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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636934/the-tmao-producing-enzyme-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-regulates-obesity-and-the-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue
#1
Rebecca C Schugar, Diana M Shih, Manya Warrier, Robert N Helsley, Amy Burrows, Daniel Ferguson, Amanda L Brown, Anthony D Gromovsky, Markus Heine, Arunachal Chatterjee, Lin Li, Xinmin S Li, Zeneng Wang, Belinda Willard, YongHong Meng, Hanjun Kim, Nam Che, Calvin Pan, Richard G Lee, Rosanne M Crooke, Mark J Graham, Richard E Morton, Carl D Langefeld, Swapan K Das, Lawrence L Rudel, Nizar Zein, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy, W H Wilson Tang, Bernadette O Erokwu, Chris A Flask, Markku Laakso, Mete Civelek, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad, Joerg Heeren, Aldons J Lusis, Stanley L Hazen, J Mark Brown
Emerging evidence suggests that microbes resident in the human intestine represent a key environmental factor contributing to obesity-associated disorders. Here, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota-initiated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)-generating pathway is linked to obesity and energy metabolism. In multiple clinical cohorts, systemic levels of TMAO were observed to strongly associate with type 2 diabetes. In addition, circulating TMAO levels were associated with obesity traits in the different inbred strains represented in the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636449/zika-virus-in-ontario-evaluating-a-rapid-risk-assessment-tool-for-emerging-infectious-disease-threats
#2
Ryan Van Meer, Karin Hohenadel, Alanna Fitzgerald-Husek, Bryna Warshawsky, Doug Sider, Brian Schwartz, Mark P Nelder
To determine the Ontario-specific risk of local and travel-related Zika virus transmission in the context of a public health emergency of international concern, Public Health Ontario (PHO) completed a rapid risk assessment (RRA) on January 29, 2016, using a newly developed RRA guidance tool. The RRA concluded that risk of local mosquito-borne transmission was low, with a high risk of imported cases through travel. The RRA was updated 3 times based on predetermined triggers. An independent evaluation assessed both the application of the RRA guidance tool (process evaluation) and the usefulness of the RRA (outcome evaluation)...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635463/an-overview-of-the-evidence-based-practice-process-for-novice-researchers
#3
Emma Rowles, Amanda McNaughton
This article explores how nurses can use evidence-based practice to critique and evaluate the rationale and evidence for specific nursing procedures or practices. Through the development of a focused research question and search strategy, nurses can select and critique relevant research articles to answer the research question, which can support the provision of optimal practice and high-quality care. This article demonstrates the process of evidence-based practice, with the aim of increasing novice researchers' confidence in applying this process in practice...
June 21, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635330/multiple-functions-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-a-metabolic-crosslight
#4
Grazia R Tundo, Diego Sbardella, Chiara Ciaccio, Giuseppe Grasso, Magda Gioia, Andrea Coletta, Fabio Polticelli, Donato Di Pierro, Danilo Milardi, Peter Van Endert, Stefano Marini, Massimo Coletta
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitous zinc peptidase of the inverzincin family, which has been initially discovered as the enzyme responsible for insulin catabolism; therefore, its involvement in the onset of diabetes has been largely investigated. However, further studies on IDE unraveled its ability to degrade several other polypeptides, such as β-amyloid, amylin, and glucagon, envisaging the possible implication of IDE dys-regulation in the "aggregopathies" and, in particular, in neurodegenerative diseases...
June 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635192/incidence-of-primary-spontaneous-pneumothorax-is-not-associated-with-microclimatic-variations-results-of-a-seven-year-survey-in-a-temperate-climate-area
#5
Ivan Comelli, Alessandra Bologna, Andrea Ticinesi, Andrea Magnacavallo, Denis Comelli, Tiziana Meschi, Gianfranco Cervellin
Some diseases, such as renal colic and atrial fibrillation, display an association with microclimatic variations. In particular, despite a correlation has been reported between incidence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) and meteorological variations, the evidence remains poor and conflictual. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of day-by-day meteorological variations on the number of visits for PSP in the Emergency Department (ED). All PSP cases were retrieved from the hospital database from January 2008 to December 2014...
May 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634831/malaria-2017-update-on-the-clinical-literature-and-management
#6
REVIEW
Johanna P Daily
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria is a prevalent disease in travelers to and residents of malaria-endemic regions. Health care workers in both endemic and non-endemic settings should be familiar with the latest evidence for the diagnosis, management and prevention of malaria. This article will discuss the recent malaria epidemiologic and medical literature to review the progress, challenges, and optimal management of malaria. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a marked decrease in malaria-related global morbidity and mortality secondary to malaria control programs over the last few decades...
June 20, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634636/farmers-willingness-to-adopt-conservation-agriculture-new-evidence-from-lebanon
#7
Ali Chalak, Alexandra Irani, Jad Chaaban, Issam Bashour, Karin Seyfert, Kaitlyn Smoot, Gumataw Kifle Abebe
With increasing food insecurity and climate change, conservation agriculture has emerged as a sustainable alternative to intensive conventional agriculture as a source of food supply. Yet the adoption rate of conservation agriculture is still low. Our paper analyses the factors affecting farmers' willingness to adopt conservation agriculture in Lebanon. The findings show that household characteristics-years of farming and farm size affect conservation agriculture adoption. However, household characteristics alone were insufficient to explain conservation agriculture adoption...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634583/circular-rnas-biogenesis-function-and-role-in-human-diseases
#8
REVIEW
John Greene, Anne-Marie Baird, Lauren Brady, Marvin Lim, Steven G Gray, Raymond McDermott, Stephen P Finn
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are currently classed as non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that, unlike linear RNAs, form covalently closed continuous loops and act as gene regulators in mammals. They were originally thought to represent errors in splicing and considered to be of low abundance, however, there is now an increased appreciation of their important function in gene regulation. circRNAs are differentially generated by backsplicing of exons or from lariat introns. Unlike linear RNA, the 3' and 5' ends normally present in an RNA molecule have been joined together by covalent bonds leading to circularization...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634323/intestinal-microbial-dysbiosis-aggravates-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-drosophila
#9
Shih-Cheng Wu, Zih-Syuan Cao, Kuo-Ming Chang, Jyh-Lyh Juang
Neuroinflammation caused by local deposits of Aβ42 in the brain is key for the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, inflammation in the brain is not always a response to local primary insults. Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which is recently emerging as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, can also initiate a brain inflammatory response. It still remains unclear however, whether enteric dysbiosis also contributes to Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that in a Drosophila Alzheimer's disease model, enterobacteria infection exacerbated progression of Alzheimer's disease by promoting immune hemocyte recruitment to the brain, thereby provoking TNF-JNK mediated neurodegeneration...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634105/genetic-diversity-in-the-c-terminus-of-merozoite-surface-protein-1-among-plasmodium-knowlesi-isolates-from-selangor-and-sabah-borneo-malaysia
#10
Nan Jiun Yap, Xiang Ting Goh, Anson V Koehler, Timothy William, Tsin Wen Yeo, Indra Vythilingam, Robin B Gasser, Yvonne A L Lim
Plasmodium knowlesi, a malaria parasite of macaques, has emerged as an important parasite of humans. Despite the significance of P. knowlesi malaria in parts of Southeast Asia, very little is known about the genetic variation in this parasite. Our aim here was to explore sequence variation in a molecule called the 42kDa merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), which is found on the surface of blood stages of Plasmodium spp. and plays a key role in erythrocyte invasion. Several studies of P. falciparum have reported that the C-terminus (a 42kDa fragment) of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-142; consisting of MSP-119 and MSP-133) is a potential candidate for a malaria vaccine...
June 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634094/regional-anesthesia-in-total-joint-arthroplasty-what-is-the-evidence
#11
Dalia H Elmofty, Asokumar Buvanendran
Total joint arthroplasty is one of the most common surgical procedures performed for end-stage osteoarthritis. The increasing demand for knee and hip arthroplasties along with the improvement in life expectancy has created a substantial medical and economic impact on the society. Effective planning of health care for these individuals is vital. The best method for providing anesthesia and analgesia for total joint arthroplasty has not been defined. Yet, emerging evidence suggests that the type of anesthesia can affect morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing these procedures...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634072/mitochondrial-dynamics-coordinate-cell-differentiation
#12
Masafumi Noguchi, Atsuko Kasahara
Cells differentiate into specific and functional lineages to build up tissues. It has been shown in several tissues that mitochondrial morphology, levels of "mitochondrial shaping" proteins, and mitochondrial functions change upon differentiation. In this review, we highlight the significance of mitochondrial dynamics and functions in tissue development, cell differentiation, and reprogramming processes. Signalling cascades are critical for tissue stem cell maintenance and cell fate determination, and growing evidence demonstrates mitochondria could act as a centre of intra and extracellular signals to coordinate signalling pathways, such as Notch, Wnt, and YAP/TAZ signalling...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633993/microfluidics-as-a-strategic-player-to-decipher-single-cell-omics
#13
REVIEW
Ouriel Caen, Heng Lu, Philippe Nizard, Valerie Taly
Most cell studies are performed at a population level, relying on the assumption of a normal distribution of the function and fate of a cell among a population. However, technologies allowing single-cell analysis (SCA) have recently arisen and have led to increasing evidence of cell population heterogeneity and its importance. Tremendous amounts of new data could now be uncovered to redefine our understanding of cell omics. Microfluidics has emerged as a major technological player in this new era and is gradually increasing in use among biology laboratories, mainly due to the single-cell high-throughput handling solutions it offers...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633098/high-prevalence-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-surgical-intestinal-specimens-from-infants-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-spontaneous-intestinal-perforation-a-retrospective-observational-study
#14
Soley Omarsdottir, Margret Agnarsdottir, Charlotte Casper, Abiel Orrego, Mireille Vanpée, Afsar Rahbar, Cecilia Söderberg-Nauclér
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe, often fatal gastrointestinal emergency that predominantly affects preterm infants, and there is evidence that neonatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may in some cases contribute to its pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CMV in infants with NEC. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy intestinal specimens from 61 infants with NEC, spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP), or related surgical complications were collected at Karolinska University Hospital and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632935/impact-of-preoperative-calculation-of-nephron-volume-loss-on-future-of-partial-nephrectomy-techniques-planning-a-strategic-roadmap-for-improving-functional-preservation-and-securing-oncological-safety
#15
Koon Ho Rha, Ali Abdel Raheem, Sung Yul Park, Kwang Hyun Kim, Hyung Joon Kim, Kyo Chul Koo, Young Deuk Choi, Byung Ha Jung, Sang Kon Lee, Won Ki Lee, Jayram Krishnan, Tae Young Shin, Jin-Seon Cho
OBJECTIVES: To assess the correlation of resected and ischaemised volume (RAIV), which is preoperatively calculated volume of nephron loss (VNL), with the amount of postoperative renal function (PRF) decline after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (PN) in a multi-institutional dataset. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We identified 348 patients from March 2005 to December 2013 at six institutions. Data on all cases of laparoscopic (n = 85) and robotic PN (n = 263) performed were retrospectively gathered...
June 20, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632931/iowa-model-of-evidence-based-practice-revisions-and-validation
#16
Kathleen C Buckwalter, Laura Cullen, Kirsten Hanrahan, Charmaine Kleiber, Ann Marie McCarthy, Barbara Rakel, Victoria Steelman, Toni Tripp-Reimer, Sharon Tucker
BACKGROUND: The Iowa Model is a widely used framework for the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP). Changes in health care (e.g., emergence of implementation science, emphasis on patient engagement) prompted the re-evaluation, revision, and validation of the model. METHODS: A systematic multi-step process was used capturing information from the literature and user feedback via an electronic survey and live work groups. The Iowa Model Collaborative critically assessed and synthesized information and recommendations before revising the model...
June 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632771/avian-influenza-in-latin-america-a-systematic-review-of-serological-and-molecular-studies-from-2000-2015
#17
Alejandra Afanador-Villamizar, Carlos Gomez-Romero, Andres Diaz, Julian Ruiz-Saenz
Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632767/how-is-indonesia-coping-with-its-epidemic-of-chronic-noncommunicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#18
Julia Schröders, Stig Wall, Mohammad Hakimi, Fatwa Sari Tetra Dewi, Lars Weinehall, Mark Nichter, Maria Nilsson, Hari Kusnanto, Ekowati Rahajeng, Nawi Ng
BACKGROUND: Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have emerged as a huge global health problem in low- and middle-income countries. The magnitude of the rise of NCDs is particularly visible in Southeast Asia where limited resources have been used to address this rising epidemic, as in the case of Indonesia. Robust evidence to measure growing NCD-related burdens at national and local levels and to aid national discussion on social determinants of health and intra-country inequalities is needed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632589/emergency-department-visits-following-elective-total-hip-and-knee-replacement-surgery-identifying-gaps-in-continuity-of-care
#19
Micaela A Finnegan, Robyn Shaffer, Austin Remington, Jereen Kwong, Catherine Curtin, Tina Hernandez-Boussard
BACKGROUND: Major joint replacement surgical procedures are common, elective procedures with a care episode that includes both inpatient readmissions and postoperative emergency department (ED) visits. Inpatient readmissions are well studied; however, to our knowledge, little is known about ED visits following these procedures. We sought to characterize 30-day ED visits following a major joint replacement surgical procedure. METHODS: We used administrative records from California, Florida, and New York, from 2010 through 2012, to identify adults undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632576/understanding-the-constipation-conundrum-predictors-of-obtaining-an-abdominal-radiograph-during-the-emergency-department-evaluation-of-pediatric-constipation
#20
Claire A MacGeorge, Daniel C Williams, Natalie Vajta, Kristen Morella, Paul G Thacker, Scott Russell, William T Basco, David G Bundy
OBJECTIVES: Many children with constipation who are evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) receive an abdominal radiograph (AR) despite evidence-based guidelines discouraging imaging. The objectives of this study were to identify predictors associated with obtaining an AR and to determine if ARs were associated with a longer length of stay (LOS) among children with constipation evaluated in the ED. METHODS: A review of billing and electronic health records was conducted in an academic pediatric ED for children ages 0 to 17 years who had a primary discharge diagnosis of constipation from July 2013 to June 2014...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
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