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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345524/recovery-and-performance-in-sport-consensus-statement
#1
Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter, Jürgen Beckmann
The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sports science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, non-functional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331586/positive-effects-of-total-recovery-period-on-anti-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-are-not-linked-to-performance-re-establishment-in-overtrained-mice
#2
Alisson L da Rocha, Ana P Pinto, Bruno C Pereira, Eike B Kohama, Gustavo P Morais, Larissa G de Vicente, José R Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, Leandro P de Moura, Hugo T Filho, Adelino S R da Silva
The association between excessive training sessions (i.e., overtraining/OT) and periods of inadequate recovery is linked to the nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) state, which is defined as an unexplained decrement or stagnation of performance. The cytokine hypothesis of OT considers that pro-inflammatory cytokines are responsible by the NFOR state-induced performance decrement. Investigations using rodent models of OT verified increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in hypothalamus, liver, serum and skeletal muscle samples...
January 10, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298727/mandatory-vaccination-understanding-the-common-good-in-the-midst-of-the-global-polio-eradication-campaign
#3
Lawrence O Gostin
BACKGROUND: The detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to vaccinate children with OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine). Shelly Kamin-Friedman explored the legal and ethical dimensions of this policy. This commentary makes three claims: (1) Mandatory vaccination is a valid exercise of the state's police powers to protect the common good. (2) A disease eradication campaign is a sufficient ground for the exercise of those powers. (3) The state is obliged to use the least restrictive/invasive measure to achieve community-wide vaccine coverage, but need not use less effective measures; further, determining which measure is most effective is a fact-specific determination...
January 3, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163473/treadmill-slope-modulates-inflammation-fiber-type-composition-androgen-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-overtrained-mice
#4
Alisson L da Rocha, Bruno C Pereira, Giovana R Teixeira, Ana P Pinto, Fabiani G Frantz, Lucila L K Elias, Fábio S Lira, José R Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, Leandro P de Moura, Rania A Mekary, Ellen C de Freitas, Adelino S R da Silva
Overtraining (OT) may be defined as an imbalance between excessive training and adequate recovery period. Recently, a downhill running-based overtraining (OTR/down) protocol induced the nonfunctional overreaching state, which is defined as a performance decrement that may be associated with psychological and hormonal disruptions and promoted intramuscular and systemic inflammation. To discriminate the eccentric contraction effects on interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, and SOCS-3, we compared the release of these cytokines in OTR/down with other two OT protocols with the same external load (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035592/returners-exhibit-greater-jumping-performance-improvements-during-a-peaking-phase-compared-to-new-players-on-a-volleyball-team
#5
Caleb D Bazyler, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Ashley A Kavanaugh, John J McMahon, Paul Comfort, Michael H Stone
PURPOSE: To determine if jumping performance changes during a peaking phase differed between returners and new players in a female collegiate volleyball team and to determine which variables best explained the variation in performance changes. METHODS: Fourteen volleyball players were divided into two groups: returners (n=7) and new players (n=7) who completed a 5-week peaking phase prior to conference championships. Players were tested at baseline prior to the pre-season on measures of vastus lateralis cross-sectional area using ultrasonography, estimated back squat one repetition maximum (1-RM), and countermovement jump height (JH) and relative peak power (PPa) on a force platform...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035591/effect-of-intensified-endurance-training-on-pacing-and-performance-in-4000m-cycling-time-trials
#6
Alice M Wallett, Amy L Woods, Nathan G Versey, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Kevin G Thompson
Studies examining pacing strategies during 4000m cycling time-trials (TTs) typically ensure participants are not pre-fatigued, however competitive cyclists often undertake TTs when already pre-fatigued. This study aimed to determine how TT pacing strategies and sprint characteristics of cyclists change during an intensified training period (mesocycle). Thirteen cyclists, regularly competing in A and B grade cycling races and consistently training (>10 h·wk-1 for 4±1 years), completed a six-week training mesocycle...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989528/outbreak-column-20-are-outbreaks-man-made-disasters-that-display-intertwined-errors-of-human-judgement-and-behaviour
#7
Evonne T Curran
Man-made disasters are reported to have five intertwined errors of human judgement and behaviour. As outbreaks are essentially man-made disasters, the cited intertwined errors of engineering overreach, smooth sailing fallacy, insider view, risk-seeking incentives and social-herding were looked for in five notable outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infection. Engineering overreach was found to be the most identifiable error. The purpose of this reflective exercise was to turn hindsight into foresight and determine the intertwined levels of safety behaviour needed to prevent any future pathogen emerging to produce healthcare disasters...
July 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952829/mental-fatigue-and-physical-and-cognitive-performance-during-a-two-bout-exercise-test
#8
Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Cloe Vandervaeren, Luk Buyse, Jeroen van Cutsem, Nathalie Pattyn, Bart Roelands
PURPOSE: The two bout exercise protocol has been developed to diagnose non-functional overreaching (NFO) and the 'Overtraining Syndrome' (OTS). It consists of two maximal exercise bouts separated by 4 hours. Mental fatigue negatively influences performance but the effects of its occurrence during the two bout exercise protocol have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether mental fatigue (induced during the rest period) influences physical and cognitive performance during/after the second exercise bout of the two bout exercise protocol...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936887/interpretation-of-correlations-in-clinical-research
#9
Man Hung, Jerry Bounsanga, Maren Wright Voss
BACKGROUND: Critically analyzing research is a key skill in evidence-based practice and requires knowledge of research methods, results interpretation, and applications, all of which rely on a foundation based in statistics. Evidence-based practice makes high demands on trained medical professionals to interpret an ever-expanding array of research evidence. OBJECTIVE: As clinical training emphasizes medical care rather than statistics, it is useful to review the basics of statistical methods and what they mean for interpreting clinical studies...
September 27, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915865/informed-consent-and-registry-based-research-the-case-of-the-danish-circumcision-registry
#10
Thomas Ploug, Søren Holm
BACKGROUND: Research into personal health data holds great potential not only for improved treatment but also for economic growth. In these years many countries are developing policies aimed at facilitating such research often under the banner of 'big data'. A central point of debate is whether the secondary use of health data requires informed consent if the data is anonymised. In 2013 the Danish Minister of Health established a new register collecting data about all ritual male childhood circumcisions in Denmark...
September 15, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912725/enhanced-strength-and-sprint-levels-and-changes-in-blood-parameters-during-a-complete-athletics-season-in-800-m-high-level-athletes
#11
Beatriz Bachero-Mena, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Juan J González-Badillo
The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in sprint, strength, hematological, and hormonal parameters in high-level 800 m athletes during a complete athletics season. Thirteen male athletes of national and international level in 800 m (personal best ranging from 1:43 to 1:58 min:ss) participated in this study. A total of 5 tests were conducted during a complete athletics season. Athletes performed sprint tests (20 and 200 m), countermovement jump (CMJ), jump squat (JS), and full squat (SQ) tests. Blood samples (red and white blood profile) and hormones were collected in test 1 (T1), test 3 (T3), and test 5 (T5)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872374/changes-in-choice-reaction-time-during-and-after-8-days-exhaustive-cycling-are-not-related-to-changes-in-physical-performance
#12
Twan Ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Danilo Iannetta, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Maria F Piacentini, Carl Foster, Leo Koenderman, Hein A M Daanen, Jos J de Koning
PURPOSE: Reaction time has been proposed as a training monitoring tool, but to date results are equivocal. Therefore, it was investigated whether reaction time can be used as a monitoring tool to establish overreaching. METHODS: The study included 30 subjects (11 female/19 male, age: 40.8±10.8 y, VO2max: 51.8±6.3 ml/kg/min) who participated in an 8-day cycling event. The external exercise load increased approximately 900% compared to the preparation period. Performance was measured before and after the event using a maximal incremental cycling test...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756009/flaws-in-the-lnt-single-hit-model-for-cancer-risk-an-historical-assessment
#13
REVIEW
Edward J Calabrese
The LNT single-hit model was derived from the Nobel Prize-winning research of Herman J. Muller who showed that x-rays could induce gene mutations in Drosophila and that the dose response for these so-called mutational events was linear. Lewis J. Stadler, another well-known and respected geneticist at the time, strongly disagreed with and challenged Muller's claims. Detailed evaluations by Stadler over a prolonged series of investigations revealed that Muller's experiments had induced gross heritable chromosomal damage instead of specific gene mutations as had been claimed by Muller at his Nobel Lecture...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704885/submaximal-markers-of-fatigue-and-overreaching-implications-for-monitoring-athletes
#14
André Siegl, Elisa M Kösel, Nicholas Tam, Susanne Koschnick, Nelleke G Langerak, Sabrina Skorski, Tim Meyer, Robert P Lamberts
The regular monitoring of athletes is important to fine-tune training and detect early symptoms of overreaching. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine if a noninvasive submaximal running test could reflect a state of overreaching. 14 trained runners completed a noninvasive Lamberts Submaximal Running Test, one week before and 2 days after finishing an ultramarathon, and delayed onset of muscle soreness and the daily analysis of life demands for athletes questionnaire were also captured. After the ultramarathon, submaximal heart rate was lower at 70% (-3 beats) and 85% of peak treadmill running speed (P<0...
September 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662152/does-external-pneumatic-compression-treatment-between-bouts-of-overreaching-resistance-training-sessions-exert-differential-effects-on-molecular-signaling-and-performance-related-variables-compared-to-passive-recovery-an-exploratory-study
#15
Cody T Haun, Michael D Roberts, Matthew A Romero, Shelby C Osburn, Christopher B Mobley, Richard G Anderson, Michael D Goodlett, David D Pascoe, Jeffrey S Martin
PURPOSE: We sought to compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC) and sham when used concurrently with resistance training on performance-related outcomes and molecular measures related to recovery. METHODS: Twenty (N = 20) resistance-trained male participants (aged 21.6±2.4 years) were randomized to balanced sham or EPC intervention groups. The protocol consisted of 3 consecutive days of heavy, voluminous back squat exercise followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days2-4) and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days5-7) with EPC/sham only on Days5-6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639438/body-composition-analysis-to-study-long-term-training-effects-in-elite-male-water-polo-athletes
#16
Giovanni Melchiorri, Valerio Viero, Roberto Sorge, Tamara Triossi, Alessandro Campagna, Stella L Volpe, Dalgisio Lecis, Virginia Tancredi, Angela Andreoli
BACKGROUND: Elite water polo athletes undergo heavy training programs throughout the year, but especially to prepare major competitions, such as the Olympics. Optimal athletic performance is a result of many factors, including proper management of the intensity and volume of training, nutrition and recovery between training sessions. When training is excessive in relation to recovery may occur non functional overreaching (NFO). NFO can degenerate into overtraining syndrome (OTS) resulting in a decrease in athletic performance, with likely changes in body weight and body composition...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607514/evolution-of-lymphoma-staging-and-response-evaluation-current-limitations-and-future-directions
#17
Joel Cunningham, Sunil Iyengar, Bhupinder Sharma
The accurate detection and precise assessment of therapeutic responses is critical to the optimal management of patients with lymphoma. Over the past 50 years, dramatic advances in technology have established imaging as the cornerstone of disease evaluation. However, the appropriate application of current techniques requires acknowledgement of their strengths and weaknesses, and appreciation of the full diversity of lymphoid neoplasms. The role of anatomical and functional imaging in detection, treatment escalation/de-escalation and prognostication of patients with lymphoma can be misinterpreted...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597618/effects-of-resistance-training-overtraining-and-early-specialization-on-youth-athletes
#18
Benjamin K Walters, Connor R Read, A Reed Estes
INTRODUCTION: In 2014, 60 million youth ages 6-18 participated in some form of generalized athletics. 3.5 million children are injured annually participating in organized sport or recreational activities. While sound physical education can decrease the burden of youth sports injuries, the median annual physical education budget of $764 for United States elementary, middle and high schools may not allow enough flexibility to apply evidenced-based guidelines. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The topics were selected after a careful review of the 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528420/soil-or-dust-for-health-risk-assessment-studies-in-urban-environment
#19
M Gabarrón, A Faz, J A Acosta
To identify the best material (soil or dust) to be selected for health-risk assessment studies, road dust and urban soil from three cities with different population densities were collected, and size fractions were analysed for metal content (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, and Ni). Results showed similar distribution of the size particles among cities, predominating fractions between 75 and 2000 μm in road dust and particles below 75 μm in soil. Metals were mainly bound to PM10 in both soil and road dust increasing the risk of adverse health effects, overall through inhalation exposure...
October 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499117/conclusion-overreach-in-alcohol-and-pregnancy-article-the-authors-reply
#20
Omayma Alshaarawy, James C Anthony
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
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