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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161447/dna-polymerase-beta-participates-in-dna-end-joining
#1
Sreerupa Ray, Gregory Breuer, Michelle DeVeaux, Daniel Zelterman, Ranjit Bindra, Joann B Sweasy
DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious lesions and if left unrepaired, they lead to cell death, genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Cells combat DSBs by two pathways: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), wherein the two DNA ends are re-joined. Recently a back-up NHEJ pathway has been reported and is referred to as alternative NHEJ (aNHEJ), which joins ends but results in deletions and insertions. NHEJ requires processing enzymes including nucleases and polymerases, although the roles of these enzymes are poorly understood...
November 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161281/the-administration-of-hydrogen-sulphide-prior-to-ischemic-reperfusion-has-neuroprotective-effects-in-an-acute-stroke-model
#2
Chul-Woong Woo, Jae-Im Kwon, Kyung-Won Kim, Jeong-Kon Kim, Sang-Beom Jeon, Seung-Chae Jung, Choong-Gon Choi, Sang-Tae Kim, Jinil Kim, Su Jeong Ham, Woo-Hyun Shim, Yu Sub Sung, Hyun Kwon Ha, Yoonseok Choi, Dong-Cheol Woo
Emerging evidence has suggested that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may alleviate the cellular damage associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, we assessed using 1H-magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRI/MRS) and histologic analysis whether H2S administration prior to reperfusion has neuroprotective effects. We also evaluated for differences in the effects of H2S treatment at 2 time points. 1H-MRI/MRS data were obtained at baseline, and at 3, 9, and 24 h after ischemia from 4 groups: sham, control (I/R injury), sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS)-30 and NaHS-1 (NaHS delivery at 30 and 1 min before reperfusion, respectively)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161173/a-relational-ethics-framework-for-advancing-practice-with-children-with-complex-health-care-needs-and-their-parents
#3
Franco A Carnevale, Gail Teachman, Aline Bogossian
Children with complex health care needs are an emerging population that commonly requires long-term supportive services. A growing body of evidence has highlighted that these children and their families experience significant challenges. Many of these challenges involve ethical concerns that have been under-recognized. In this article, we (a) outline ethical concerns that arise in clinical practice with children with complex health care needs and their families (e.g.: exclusion of children's voices in discussions and decisions that affect them; difficulties in defining their best interests; clashes across the array of social roles that parents manage; limited recognition of the ethical significance of parents' and other family members' interests) and (b) propose a relational ethics framework for addressing these concerns...
November 21, 2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161084/mitochondrial-dysfunction-linking-obesity-and-asthma
#4
Naveen K Bhatraju, Anurag Agrawal
The bidirectional epidemiological association between asthma and obesity is well known. Recent evidence suggests that there is an intersection of the pathophysiological molecular pathways leading to either obesity or asthma, at the level of mitochondria. This is not surprising, because mitochondria, beyond their roles as the metabolic powerhouses of the cell, serve as sensors of threats, regulators of stress signaling, and effectors of cytotoxicity. Reduced mitochondrial function and low metabolic activity are well-recognized features of obesity...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161048/local-chemical-ordering-and-negative-thermal-expansion-in-ptni-alloy-nanoparticles
#5
Qiang Li, He Zhu, Li Rong Zheng, Longlong Fan, Na Wang, Yangchun Rong, Yang Ren, Jun Chen, Jinxia Deng, Xianran Xing
An atomic insight into the local chemical ordering and lattice strain is particular interesting to recent emerging bimetallic nanocatalysts such as PtNi alloys. Here, we reported the atomic distribution, chemical environment and lattice thermal evolution in full-scale structural description of PtNi alloy nanoparticles (NPs). The different segregation of elements in the well-faceted PtNi nanoparticles is convinced by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Atomic pair distribution function (PDF) study evidences the co-existence of the face-centered cubic and tetragonal ordering parts in the local environment of PtNi nanoparticles...
November 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160187/the-role-of-community-structure-in-shaping-african-fertility-pattern-evidence-from-demographic-and-health-surveys
#6
Clifford Odimegwu, Sunday A Adedini
Anthropological explanations of demographic outcomes have emphasized the need to understand how community structures contribute to those outcomes. However, studies on fertility dynamics in Africa have largely focused on micro-level factors, thus ignoring the influence of community contexts. Using the most recent Demographic and Health Survey data from Egypt (Northern Africa), Cameroon (Middle Africa), Kenya (Eastern Africa), Nigeria (Western Africa) and Zimbabwe (Southern Africa), the study employed multilevel Poisson regression models to examine the influence of community factors on African fertility levels and patterns...
November 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160072/solvent-controlled-branching-of-localized-versus-delocalized-singlet-exciton-states-and-equilibration-with-charge-transfer-in-a-structurally-well-defined-tetracene-dimer
#7
Jasper D Cook, Thomas J Carey, Dylan H Arias, Justin C Johnson, Niels H Damrauer
A detailed photophysical picture is elaborated for a structurally well-defined and symmetrical bis-tetracene dimer in solution. The molecule was designed for interrogation of the initial photophysical steps (S1 → (1)TT) in intramolecular singlet fission (SF). (Triisopropylsilyl)acetylene substituents on the dimer TIPS-BT1 as well as a monomer model TIPS-Tc enable a comparison of photophysical properties, including transient absorption dynamics, as solvent polarity is varied. In nonpolar toluene solutions, TIPS-BT1 decays via radiative and nonradiative pathways to the ground state with no evidence for dynamics related to the initial stages of SF...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159971/vocabulary-intervention-for-adolescents-with-language-disorder-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Hilary Lowe, Lucy Henry, Lisa-Maria Müller, Victoria L Joffe
BACKGROUND: Language disorder and associated vocabulary difficulties can persist into adolescence, and can impact on long-term life outcomes. Previous reviews have shown that a variety of intervention techniques can successfully enhance students' vocabulary skills; however, none has investigated vocabulary intervention specifically for adolescents with language disorder. AIMS: To carry out a systematic review of the literature on vocabulary interventions for adolescents with language disorder...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159904/growing-into-teen-fatherhood-a-grounded-theory-study
#9
C Uengwongsapat, K Kantaruksa, A Klunklin, N Sansiriphun
BACKGROUND: Becoming an adolescent father is a significant and critical life event. Expectant fathers are faced with a concurrent dual developmental crisis: being an adolescent and becoming a father. This transition has a tremendous impact on these adolescents, their families and society. The impact on these individuals and society does not, at this point, seem to be clearly understood. PURPOSE: To explore the process of Thai adolescents becoming first-time fathers with an unplanned pregnancy during their girlfriend's pregnancy...
November 21, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159430/radiation-therapy-induced-metastasis-radiobiology-and-clinical-implications
#10
Benjamin J Blyth, Aidan J Cole, Michael P MacManus, Olga A Martin
Radiation therapy is an effective means of achieving local control in a wide range of primary tumours, with the reduction in the size of the tumour(s) thought to mediate the observed reductions in metastatic spread in clinical trials. However, there is evidence to suggest that the complex changes induced by radiation in the tumour environment can also present metastatic risks that may counteract the long-term efficacy of the treatment. More than 25 years ago, several largely theoretical mechanisms by which radiation exposure might increase metastatic risk were postulated...
November 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158787/high-expression-of-fam83b-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-and-correlates-with-cell-cycle-and-cell-proliferation
#11
Chao-Qin Shen, Ting-Ting Yan, Wei Liu, Xiao-Qiang Zhu, Xiang-Long Tian, Xue-Liang Fu, Rong Hua, Jun-Feng Zhang, Yan-Miao Huo, De-Jun Liu, Jian-Yu Yang, Yong-Wei Sun, Jing-Yuan Fang, Hao-Yan Chen, Jie Hong
FAM83B (family with sequence similarity 83, member B) seems to emerge as a new class of players involved in the development of a variety of malignant tumors. Yet the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The present study is intended to investigate the expression and function of FAM83B in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In this study, we found that the expression of FAM83B was significantly increased both in PDAC cell lines and PDAC tumor tissues. FAM83B expression was positively related with advanced clinical stage and poor vital status...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158609/three-way-interaction-of-neuroticism-extraversion-and-conscientiousness-in-the-internalizing-disorders-evidence-of-disorder-specificity-in-a-psychiatric-sample
#12
Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Leonard J Simms
It is well-established that neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness are individually associated with internalizing disorders, but research suggests that these main effects may be qualified by a three-way interaction when predicting depression. The current study was the first to examine this three-way interaction in a psychiatric sample (N=463) with a range of internalizing symptoms as the outcomes. Using two omnibus personality inventories and a diagnostic interview, the expected three-way interaction emerged most consistently for symptoms of major depression, and there was also evidence of synergistic effects for post-traumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorder...
October 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158580/ck2-regulates-5-ht4-receptor-signaling-and-modulates-depressive-like-behavior
#13
J Castello, B LeFrancois, M Flajolet, P Greengard, E Friedman, H Rebholz
The serotonergic neurotransmitter system has been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of mood-related disorders such as anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD). The onset of therapeutic efficacy of traditional antidepressants is delayed by several weeks. The 5-HT4 receptor has emerged as a new therapeutic target since agonists of this receptor induce rapid antidepressant-like responses in rodents. Here we show that the 5-HT4 receptor is regulated by CK2, at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158323/fgf8-morphogen-gradients-are-differentially-regulated-by-heparan-sulphotransferases-hs2st-and-hs6st1-in-the-developing-brain
#14
Wai-Kit Chan, David J Price, Thomas Pratt
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) morphogen signalling through the evolutionarily ancient Extracellular signaling Regulated Kinase/Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathway recurs in many neural and non-neural developmental contexts and understanding the mechanisms that regulate FGF/ERK function are correspondingly important. The glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate (HS) binds to FGFs and exists in an enormous number of differentially sulphated forms produced by the action of HS modifying enzymes so has the potential to present an extremely large amount of information in FGF/ERK signalling...
November 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158278/characterization-of-plasmodium-atg3-atg8-interaction-inhibitors-identifies-novel-alternative-mechanisms-of-action-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#15
Joseph M Varberg, Kaice A LaFavers, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, William J Sullivan
Protozoan parasites, including the apicomplexan pathogens Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis) infect millions of people world-wide and represent a major human disease burden. Despite their prevalence, therapeutic strategies to treat these infections remain limited and are threatened by the emergence of drug resistance, highlighting the need for the identification of novel drug targets. Recently, homologues of the core autophagy proteins, including Atg8 and Atg3, were identified in many protozoan parasites...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158243/point-of-care-lactate-testing-for-sepsis-at-presentation-to-health-care-a-systematic-review-of-patient-outcomes
#16
Elizabeth Morris, David McCartney, Daniel Lasserson, Ann Van den Bruel, Rebecca Fisher, Gail Hayward
BACKGROUND: Lactate is measured in hospital settings to identify patients with sepsis and severe infections, and to guide initiation of early treatment. Point-of-care technology could facilitate measurement of lactate by clinicians in the community. However, there has been little research into its utility in these environments. AIM: To investigate the effect of using point-of-care lactate at presentation to health care on mortality and other clinical outcomes, in patients presenting with acute infections...
November 20, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157677/dna-methylation-affects-the-lifespan-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-l-workers-evidence-for-a-regulatory-module-that-involves-vitellogenin-expression-but-is-independent-of-juvenile-hormone-function
#17
Carlos A M Cardoso-Júnior, Karina R Guidugli-Lazzarini, Klaus Hartfelder
The canonic regulatory module for lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers involves a mutual repressor relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and vitellogenin (Vg). Compared to vertebrates, however, little is known about a possible role of epigenetic factors. The full genomic repertoire of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) makes the honey bee an attractive emergent model for studying the role of epigenetics in the aging process of invertebrates, and especially so in social insects. We first quantified the transcript levels of the four DNMTs encoding genes in the head thorax and abdomens of workers of different age, showing that dnmt1a and dnmt3 expression is up-regulated in abdomens of old workers, whereas dnmt1b and dnmt2 are down-regulated in heads of old workers...
November 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157641/a-process-oriented-model-linking-adolescents-sleep-hygiene-and-psychological-functioning-the-moderating-role-of-school-start-times
#18
Jack S Peltz, Ronald D Rogge, Heidi Connolly, Thomas G O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: To examine a mediational model linking sleep hygiene to better mental health in adolescents via the mechanism of improved sleep quality, and to test the moderating role of school start times (SST) (before 8:30 AM vs. 8:30 AM or later) on that mediation model. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Online survey for high school students across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 197 adolescents aged 14-17 years old (Mage = 15...
December 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157322/developmental-relations-between-amygdala-volume-and-anxiety-traits-effects-of-informant-sex-and-age
#19
Katherine Rice Warnell, Meredith Pecukonis, Elizabeth Redcay
Although substantial human and animal evidence suggests a role for the amygdala in anxiety, literature linking amygdala volume to anxiety symptomatology is inconclusive, with studies finding positive, negative, and null results. Clarifying this brain-behavior relation in middle to late childhood is especially important, as this is a time both of amygdala structural maturation and the emergence of many anxiety disorders. The goal of the current study was to clarify inconsistent findings in previous literature by identifying factors moderating the relation between amygdala volume and anxiety traits in a large sample of typically developing children aged 6-13 years (N = 72)...
November 21, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157285/map-of-biomedical-research-in-cameroon-a-documentary-review-of-approved-protocols-from-1997-to-2012
#20
Ebile Akoh Walter, Ateudjieu Jerome, Djuidje Ngounoue Marceline, Martin Ndinakie Yakum, Watcho Pierre
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in biomedical research in Cameroon. However, the question of whether these research projects target major health priorities, vulnerable populations and geographic locations at risk remains to be answered. The aim of this paper is to describe the state of biomedical research in Cameroon which is a key determinant that would guide future health care policies and promote equitable access to healthcare. METHODS: A documentary review of all approved protocols (proposals) of biomedical research projects, from 1997 through 2012, at the Cameroon National Ethics Committee...
November 21, 2017: Globalization and Health
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