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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905286/netosis-alternative-defense-method-used-by-neutrophils-to-fight-pathogen
#1
Kader Yıldız
Neutrophils form the first line of defense of the innate immune system in organisms. They use three fighting methods to combat pathogens: phagocytosis, degranulation, and netosis. In this review, we aim to provide information about netosis.
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895639/netosis-as-source-of-autoantigens-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
REVIEW
Elisa Corsiero, Federico Pratesi, Edoardo Prediletto, Michele Bombardieri, Paola Migliorini
In neutrophils (but also in eosinophils and in mast cells), different inflammatory stimuli induce histone deimination, chromatin decondensation, and NET formation. These web-like structures that trap and kill microbes contain DNA, cationic granule proteins, and antimicrobial peptides, but the most abundant proteins are core histones. Histones contained in NETs have been deiminated, and arginines are converted in citrullines. While deimination is a physiological process amplified in inflammatory conditions, only individuals carrying genetic predisposition to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) make antibodies to deiminated proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895638/intercellular-interactions-as-regulators-of-netosis
#3
REVIEW
Nayef M Kazzaz, Gautam Sule, Jason S Knight
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are chromatin-derived webs extruded from neutrophils in response to either infection or sterile stimulation with chemicals, cytokines, or microbial products. The vast majority of studies have characterized NET release (also called NETosis) in pure neutrophil cultures in vitro. The situation is surely more complex in vivo as neutrophils constantly sample not only pathogens and soluble mediators but also signals from cellular partners, including platelets and endothelial cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885378/netosis-provides-the-link-between-activation-of-neutrophils-on-hemodialysis-membrane-and-comorbidities-in-dialyzed-patients
#4
REVIEW
Marie Korabecna, Vladimir Tesar
INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are formed by activated neutrophils during the process of NETosis in which the nuclear material is released into extracellular space, including DNA molecules, citrullinated histones, and neutrophil granule enzymes, such as elastase. This material forms networks that are able not only to physically entrap bacteria but also to provide elevated concentration of bactericidal components. Over the last years, it has become clear that NETs can also be formed under numerous sterile inflammatory conditions, i...
November 24, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867387/neutrophils-discriminate-between-lipopolysaccharides-of-different-bacterial-sources-and-selectively-release-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#5
Elmar Pieterse, Nils Rother, Cansu Yanginlar, Luuk B Hilbrands, Johan van der Vlag
The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), either during "suicidal" or "vital" NETosis, represents an important strategy of neutrophils to combat Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a reported stimulus for NET formation. Although it is widely acknowledged that the structural diversity in LPS structures can elicit heterogeneous immune responses, species- and serotype-specific differences in the capacity of LPS to trigger NET formation have not yet been investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867381/a-critical-reappraisal-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-netosis-mimics-based-on-differential-requirements-for-protein-citrullination
#6
Maximilian F Konig, Felipe Andrade
NETosis, an antimicrobial form of neutrophil cell death, is considered a primary source of citrullinated autoantigens in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and immunogenic DNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Activation of the citrullinating enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4) is believed to be essential for neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and NETosis. PAD4 is therefore viewed as a promising therapeutic target to inhibit the formation of NETs in both diseases. In this review, we examine the evidence for PAD4 activation during NETosis and provide experimental data to suggest that protein citrullination is not a universal feature of NETs...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853847/macrophage-derived-il-1%C3%AE-enhances-monosodium-urate-crystal-triggered-net-formation
#7
Payel Sil, Haley Wicklum, Chandler Surell, Balázs Rada
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Arthritic gout is caused by joint inflammation triggered by the damaging effects of monosodium uric acid (MSU) crystal accumulation in the synovial space. Neutrophils play a major role in mediating joint inflammation in gout. Along with neutrophils, other immune cells, such as macrophages, are present in inflamed joints and contribute to gout pathogenesis. Neutrophils form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to MSU crystals. In the presence of MSU crystals, macrophages release IL-1β, a cytokine crucial to initiate gout pathogenesis and neutrophil recruitment...
November 16, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852744/integrin-cross-talk-regulates-the-human-neutrophil-response-to-fungal-%C3%AE-glucan-in-the-context-of-the-extracellular-matrix-a-prominent-role-for-vla3-in-the-antifungal-response
#8
Courtney M Johnson, Xian M O'Brien, Angel S Byrd, Valentina E Parisi, Alex J Loosely, Wei Li, Hadley Witt, Hafeez M Faridi, Craig T Lefort, Vineet Gupta, Minsoo Kim, Jonathan S Reichner
Candida albicans infection produces elongated hyphae resistant to phagocytic clearance compelling alternative neutrophil effector mechanisms to destroy these physically large microbial structures. Additionally, all tissue-based neutrophilic responses to fungal infections necessitate contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Neutrophils undergo a rapid, ECM-dependent mechanism of homotypic aggregation and NETosis in response to C. albicans mediated by the β2 integrin, complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18, αMβ2)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834173/effects-of-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-leukotoxin-on-neutrophil-migration-and-extracellular-trap-formation
#9
Josefine Hirschfeld, Helen M Roberts, Iain L C Chapple, Marijo Parčina, Søren Jepsen, Anders Johansson, Rolf Claesson
BACKGROUND: Aggressive periodontitis is associated with the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a leukotoxin (Ltx)-producing periodontal pathogen. Ltx has the ability to lyse white blood cells including neutrophils. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at investigating the interactions between neutrophils and Ltx with regard to the chemotactic properties of Ltx and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). METHODS: Neutrophils from healthy blood donors were isolated and incubated for 30 min and 3 h with increasing concentrations of Ltx (1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) as well as with A...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826099/post-translational-modified-proteins-are-biomarkers-of-autoimmune-processes-netosis-and-the-inflammatory-autoimmunity-connection
#10
REVIEW
Maurizio Bruschi, Andrea Petretto, Roberta Bertelli, Maricla Galetti, Alice Bonanni, Federico Pratesi, Paola Migliorini, Giovanni Candiano, Augusto Vaglio, Gian Marco Ghiggeri
Basic research is showing new mechanisms involved in early immune responses and Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) formation (or NETosis) is of key importance as first line defense against bacteria, virus and protozoa. Enzymatic modification of arginine in citrulline in histones is the prerequisite of NETosis being it necessary for decondensation and extrusion of DNA from cells; it is conceivable that other post translational modifications may occur during this event. There is consensus in considering that post translational modified proteins may elicit an autoimmune response that leads to the formation of autoantibodies...
November 5, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820735/consequences-of-extracellular-trap-formation-in-sepsis
#11
Xian M O'Brien, Bethany M Biron, Jonathan S Reichner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on in-vivo findings derived from animal models of sepsis regarding the trapping role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which is difficult to assess ex vivo. The NETotic response of neutrophils at sites of sterile injury or autoimmune disease is destructive as no antimicrobial advantage to the host is realized and dampening NETosis is largely beneficial. In early stages of local infection or in sepsis, the trapping function of NETs may help abscess formation and limit microbial dissemination...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811985/elevated-homocysteine-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-induce-constitutive-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#12
Manjunath B Joshi, Guruprasad Baipadithaya, Aswath Balakrishnan, Mangala Hegde, Manik Vohra, Rayees Ahamed, Shivashankara K Nagri, Lingadakai Ramachandra, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
Constitutively active neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and elevated plasma homocysteine are independent risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) associated vascular diseases. Here, we show robust NETosis due to elevated plasma homocysteine levels in T2D subjects and increased components of NETs such as neutrophil elastase and cell free DNA. Cooperative NETs formation was observed in neutrophils exposed to homocysteine, IL-6 and high glucose suggesting acute temporal changes tightly regulate constitutive NETosis...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801512/induction-and-quantification-of-netosis
#13
Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Mariana J Kaplan
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) are web-like structures composed of nuclear material and neutrophil granular proteins that are released to the extracellular space after specific microbial or sterile inflammatory stimuli. NETosis is a specific type of cell death that ensues when neutrophils extrude NETs. It is important to develop validated standards to induce and quantify NETs in order to accurately compare results between laboratories and advance the understanding of this biological process and its implications in health and disease...
November 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768123/milk-fat-globule-egf-factor-8-suppresses-the-aberrant-immune-response-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-derived-neutrophils-and-associated-tissue-damage
#14
Wei Huang, Jiyuan Wu, Huiqin Yang, Yin Xiong, Rui Jiang, Tianpen Cui, Duyun Ye
Abnormal features of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-derived neutrophils, promoted aberrant immune response, have inspired new studies of the induction of autoimmunity and the development of organ damage in SLE. In this study, we explore the effect of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) on the aberrant nitrification features in pristane-induced lupus. SLE patients and mice with pristane-induced lupus develop autoantibodies associated with MFG-E8 overproduction. However, the deletion of MFG-E8 leads to uncontrolled early pulmonary and peritoneal inflammation and tissue damage in mice with pristane-induced lupus...
October 21, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755122/disentangling-the-role-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-rheumatic-diseases
#15
Yaíma L Lightfoot, Mariana J Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A breakdown of immune tolerance to self-antigens in a genetically predisposing background, precipitated by environmental triggers, contributes to the development of systemic autoimmune diseases. Renewed interest in the immunomodulatory capabilities of neutrophils in systemic autoimmunity has identified neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation as a distinguishing action of neutrophils in afflicted hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidation of nucleic acids and posttranslational modifications of proteins distinctly occur during NET formation and may promote enhanced immunogenicity...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752109/wolbachia-endosymbionts-induce-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-human-onchocerciasis
#16
Francesca Tamarozzi, Joseph D Turner, Nicolas Pionnier, Angela Midgley, Ana F Guimaraes, Kelly L Johnston, Steven W Edwards, Mark J Taylor
The endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia, induce neutrophilic responses to the human helminth pathogen Onchocerca volvulus. The formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs), has been implicated in anti-microbial defence, but has not been identified in human helminth infection. Here, we demonstrate NETs formation in human onchocerciasis. Extracellular NETs and neutrophils were visualised around O. volvulus in nodules excised from untreated patients but not in nodules from patients treated with the anti-Wolbachia drug, doxycycline...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749837/atac-see-reveals-the-accessible-genome-by-transposase-mediated-imaging-and-sequencing
#17
Xingqi Chen, Ying Shen, Will Draper, Jason D Buenrostro, Ulrike Litzenburger, Seung Woo Cho, Ansuman T Satpathy, Ava C Carter, Rajarshi P Ghosh, Alexandra East-Seletsky, Jennifer A Doudna, William J Greenleaf, Jan T Liphardt, Howard Y Chang
Spatial organization of the genome plays a central role in gene expression, DNA replication, and repair. But current epigenomic approaches largely map DNA regulatory elements outside of the native context of the nucleus. Here we report assay of transposase-accessible chromatin with visualization (ATAC-see), a transposase-mediated imaging technology that employs direct imaging of the accessible genome in situ, cell sorting, and deep sequencing to reveal the identity of the imaged elements. ATAC-see revealed the cell-type-specific spatial organization of the accessible genome and the coordinated process of neutrophil chromatin extrusion, termed NETosis...
October 17, 2016: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748260/the-distinctive-histopathology-of-hydralazine-associated-anca-positive-vasculitis-in-vivo-demonstration-of-netosis
#18
Cynthia M Magro, Shabnam Momtahen, Joanna Harp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730712/stimulus-dependent-netosis-by-neutrophils-from-a-papillon-lef%C3%A3-vre-syndrome-patient
#19
M Batinica, A Stephan, J Steiger, I Tantcheva-Poόr, S A Eming, M Fabri
Neutrophils eject neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), complexes of DNA and proteins [1]. As NETs contain antimicrobial proteins, they have been implicated in host defence [1, 2]. Moreover, NETs trigger inflammation [2, 3]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent (e.g. by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)) and ROS-independent (e.g. by calcium ionophore (CaI)) inducers of NETosis have been described [2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 12, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723901/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-health-and-disease
#20
Paul Hasler, Stavros Giaglis, Sinuhe Hahn
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes are the first responders of the immune system to threats by invading microorganisms. In the traditional view, they combat the intruders by phagocytosis and externalisation of granules containing lytic and microbicidal factors. A dozen years ago, this concept was expanded by the observation that neutrophils may react to bacteria by extruding their nuclear chromosomal DNA with attached nuclear and cytoplasmic constituents to form extracellular reticular structures. Since they trapped and immobilised the microbes, they were designated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and their ensuing cell death NETosis...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
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