traditional-and-complementary-medicine
#17
Jennifer Hunter, Matthew Leach, Lesley Braun, Alan Bensoussan
BACKGROUND: Despite ongoing consumer demand and an emerging scientific evidence-base for traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM), there remains a paucity of reliable information in standard clinical guidelines about their use. Often T&CM interventions are not mentioned, or the recommendations arising from these guidelines are unhelpful to end-users (i.e. patients, practitioners and policy makers). Insufficient evidence of efficacy may be a contributing factor; however, often informative recommendations could still be made by drawing on relevant information from other avenues...
February 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212606/the-implementation-of-health-promotion-in-primary-and-community-care-a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-prescribe-vida-saludable-strategy
#18
Catalina Martinez, Gonzalo Bacigalupe, Josep M Cortada, Gonzalo Grandes, Alvaro Sanchez, Haizea Pombo, Paola Bully
BACKGROUND: The impact of lifestyle on health is undeniable and effective healthy lifestyle promotion interventions do exist. However, this is not a fundamental part of routine primary care clinical practice. We describe factors that determine changes in performance of primary health care centers involved in piloting the health promotion innovation 'Prescribe Vida Saludable' (PVS) phase II. METHODS: We engaged four primary health care centers of the Basque Healthcare Service in an action research project aimed at changing preventive health practices...
February 17, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212486/highly-efficient-and-anomalous-charge-transfer-in-van-der-waals-trilayer-semiconductors
#19
Frank Ceballos, Ming-Gang Ju, Samuel D Lane, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Hui Zhao
Two dimensional materials, such as graphene and monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, allow the fabrication of multilayer structures without lattice matching restriction. A central issue in developing such artificial materials is to understand and control the interlayer electron transfer process, which plays a key role in harvesting their emergent properties. Recent photoluminescence and transient absorption measurements revealed that the electron transfer in hetero-bilayers occurs on ultrafast time scales...
February 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212464/oxytocin-reduces-ethanol-self-administration-in-mice
#20
Courtney E King, William C Griffin, Lauryn N Luderman, Malcolm M Kates, Jacqueline F McGinty, Howard C Becker
BACKGROUND: Excessive ethanol consumption remains an important health concern and effective treatments are lacking. The central oxytocin system has emerged as a potentially important therapeutic target for alcohol and drug addiction. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxytocin reduces ethanol consumption. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to ethanol (20% v/v) using a model of binge-like drinking ("drinking-in-the-dark") that also included the use of lickometer circuits to evaluate the temporal pattern of intake as well as 2-bottle choice drinking in the home cage...
February 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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