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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821105/production-of-xylooligosaccharides-by-autohydrolysis-of-hazelnut-corylus-avellana-l-shell
#1
Ece Surek, Ali Oguz Buyukkileci
Hazelnut shell (HS), husk and pruning residues were characterized and evaluated for xylooligosaccharides (XOS) production by autohydrolysis. HS contained the highest amount of xylan and yielded more XOS compared to other hazelnut residues. The temperature and holding time of HS autohydrolysis greatly influenced the composition of the liquor and the remaining solid. The highest XOS yield (62% of the feedstock xylan) was obtained at 190°C and 5min of holding time. At this temperature, 30min of holding time was required to maximize the percentage of XOS with low degree of polymerization...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821054/enhanced-hydrolysis-of-bamboo-biomass-by-chitosan-based-solid-acid-catalyst-with-surfactant-addition-in-ionic-liquid
#2
Wenqing Si, Yichen Li, Jie Zheng, Shun'an Wei, Dan Wang
Surfactants were used for the hydrolysis of bamboo biomass to enhance lignocellulose hydrolysis. Tween 80, polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were tested as surfactants for improving the bamboo hydrolysis with a novel sulfonated cross-linked chitosan solid acid catalyst (SCCAC) in ionic liquid (IL). Compared to the use of only SCCAC in 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), the surfactants facilitated hydrolysis and improved the yield of total reducing sugar (TRS) under the same conditions...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821045/production-of-cellulose-nanofibers-using-phenolic-enhanced-surface-oxidation
#3
Iman Beheshti Tabar, Ximing Zhang, Jeffrey P Youngblood, Nathan S Mosier
In this study we demonstrate that lignin monomers formed as byproducts of pulping or bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass is an effective enhancer to oxidize cellulose surfaces with ozone for the production of cellulose nanofibers (CNF). Never dried softwood pulp with minimum mercerization was enzymatically treated leading to a homogeneous pulp slurry with a higher reactivity. The slurry was oxidized by ozone gas in the presence of syringic acid, a lignin degradation model compound, as an oxidation enhancer at room temperature and pH 11...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820479/esterification-mechanism-of-bagasse-modified-with-glutaric-anhydride-in-1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium-chloride
#4
Huihui Wang, Wei Chen, Xueqin Zhang, Chuanfu Liu, Runcang Sun
The esterification of bagasse with glutaric anhydride could increase surface adhesion compatibility and the surface of derived polymers has the potential of immobilizing peptides or proteins for biomedical application. Due to its complicated components, the esterification mechanism of bagasse esterified with glutaric anhydride in ionic liquids has not been studied. In this paper, the homogenous esterification of bagasse with glutaric anhydride was comparatively investigated with the isolated cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) to reveal the reaction mechanism...
August 18, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820431/high-throughput-screening-assay-for-laccase-engineering-toward-lignosulfonate-valorization
#5
David Rodríguez-Escribano, Felipe de Salas, Isabel Pardo, Susana Camarero
Lignin valorization is a pending issue for the integrated conversion of lignocellulose in consumer goods. Lignosulfonates (LS) are the main technical lignins commercialized today. However, their molecular weight should be enlarged to meet application requirements as additives or dispersing agents. Oxidation of lignosulfonates with fungal oxidoreductases, such as laccases, can increase the molecular weight of lignosulfonates by the cross-linking of lignin phenols. To advance in this direction, we describe here the development of a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for the directed evolution of laccases, with lignosulfonate as substrate and the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (FCR), to detect the decrease in phenolic content produced upon polymerization of lignosulfonate by the enzyme...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818728/fractionation-of-lignin-macromolecules-by-sequential-organic-solvents-systems-and-their-characterization-for-further-valuable-applications
#6
Shin Young Park, Jae-Young Kim, Hye Jung Youn, Joon Weon Choi
Lignin solvent fractionation is one of the promising methods for homogenizing and utilizing lignin commercially. In this work, fractionation characteristics of two lignin fractions were compared to investigate the potential of utilization of fractionated lignin. Two lignins [milled wood lignin(MWL) and organosolv lignin(OL) from yellow poplar] were sequentially fractionated with ethyl acetate(F1), 2-butanone(F2), methanol(F3), acetone(F4), and dioxane/water(F5). Yields of five MWL fractions F1 to F5 were 11...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818383/methyl-jasmonate-and-salicylic-acid-are-able-to-modify-cell-wall-but-only-salicylic-acid-alters-biomass-digestibility-in-the-model-grass-brachypodium-distachyon
#7
Thiago Alves Napoleão, Giuliana Soares, Camilo Elber Vital, Carla Bastos, Robson Castro, Marcelo Ehlers Loureiro, Andrea Giordano
In addition to playing a key role in the response to environmental changes, cell walls are also considered as a valuable feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. Here we explored the effects of the stress-response hormones, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, on cell wall biosynthesis and biomass digestibility in Brachypodium distachyon, a species recently considered as a suitable model for biomass conversion. We found that in response to salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate treatment, plant growth was reduced coupled with significant changes in cell wall composition...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815457/overexpression-of-a-peroxidase-gene-atprx64-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-in-tobacco-improves-plant-s-tolerance-to-aluminum-stress
#8
Yuanshuang Wu, Zhili Yang, Jingyi How, Huini Xu, Limei Chen, Kunzhi Li
AtPrx64 is one of the peroxidases gene up-regulated in Al stress and has some functions in the formation of plant second cell wall. Its overexpression may improve plant tolerance to Al by some ways. Studies on its function under Al stress may help us to understand the mechanism of plant tolerance to Al stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the expressions of some genes (AtPrxs) encoding class III plant peroxidases have been found to be either up-regulated or down-regulated under aluminum (Al) stress. Among 73 genes that encode AtPrxs in Arabidopsis, AtPrx64 is always up-regulated by Al stress, suggesting this gene plays protective roles in response to such stress...
August 16, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813686/genetic-and-functional-characterization-of-a-novel-gh10-endo-%C3%AE-1-4-xylanase-with-a-ricin-type-%C3%AE-trefoil-domain-like-domain-from-luteimicrobium-xylanilyticum-hy-24
#9
Do Young Kim, Sun Hwa Lee, Min Ji Lee, Han-Young Cho, Jong Suk Lee, Young Ha Rhee, Dong-Ha Shin, Kwang-Hee Son, Ho-Yong Park
The gene (1488-bp) encoding a novel GH10 endo-β-1,4-xylanase (XylM) consisting of an N-terminal catalytic GH10 domain and a C-terminal ricin-type β-trefoil lectin domain-like (RICIN) domain was identified from Luteimicrobium xylanilyticum HY-24. The GH10 domain of XylM was 72% identical to that of Micromonospora lupini endo-β-1,4-xylanase and the RICIN domain was 67% identical to that of Actinospica robiniae hypothetical protein. The recombinant enzyme (rXylM: 49kDa) exhibited maximum activity toward beechwood xylan at 65°C and pH 6...
August 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813685/purification-and-characterization-of-two-novel-peroxidases-from-the-dye-decolorizing-fungus-bjerkandera-adusta-strain-cx-9
#10
Khelifa Bouacem, Hatem Rekik, Nadia Zaraî Jaouadi, Bilal Zenati, Sidali Kourdali, Mohamed El Hattab, Abdelmalek Badis, Rachid Annane, Samir Bejar, Hocine Hacene, Amel Bouanane-Darenfed, Bassem Jaouadi
Two extracellular peroxidases from Bjerkandera adusta strain CX-9, namely a lignin peroxidase (called LiP BA45) and manganese peroxidase (called MnP BA30), were purified simultaneously by applying successively, ammonium sulfate precipitation-dialysis, Mono-S Sepharose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration and biochemically characterized. The sequence of their NH2-terminal amino acid residues showed high homology with those of fungi peroxidases. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed that the purified enzymes MnP BA30 and LiP BA45 were a monomers with a molecular masses 30125...
August 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810884/a-novel-method-for-transmitting-southern-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-to-rice-without-insect-vector
#11
Lu Yu, Jing Shi, Lianlian Cao, Guoping Zhang, Wenli Wang, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
BACKGROUND: Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from the south of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years, and has severely influenced rice production. However, previous study of traditional SRBSDV transmission method by the natural virus vector, the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera), in the laboratory, researchers are frequently confronted with lack of enough viral samples due to the limited life span of infected vectors and rice plants and low virus acquisition and inoculation efficiency by the vector...
August 15, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808883/removal-of-water-soluble-extractives-improves-the-enzymatic-digestibility-of-steam-pretreated-softwood-barks
#12
Balázs Frankó, Karin Carlqvist, Mats Galbe, Gunnar Lidén, Ola Wallberg
Softwood bark contains a large amounts of extractives-i.e., soluble lipophilic (such as resin acids) and hydrophilic components (phenolic compounds, stilbenes). The effects of the partial removal of water-soluble extractives before acid-catalyzed steam pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility were assessed for two softwood barks-Norway spruce and Scots pine. A simple hot water extraction step removed more than half of the water-soluble extractives from the barks, which improved the enzymatic digestibility of both steam-pretreated materials...
August 14, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806693/persistence-of-urban-organic-aerosols-composition-decoding-their-structural-complexity-and-seasonal-variability
#13
João T V Matos, Regina M B O Duarte, Sónia P Lopes, Artur M S Silva, Armando C Duarte
Organic Aerosols (OAs) are typically defined as highly complex matrices whose composition changes in time and space. Focusing on time vector, this work uses two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) techniques to examine the structural features of water-soluble (WSOM) and alkaline-soluble organic matter (ASOM) sequentially extracted from fine atmospheric aerosols collected in an urban setting during cold and warm seasons. This study reveals molecular signatures not previously decoded in NMR-related studies of OAs as meaningful source markers...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806550/discrepant-responses-of-the-electron-transfer-capacity-of-soil-humic-substances-to-irrigations-with-wastewaters-from-different-sources
#14
Wenbing Tan, Yuan Zhang, Beidou Xi, Xiaosong He, Rutai Gao, Caihong Huang, Hui Zhang, Dan Li, Xinyu Zhao, Meng Li, Li Li, Jie Jiang, Guoan Wang
An increasing area of agricultural land is irrigated with wastewater worldwide due to the scarcity of fresh water resources. Whether wastewater irrigations can affect the electron transfer capacity (ETC) of natural organic matter in soils is unclear. In this study, we assess the responses of the electron-accepting capacity (EAC) and electron-donating capacity (EDC) of soil humic substances (HS) to irrigations with wastewaters from different sources. We show that the EAC of soil HS increases and the EDC of soil HS decreases after irrigation with domestic wastewater...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803111/laccase-enzyme-detoxifies-hydrolysates-and-improves-biogas-production-from-hemp-straw-and-miscanthus
#15
Michel Schroyen, Stijn W H Van Hulle, Sander Holemans, Han Vervaeren, Katleen Raes
The impact of various phenolic compounds, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid on anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass (hemp straw and miscanthus) was studied. Such phenolic compounds have been known to inhibit biogas production during anaerobic digestion. The different phenolic compounds were added in various concentrations: 0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000mg/L. A difference in inhibition of biomethane production between the phenolic compounds was noted. Hydrolysis rate, during anaerobic digestion of miscanthus was inhibited up to 50% by vanillic acid, while vanillic acid had no influence on the initial rate of biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of hemp straw...
July 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803102/kinetics-of-the-release-of-elemental-precursors-of-syngas-and-syngas-contaminants-during-devolatilization-of-switchgrass
#16
Oluwafemi Oyedeji, Charles Stuart Daw, Nicole Labbe, Paul Ayers, Nourredine Abdoulmoumine
In this study, the results from laboratory measurements of the devolatilization kinetics of switchgrass in a rapidly heated fixed bed reactor flushed with argon and operated at constant temperatures between 600 and 800°C was reported. Results indicate that switchgrass decomposes in two sequential stages during pyrolysis: stage I involves the evaporation and devolatilization of water and extractives and stage II involves that of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The estimated global activation energy for stage II increased from 52...
July 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803101/persulfate-oxidation-assisted-hydrochar-production-from-platanus-orientalis-leaves-physiochemical-and-combustion-characteristics
#17
Lin Gu, Sifan Wu, Binglian Li, Haifeng Wen, Daofang Zhang, Jianfeng Ye, Liang Wang
Platanus Orientalis Leaves (POL), a widely planted tree in parks and along streets, was employed by sequential persulfate oxidation (Fe(2+)and persulfate) and hydrothermal treatment (HTC) to improve the thermal stability, energy yield and combustion behavior of hydrochars (HCs). Higher heating values (HHVs) of HCs derived from persulfate pretreated POL was increased by 30.5% at mild HTC temperature (i.e., 210°C) as compared to char without pretreatment. Elevating Fe(2+)/persulfate ratio to 0.2 enables HCs with high fractions of lignin, thus promoting the energy yield going up to 64...
August 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803100/optimization-of-aqueous-ammonia-soaking-of-manure-fibers-by-response-surface-methodology-for-unlocking-the-methane-potential-of-swine-manure
#18
Anna Lymperatou, Hariklia N Gavala, Ioannis V Skiadas
Swine manure mono-digestion often results to economically non-feasible processes, due to the high dilution and ammonia concentration together with the low degradation rates it presents. The effects of different parameters of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) as a pretreatment for improving the digestion of manure fibers when coupled to an ammonia removal step were investigated in this study. Response Surface Methodology was followed and the influence and interactions of the following AAS parameters were studied: NH3 concentration, duration and solid-to-liquid ratio...
July 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801977/isolation-identification-and-characterization-of-lignin-degrading-bacteria-from-qinling-china
#19
C-X Yang, T Wang, L-N Gao, H-J Yin, X Lü
AIMS: Lignin is an aromatic heteropolymer forming a physical barrier and is a big challenge in biomass utilization. This paper firstly investigated lignin-degradation bacteria from rotten wood in Qinling Mountain. METHODS AND RESULTS: 19 potential strains were selected and ligninolytic enzyme activities were determined during 84 h. The strains which had higher enzymes activities were selected. Further the biodegradation of wheat straw lignin and alkali lignin was evaluated, which indicated Burkholderia sp...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798174/whole-genome-de-novo-sequencing-of-the-lignin-degrading-wood-rot-fungus-phanerochaete-chrysosporium-atcc-20696
#20
Chang-Young Hong, Su-Yeon Lee, Sun-Hwa Ryu, Sung-Suk Lee, Myungkil Kim
Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 20696) has a catabolic ability to degrade lignin. Here, we report whole-genome sequencing used to identify genes related to lignin modification. We determined the 39-Mb draft genome sequence of this fungus, comprising 13,560 predicted gene models. Gene annotation provided crucial information about the location and function of protein-encoding genes.
August 10, 2017: Genome Announcements
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