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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333927/comprehensive-characterization-of-hydrothermal-liquefaction-products-obtained-from-woody-biomass-under-various-alkali-catalyst-concentrations
#1
Hyewon Hwang, Jae Hoon Lee, In Gyu Choi, Joon Weon Choi
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of lignocellulosic biomass has been widely investigated for the production of renewable and alternative bio-crude oil. In this study, catalytic hydrothermal processing of two biomasses (larch and Mongolian oak) was performed using different K2CO3 concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0wt% of solvent) to improve fuel yield and properties. HTL oil, hydrochar, water soluble fraction (WSF) and gas were characterized and carbon balance was investigated. As a result, the maximum yield of HTL oil, 27...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332217/a-novel-glucuronoyl-esterase-from-aspergillus-fumigatus-the-role-of-conserved-lys-residue-in-the-preference-for-4-o-methyl-glucuronoyl-esters
#2
Hung Hiep Huynh, Nozomi Ishii, Ichiro Matsuo, Manabu Arioka
Cellulose in plant cell walls is mainly covered by hemicellulose and lignin, and thus efficient removal of these components is thought to be a key step in the optimal utilization of lignocellulose. The recently discovered carbohydrate esterase (CE) 15 family of glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) which cleave the linkages between the free carboxyl group of D-glucuronic acid in hemicellulose and the benzyl groups in lignin residues could contribute to this process. Herein, we report the identification, functional expression, and enzymatic characterization of a GE, AfGE, from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus...
January 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331621/silver-ion-enhanced-particle-specific-cytotoxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-effect-on-the-production-of-extracellular-secretions-of-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#3
Zhenzhen Huang, Piao Xu, Guiqiu Chen, Guangming Zeng, Anwei Chen, Zhongxian Song, Kai He, Lei Yuan, Hui Li, Liang Hu
This study investigated the influence of silver ions (Ag+) on the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium and noted the degree of extracellular secretions in response to the toxicant's stress. Oxalate production was elicited with moderate concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and AgNPs reaching a plateau at 10 mg/L and 10 μM, respectively. Increased oxalate accumulation was accompanied by higher activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP)...
December 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331518/microwave-assisted-ionic-liquid-mediated-rapid-catalytic-conversion-of-non-edible-lignocellulosic-sunn-hemp-fibres-to-biofuels
#4
Souvik Kumar Paul, Saikat Chakraborty
Sunn hemp fibre - a cellulose-rich crystalline non-food energy crop, containing 75.6% cellulose, 10.05% hemicellulose, 10.32% lignin, with high crystallinity (80.17%) and degree of polymerization (650) - is identified as a new non-food substrate for lignocellulosic biofuel production. Microwave irradiation is employed to rapidly rupture the cellulose's glycosidic bonds and enhance glucose yield to 78.7% at 160 °C in only 46 min. The reactants - long-chain cellulose, ionic liquid, transition metal catalyst, and water - form a polar supramolecular complex that rotates under the microwave's alternating polarity and rapidly dissipates the electromagnetic energy through molecular collisions, thus accelerating glycosidic bond breakage...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328635/adsorption-and-molecular-fractionation-of-dissolved-organic-matter-on-iron-bearing-mineral-matrices-of-varying-crystallinity
#5
Elizabeth K Coward, Tsutomu Ohno, Alain F Plante
Iron (Fe)-bearing mineral phases contribute disproportionately to adsorption of soil organic matter (SOM), due to their elevated chemical reactivity and specific surface area (SSA). However, the spectrum of Fe solid-phase speciation present in oxidation-reduction-active soils challenges analysis of SOM-mineral interactions and may induce differential molecular fractionation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). This work used paired selective dissolution experiments and batch sorption of post-extraction residues to 1) quantify the contributions of Fe-bearing minerals of varying crystallinity to DOM sorption, and 2) characterize molecular fractionation using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327481/the-genome-and-microbiome-of-a-dikaryotic-fungus-inocybe-terrigena-inocybaceae-revealed-by-metagenomics
#6
Mohammad Bahram, Dan Vanderpool, Mari Pent, Markus Hiltunen, Martin Ryberg
Recent advances in molecular methods have increased our understanding of various fungal symbioses. However, little is known about genomic and microbiome features of most uncultured symbiotic fungal clades. Here, we analysed the genome and microbiome of Inocybaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), a largely uncultured ectomycorrhizal clade known to form symbiotic associations with a wide variety of plant species. We used metagenomic sequencing and assembly of dikaryotic fruiting-body tissues from Inocybe terrigena (Fr...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327194/agro-industrial-waste-recycling-by-trichosporon-fermentans-conversion-of-waste-sweetpotato-vines-alone-into-lipid
#7
Qi Shen, Yue Chen, Hui Lin, Qun Wang, Yuhua Zhao
Agro-industrial waste can be used to replace traditional carbohydrates, such as sucrose, starch, and glucose in many industrial fermentation processes. This study investigated the conversion of pre-treated waste sweetpotato vines (SV) into lipid by Trichosporon fermentans under the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes. The results showed that SV autoclaving significantly increased the lipid accumulation of T. fermentans compared with acid or alkaline hydrolysis...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324275/effective-usage-of-sorghum-bagasse-optimization-of-organosolv-pretreatment-using-25-1-butanol-and-subsequent-nanofiltration-membrane-separation
#8
Hiroshi Teramura, Kengo Sasaki, Tomoko Oshima, Hideo Kawaguchi, Chiaki Ogino, Takashi Sazuka, Akihiko Kondo
We investigated the use of low concentrations of butanol (<40%, all v/v) as an organosolv pretreatment to fractionate lignocellulosic biomass into cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The pretreatment conditions were optimized for sorghum bagasse by focusing on four parameters: butanol concentration, sulfuric acid concentration, pretreatment temperature, and pretreatment time. A butanol concentration of 25% or higher together with 0.5% or higher acid was effective for removing lignin while retaining most of the cellulose in the solid fraction...
December 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321979/improvement-of-aspergillus-flavus-saponin-hydrolase-thermal-stability-and-productivity-via-immobilization-on-a-novel-carrier-based-on-sugarcane-bagasse
#9
Hala A Amin, Francesco Secundo, Hassan Amer, Faten A Mostafa, Wafaa A Helmy
Soyasapogenol B (SB) is known to have many biological activities such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, antiviral and anticancer activities. Enzymatic conversion of soyasaponins to SB was carried out using saponin hydrolase (SH) extracted from Aspergillus flavus. The partially purified enzyme was immobilized on different carriers by physical adsorption, covalent binding or entrapment. Among the investigated carriers, Eupergit C and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) activated by DIC and NHS were the most suitable two carriers for immobilization (the immobilized forms recovered 46...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321851/specificity-of-herbivore-induced-responses-in-an-invasive-species-alternanthera-philoxeroides-alligator-weed
#10
Mu Liu, Fang Zhou, Xiaoyun Pan, Zhijie Zhang, Milton B Traw, Bo Li
Herbivory-induced responses in plants can both negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores and mitigate the effect of herbivory on the host. However, it is still less known whether plants exhibit specific responses to specialist and generalist herbivores in non-secondary metabolite traits and how specificity to specialists and generalists differs between invasive and native plant populations. We exposed an invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides, to Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; specialist), Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae; generalist), manual clipping, or application of exogenous jasmonic acid and examined both the specificity of elicitation in traits of fitness (e...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321811/gene-stacking-of-multiple-traits-for-high-yield-of-fermentable-sugars-in-plant-biomass
#11
Aude Aznar, Camille Chalvin, Patrick M Shih, Michael Maimann, Berit Ebert, Devon S Birdseye, Dominique Loqué, Henrik V Scheller
Background: Second-generation biofuels produced from biomass can help to decrease dependency on fossil fuels, bringing about many economic and environmental benefits. To make biomass more suitable for biorefinery use, we need a better understanding of plant cell wall biosynthesis. Increasing the ratio of C6 to C5 sugars in the cell wall and decreasing the lignin content are two important targets in engineering of plants that are more suitable for downstream processing for second-generation biofuel production...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318843/-quality-of-schisandrae-chinensis-fructus-regionalization-based-on-gis-technology
#12
Jing-Lei Xiao, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Yu-Cui Liu, Meng Li, Bo Li, Ying-Qiao Shan, Xiao-Bo Qu
This paper is aims to clarify the spatial distribution of high quality medicinal materials Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus. Based on investigation and field investigation, the samples and distribution information of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus were collected. Based on the data of four kinds of lignin chemical constituents, ecological environment factors and spatial distribution data of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, using GIS technology, maximum information entropy model and SPSS statistical analysis method for regionalizing the quality of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318245/chemicals-from-lignin-an-interplay-of-lignocellulose-fractionation-depolymerisation-and-upgrading
#13
REVIEW
W Schutyser, T Renders, S Van den Bosch, S-F Koelewijn, G T Beckham, B F Sels
In pursuit of more sustainable and competitive biorefineries, the effective valorisation of lignin is key. An alluring opportunity is the exploitation of lignin as a resource for chemicals. Three technological biorefinery aspects will determine the realisation of a successful lignin-to-chemicals valorisation chain, namely (i) lignocellulose fractionation, (ii) lignin depolymerisation, and (iii) upgrading towards targeted chemicals. This review provides a summary and perspective of the extensive research that has been devoted to each of these three interconnected biorefinery aspects, ranging from industrially well-established techniques to the latest cutting edge innovations...
January 10, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316500/temperature-dependent-cellulase-adsorption-on-lignin-from-sugarcane-bagasse
#14
Ariane Zanchetta, Antonio Carlos Freitas Dos Santos, Eduardo Ximenes, Christiane da Costa Carreira Nunes, Maurício Boscolo, Eleni Gomes, Michael R Ladisch
Extents of adsorption of cellulolytic enzymes on lignin, derived from sugarcane bagasse, were an inverse function of incubation temperature and varied with type of lignin extraction. At 45 °C, lignin derived from acid hydrolyzed liquid hot water pretreated bagasse completely adsorbed cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei within 90 min. Lignin derived from enzyme hydrolyzed liquid hot water pretreated bagasse adsorbed only 60% of T. reesei endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase activities...
December 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315918/a-peroxisomal-thioesterase-plays-auxiliary-roles-in-plant-%C3%AE-oxidative-benzoic-acid-metabolism
#15
Funmilayo Adebesin, Joshua R Widhalm, Joseph H Lynch, Rachel M McCoy, Natalia Dudareva
Peroxisomal β-oxidative degradation of compounds is a common metabolic theme in eukaryotes. Reported benzoyl-CoA (BA-CoA) thioesterase activity in peroxisomes from petunia flowers suggests that, like mammals and fungi, plants contain auxiliary enzymes mediating β-oxidation. Here, we report identification of Petunia hybrida Thioesterase 1 (PhTE1), which catalyzes hydrolysis of aromatic acyl-CoAs to their corresponding acids in peroxisomes. PhTE1 expression is spatially, developmentally and temporally regulated and exhibits a similar pattern to known benzenoid metabolic genes...
January 6, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315591/suppression-of-a-single-bahd-gene-in-setaria-viridis-causes-large-stable-decreases-in-cell-wall-feruloylation-and-increases-biomass-digestibility
#16
Wagner R de Souza, Polyana K Martins, Jackie Freeman, Till K Pellny, Louise V Michaelson, Bruno L Sampaio, Felipe Vinecky, Ana P Ribeiro, Barbara A D B da Cunha, Adilson K Kobayashi, Patricia A de Oliveira, Raquel B Campanha, Thályta F Pacheco, Danielly C I Martarello, Rogério Marchiosi, Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho, Wanderley D Dos Santos, Robson Tramontina, Fabio M Squina, Danilo C Centeno, Marília Gaspar, Marcia R Braga, Marco A S Tiné, John Ralph, Rowan A C Mitchell, Hugo B C Molinari
Feruloylation of arabinoxylan (AX) in grass cell walls is a key determinant of recalcitrance to enzyme attack, making it a target for improvement of grass crops, and of interest in grass evolution. Definitive evidence on the genes responsible is lacking so we studied a candidate gene that we identified within the BAHD acyl-CoA transferase family. We used RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of orthologs in the model grasses Setaria viridis (SvBAHD01) and Brachypodium distachyon (BdBAHD01) and determined effects on AX feruloylation...
January 8, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313537/relationship-between-lignocellulosic-biomass-dissolution-and-physicochemical-properties-of-ionic-liquids-composed-of-3-methylimidazolium-cations-and-carboxylate-anions
#17
Preenaa Moyer, Micholas Dean Smith, Nourredine Abdoulmoumine, Stephen C Chmely, Jeremy C Smith, Loukas Petridis, Nicole Labbé
The ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Acetate) has been widely used for biomass processing, i.e., to pretreat, activate, or fractionate lignocellulosic biomass to produce soluble sugars and lignin. However, this IL does not achieve high biomass solubility, therefore minimizing the efficiency of biomass processing. In this study, [EMIM]Acetate and three other ILs composed of different 3-methylimidazolium cations and carboxylate anions ([EMIM]Formate, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium ([AMIM]) formate, and [AMIM]Acetate) were analyzed to relate their physicochemical properties to their biomass solubility performance...
January 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305178/high-yield-production-of-fungal-manganese-peroxidases-by-e-coli-through-soluble-expression-and-examination-of-the-activities
#18
Meng-I Lin, Takashi Nagata, Masato Katahira
Oxidative enzymes of white-rot fungi play a key role in lignin biodegradation. Among those fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora degrades lignin before cellulose in wood; C. subvermispora is the only fungus that secretes all known types of manganese peroxidases (CsMnPs). Utilization of lignin-degrading peroxidases has been limited so far due to the lack of efficient preparation methods and intensive characterization. In this study, we developed a highly efficient method to prepare active CsMnPs through soluble expression by E...
January 2, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298676/a-multi-omics-approach-reveals-function-of-secretory-carrier-associated-membrane-proteins-in-wood-formation-of%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-populus%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-trees
#19
Ogonna Obudulu, Niklas Mähler, Tomas Skotare, Joakim Bygdell, Ilka N Abreu, Maria Ahnlund, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Anna Petterle, Thomas Moritz, Torgeir R Hvidsten, Leif J Jönsson, Gunnar Wingsle, Johan Trygg, Hannele Tuominen
BACKGROUND: Secretory Carrier-Associated Membrane Proteins (SCAMPs) are highly conserved 32-38 kDa proteins that are involved in membrane trafficking. A systems approach was taken to elucidate function of SCAMPs in wood formation of Populus trees. Phenotypic and multi-omics analyses were performed in woody tissues of transgenic Populus trees carrying an RNAi construct for Populus tremula x tremuloides SCAMP3 (PttSCAMP3; Potri.019G104000). RESULTS: The woody tissues of the transgenic trees displayed increased amounts of both polysaccharides and lignin oligomers, indicating increased deposition of both the carbohydrate and lignin components of the secondary cell walls...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297329/potential-of-selected-fungal-species-to-degrade-wheat-straw-the-most-abundant-plant-raw-material-in-europe
#20
Jasmina Ćilerdžić, Milica Galić, Jelena Vukojević, Ilija Brčeski, Mirjana Stajić
BACKGROUND: Structural component of plant biomass, lignocellulose, is the most abundant renewable resource in nature. Lignin is the most recalcitrant natural aromatic polymer and its degradation presents great challenge. Nowadays, the special attention is given to biological delignification, the process where white-rot fungi take the crucial place owing to strong ligninolytic enzyme system. However, fungal species, even strains, differ in potential to produce high active ligninolytic enzymes and consequently to delignify plant biomass...
December 28, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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