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O V Ketsa, M M Marchenko
The effect of diet fat compositions with various ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in blood serum of 45 white mongrel rats weighing 90-110 g (9 animals in group) has been investigated. Fat components in the semi-synthetic diet, compiled on the basis of AIN-93 diet, and sources of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were presented by sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil. It has been shown that four-week inclusion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) in a ratio of 7:1 into the diet (soybean oil) as well as use of only omega-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) has lead to an increase in the activity of ALT and GGT in rat blood serum compared to control animals treated with the complex of linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid through the mixture of sunflower oil and fish oil (9:1) with the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA 7:1...
2014: Voprosy Pitaniia
Kenneth W Ellens, Lynn G L Richardson, Océane Frelin, Joseph Collins, Cintia Leite Ribeiro, Yih-Feng Hsieh, Robert T Mullen, Andrew D Hanson
S-Adenosylmethionine is converted enzymatically and non-enzymatically to methylthioadenosine, which is recycled to methionine (Met) via a salvage pathway. In plants and bacteria, enzymes for all steps in this pathway are known except the last: transamination of α-ketomethylthiobutyrate to give Met. In mammals, glutamine transaminase K (GTK) and ω-amidase (ω-Am) are thought to act in tandem to execute this step, with GTK forming α-ketoglutaramate, which ω-Am hydrolyzes. Comparative genomics indicated that GTK and ω-Am could function likewise in plants and bacteria because genes encoding GTK and ω-Am homologs (i) co-express with the Met salvage gene 5-methylthioribose kinase in Arabidopsis, and (ii) cluster on the chromosome with each other and with Met salvage genes in diverse bacteria...
May 2015: Phytochemistry
Sheng Xia, Mutian Han, Xiaoping Li, Lu Cheng, Yetao Qiang, Shuiyun Wu, Miaomiao Zhang, Huaxi Xu, Xia Liu, Qixiang Shao
The development of hepatitis is associated with the infiltration and activation of immune cells in liver. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) rich fish oil (FO) is used to prevent and treat inflammatory diseases. But, the effects of dietary FO on autoimmune hepatitis remain largely unknown. In this study, Concanavalin A (Con A) induced hepatitis was used to evaluate the actions of dietary FO. Unexpectedly, 2-week FO treatment had not shown any protection, on the contrary, exacerbated liver injury in this hepatitis model...
April 2014: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Kh Iu Nedoshytko
The state of antioxidant system and fatty acid composition of lipids in the liver tissues of rats of different sex at the ethanol and tetracycline action and at the influence of biologically active additives (BAA) "Alpha + Omega" at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per os was investigated. It was found that the contet of lipid peroxidation products in the liver was increased at the action of 40% ethanol at a dose of 7 ml/kg b.w. per os and tetracycline--500 mg/kg and more profound at their joint using. However, the content of diene conjugates was stronger increased in the liver of females at the action of ethanol, while in the liver of males at the action of tetracycline (P < 0...
September 2013: Ukraïnsʹkyĭ Biokhimichnyĭ Z︠h︡urnal
David A Sheridan, Simon H Bridge, Mary M E Crossey, Daniel J Felmlee, Fiona I Fenwick, Howard C Thomas, R Dermot G Neely, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Margaret F Bassendine
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) utilises cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism for replication and infectivity. Statins and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to have antiviral properties in vitro. This open label pilot study evaluated the efficacy of fluvastatin (Lescol(®) 40-80 mg) and n-3 PUFA (Omacor(®) 1 g and 2-4 g) on HCV-RNA and lipoviral particles (LVP) in difficult to treat prior non-responders. METHODS: Patients (n = 60) were randomly allocated in a factorial design to: no active drug; low-dose n-3 PUFA; high-dose n-3 PUFA; fluvastatin; low-dose n-3 PUFA + fluvastatin; or high-dose n-3 PUFA + fluvastatin...
May 2014: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Belinda Gray, Beverly Sara Muhlhausler, Peter Stephen Wynford Davies, Luis Vitetta
Although obesity is a key predisposing risk factor in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, not all obese individuals develop IR. This study aimed to identify key anthropometric and biochemical parameters that predict insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. Based on previous literature, we hypothesized that markers of insulin sensitivity would be negatively correlated with plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and liver enzymes. Forty nondiabetic adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25...
October 2013: Nutrition Research
V M García-Hernández, M Gallar, J Sánchez-Soriano, V Micol, E Roche, E García-García
The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study...
December 2013: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Zhengshan Wu, Jianjie Qin, Liyong Pu
Omega-3 fatty acid supplemented total parenteral nutrition improves the clinical outcome of patients undergoing certain operations; however, its benefits for patients with hepatitis type B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have undergone hepatectomy are still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplemented total parenteral nutrition on the clinical outcome of patients with HBV-associated HCC who underwent hepatectomy at our institution. A total of 63 patients with HBV-associated HCC who underwent hepatectomy were included in this study...
November 2012: Journal of Biomedical Research
G Nazir, S P S Ghuman, J Singh, M Honparkhe, C S Ahuja, G S Dhaliwal, M K Sangha, S Saijpaul, S K Agarwal
The present study was conducted on lactating Murrah buffalo to assess the effect of crushed flaxseed (a source of omega-3 fatty acids) supplementation (300g/100kg bwt/day for 60 days), over and above the routine feed, on luteolytic signal (PGF2α), luteal function (progesterone) and conception rate. In first experiment, on day 50 post-calving, six non-supplemented buffalo were treated to synchronize time of ovulation using an Ovsynch+Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) protocol followed by intravenous oxytocin treatment (OT; 100IU) on day 15 post-ovulation...
February 2013: Animal Reproduction Science
Varghese V Mathews, Mv Sauganth Paul, M Abhilash, Alex Manju, S Abhilash, R Harikumaran Nair
Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an effective drug in the treatment of leukaemia and many solid tumours. In clinical trials, arsenic therapy is closely associated with hepatic toxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid against As(2)O(3)-induced hepatotoxicity. A 4 mg/kg body weight (bw) of As(2)O(3) was orally administered to Wistar male rats for 45 days. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical tests, antioxidant assays and histopathological examinations. Arsenic accumulation was found in the liver tissue of rats treated with As(2)O(3)...
October 2014: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Pietro Vajro, Selvaggia Lenta, Claudio Pignata, Mariacarolina Salerno, Roberta D'Aniello, Ida De Micco, Giulia Paolella, Giancarlo Parenti
The epidemics of overweight and obesity has resulted in a significant increase of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a potentially progressive condition. Currently, obesity related hepatopathy represents therefore the main cause of pediatric chronic liver disease. The first choice treatment at all ages is weight loss and/or lifestyle changes, however compliance is very poor and a pharmacological approach has become necessary. In the present article we present a systematic literature review focusing on established pediatric NALFD drugs (ursodeoxycholic acid, insulin sensitizers, and antioxidants) and on innovative therapeutic options as well...
2012: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Eun-Hee Kim, Jin-Sik Bae, Ki Baik Hahm, Ji-Young Cha
Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have well-documented protective effects against obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Here, we investigated the effects of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on diet-induced fatty liver disease using fat-1 transgenic mice (fat-1) capable of converting n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) and fat-1 mice were maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5months. HFD-induced weight gain and fatty liver were more prominent in WT mice than fat-1 mice. Histological analysis indicated that WT mice fed the HFD developed moderate-to-severe macrovesicular steatosis, whereas fat-1 mice developed very mild steatosis...
November 15, 2012: Biochemical Pharmacology
Stanislaw Klek, Cecile Chambrier, Pierre Singer, Moshe Rubin, Tim Bowling, Michael Staun, Francisca Joly, Henrik Rasmussen, Boyd J Strauss, Geert Wanten, Ross Smith, Arun Abraham, Kinga Szczepanek, Jon Shaffer
PRECIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of a soybean/MCT/olive/fish oil emulsion in intestinal failure patients on long-term parenteral nutrition. 73 patients took part in a randomized, double-blind, multi-centre study. The study demonstrates that the lipid emulsion containing four different types of oils is safe and well tolerated in long-term PN. BACKGROUND & AIM: Long-term safety and efficacy of a lipid emulsion containing soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), olive oil and fish oil and enriched in vitamin E have not yet been evaluated in adult patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition (PN)...
April 2013: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Xinhua Zhu, Yafu Wu, Yudong Qiu, Chunping Jiang, Yitao Ding
BACKGROUND: The effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) support supplemented with ω-3 fatty acids was investigated in a randomized, controlled clinical trial at the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight patients with the diagnosis of end-stage liver disease or hepatic cellular carcinoma were admitted for orthotopic liver transplantation at the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: diet group (n = 32), PN group (n = 33), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) group (n = 33)...
January 2013: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Marianne H Jørgensen, Peter Ott, Kim F Michaelsen, Trine Porsgaard, Fleming Jensen, Susanne Lanng
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have low levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) in plasma or red blood cells (RBC), as also seen in other chronic and acute liver diseases. The differences may be more pronounced in CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR)-regulated tissues such as granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients with CF-related liver disease have lower n-3 LCPUFA level than patients with CF without liver disease...
July 2012: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jessica Zúñiga, Milena Cancino, Fernando Medina, Patricia Varela, Romina Vargas, Gladys Tapia, Luis A Videla, Virginia Fernández
Dietary supplementation with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to rats preconditions the liver against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, with reduction of the enhanced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) functionality occurring in the early phase of IR injury, and recovery of IR-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine response. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that liver preconditioning by n-3 PUFA is exerted through peroxisone proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) activation and interference with NF-κB activation...
2011: PloS One
Marcelo Mardones, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Pamela Romanque, Natalia Covarrubias, Fiorella Anghileri, Virginia Fernández, Luis A Videla, Gladys Tapia
Several preconditioning strategies are used to prevent ischemia-reperfusion (IR) liver injury, a deleterious condition associated with tissue resection, transplantation or trauma. Although thyroid hormone (T₃) administration exerts significant protection against liver IR injury in the rat, its clinical application is controversial due to possible adverse effects. Considering that prevention of liver IR injury has also been achieved by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation to rats, we studied the effect of n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation plus a lower dose of T₃ against IR injury...
September 2012: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Maha-Hamadien Abdulla, Kee-Chong Lim, James H McKerrow, Conor R Caffrey
BACKGROUND: Eggs deposited in the liver of the mammalian host by the blood fluke parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, normally drive a T-helper-2 (Th2)-mediated granulomatous response in immune-competent mice. By contrast, in mice deprived of T-cells and incapable of producing granulomata, egg-secreted proteins (ESP) induce acute hepatic injury and death. Previous work has shown that one such ESP, the T2 ribonuclease known as omega-1, is hepatotoxic in vivo in that specific antisera to omega-1 prevent hepatocyte damage...
October 2011: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kazuhiro Mikagi, Ryuichi Kawahara, Hisafumi Kinoshita, Shigeaki Aoyagi
No consensus has been reached concerning the effects of preoperative immunonutrition in patients undergoing hepatectomy. We evaluated the effects of immunonutrition before hepatectomy on perioperative management. This study was performed as a randomized controlled trial. Patients expected to undergo segmentectomy or more extensive hepatectomy for liver tumors were randomized to immunonutrition (IM) and control (C) groups each consisting of 13 patients. The IM group was given 750 ml of IMPACT in addition to half-size hospital meals orally from 5 days before to the day before surgery, and the C group was given conventional hospital meals...
2011: Kurume Medical Journal
Helen M Parker, Nathan A Johnson, Catriona A Burdon, Jeffrey S Cohn, Helen T O'Connor, Jacob George
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent accompaniment of obesity and insulin resistance. With the prevalence approaching 85% in obese populations, new therapeutic approaches to manage NAFLD are warranted. A systematic search of the literature was conducted for studies pertaining to the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation on NAFLD in humans. Primary outcome measures were liver fat and liver function tests: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase [1]...
April 2012: Journal of Hepatology
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