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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447666/in-situ-polymerisation-of-isoeugenol-as-a-green-consolidation-method-for-waterlogged-archaeological-wood
#1
Emily McHale, Calin C Steindal, Hartmut Kutzke, Tore Benneche, Stephen E Harding
Waterlogged archaeological wood is often in need of consolidation prior to drying to prevent shrinkage and cracking of the object. There is a need for new greener materials (than for example polyethylene glycol) and methods for consolidation to be developed. The use of wood-based components could provide good interaction between the consolidant and the remaining wood structure and would also support a shift away from fossil fuel-based materials to those with more sustainable sources. Based on this, lignin-like structures have been investigated for their ability to consolidate waterlogged archaeological wood...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443361/the-effect-of-alkali-on-the-product-distribution-from-black-liquor-conversion-under-supercritical-water
#2
Y Hawangchu, D Atong, V Sricharoenchaikul
Lignin in chemical pulping waste, or black liquor (BL), can be converted into various products via supercritical water gasification (SCWG). However, the inherited alkaline contents from the pulping chemicals may affect the product yields and properties. In this research, the influence of the residual alkali on the product distribution via SCWG of soda BL and kraft BL was evaluated. The SCWG was performed in a batch quartz reactor for 10 min at various temperatures (673, 773 and 873 K) and pressures (250, 300 and 400 bar)...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441866/interactions-of-insoluble-residue-from-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-brewer-s-spent-grain-with-intestinal-microbiota-in-mice
#3
Johanna Maukonen, Anna-Marja Aura, Piritta Niemi, Gulam Shere Raza, Klaus Niemela, Jaroslaw Walkowiak, Ismo Mattila, Kaisa Poutanen, Johanna Buchert, Karl-Heinz Herzig
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the major side-stream from brewing. As BSG is rich in dietary fiber and protein, it could be used in more valuable applications, such as nutritional additives for foods. Our aim was to elucidate whether a insoluble lignin-rich fraction (INS) from BSG is metabolized by mice gut microbiota and how it affects the microbiota. Our results indicated that lignin was partially degraded by the gut microbiota, degradation products were absorbed, and finally excreted in urine. Therefore, they contribute to the phenolic pool circulating in the mammalian body, and may have systemic effects on health...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440915/unravelling-the-impact-of-lignin-on-cell-wall-mechanics-a-comprehensive-study-on-young-poplar-trees-downregulated-for-cinnamyl-alcohol-dehyrogenase-cad
#4
M Özparpucu, M Rüggeberg, N Gierlinger, I Cesarino, R Vanholme, W Boerjan, I Burgert
Lignin engineering is a promising tool to reduce the energy input and the need of chemical pre-treatments for the efficient conversion of plant biomass into fermentable sugars for downstream applications. At the same time, lignin engineering can offer new insight into structure-function relationships of plant cell walls by combined mechanical, structural and chemical analyses. Here, such a comprehensive approach was applied on poplar trees (Populus tremula x Populus alba) downregulated for CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) for gaining insight into the impact of lignin reduction on mechanical properties...
April 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439850/heterologous-expression-of-a-streptomyces-cyaneus-laccase-for-biomass-modification-applications
#5
Selin Ece, Camilla Lambertz, Rainer Fischer, Ulrich Commandeur
Laccases are used for the conversion of biomass into fermentable sugars but it is difficult to produce high yields of active laccases in heterologous expression systems. We overcame this challenge by expressing Streptomyces cyaneus CECT 3335 laccase in Escherichia coli (ScLac) and we achieved a yield of up to 104 mg L(-1) following purification by one-step affinity chromatography. Stability and activity assays using simple lignin model substrates showed that the purified enzyme preparation was active over a broad pH range and at high temperatures, suggesting it would be suitable for biomass degradation...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439582/highly-efficient-tsuji-trost-allylation-in-water-catalyzed-by-pd-nanoparticles
#6
A Llevot, B Monney, A Sehlinger, S Behrens, M A R Meier
Palladium nanoparticles stabilized by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) catalyze Tsuji-Trost allylations in water with very high turnover numbers. The di-allylation of methylene active compounds and the allylation of bio-based phenols was performed in high yield. The allylation of lignin showed a high selectivity towards the phenolic OH groups.
April 25, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439296/oxidation-of-a-non-phenolic-lignin-model-compound-by-two-irpex-lacteus-manganese-peroxidases-evidence-for-implication-of-carboxylate-and-radicals
#7
Xing Qin, Xianhua Sun, Huoqing Huang, Yingguo Bai, Yuan Wang, Huiying Luo, Bin Yao, Xiaoyu Zhang, Xiaoyun Su
BACKGROUND: Manganese peroxidase is one of the Class II fungal peroxidases that are able to oxidize the low redox potential phenolic lignin compounds. For high redox potential non-phenolic lignin degradation, mediators such as GSH and unsaturated fatty acids are required in the reaction. However, it is not known whether carboxylic acids are a mediator for non-phenolic lignin degradation. RESULTS: The white rot fungus Irpex lacteus is one of the most potent fungi in degradation of lignocellulose and xenobiotics...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439294/impact-of-lignin-polymer-backbone-esters-on-ionic-liquid-pretreatment-of-poplar
#8
Kwang Ho Kim, Tanmoy Dutta, John Ralph, Shawn D Mansfield, Blake A Simmons, Seema Singh
BACKGROUND: Biomass pretreatment remains an essential step in lignocellulosic biofuel production, largely to facilitate the efficient removal of lignin and increase enzyme accessibility to the polysaccharides. In recent years, there have been significant efforts in planta to reduce lignin content or modify its composition to overcome the inherent recalcitrance that it imposes on lignocellulosic biomass during processing. Here, transgenic poplar lines in which monolignol ferulate conjugates were synthesized during cell wall development to introduce, during lignification, readily cleavable ester linkages into the lignin polymer backbone (i...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438681/immobilized-lignin-peroxidase-from-ganoderma-lucidum-ibl-05-with-improved-dye-decolorization-and-cytotoxicity-reduction-properties
#9
Raheela Shaheen, Muhammad Asgher, Fatima Hussain, Haq Nawaz Bhatti
Use of free microbial enzymes for bioremediation and other industrial applications has several disadvantages like low stability and non-reusability in repeated batch operations. Immobilized enzymes are stable, recoverable and reusable in industrial processes. In this scenario G. lucidum IBL-05 LiP was entrapped in Ca-alginate beads using optimum concentrations of Na-alginate (4%), calcium chloride (0.2M) and glutraldehyde (0.02%). Optimum pH (pH 5) and temperature (55(o)C) for entrapped LiP were improved as compared to free LiP...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437643/a-co-production-of-sugars-lignosulfonates-cellulose-and-cellulose-nanocrystals-from-ball-milled-woods
#10
Lanxing Du, Jinwu Wang, Yang Zhang, Chusheng Qi, Michael P Wolcott, Zhiming Yu
This study demonstrated the technical potential for the large-scale co-production of sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals. Ball-milled woods with two particle sizes were prepared by ball milling for 80min or 120min (BMW80, BMW120) and then enzymatically hydrolyzed. 78.3% cellulose conversion of BMW120 was achieved, which was three times as high as the conversion of BMW80. The hydrolyzed residues (HRs) were neutrally sulfonated cooking. 57.72g/L and 88.16g/L lignosulfonate concentration, respectively, were harvested from HR80 and HR120, and 42...
March 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437609/source-and-biological-response-of-biochar-organic-compounds-released-into-water-relationships-with-bio-oil-composition-and-carbonization-degree
#11
Michele Ghidotti, Daniele Fabbri, Ondřej Mašek, Colin Logan Mackay, Marco Montalti, Andreas Hornung
Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) were extracted from corn stalk biochar produced at increasing pyrolysis temperatures (350-650°C) and from the corresponding vapors, collected as bio-oil. WSOCs were characterized by gas chromatography (semi-volatile fraction), negative electron spray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (hydrophilic fraction) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The pattern of semi-volatile WSOCs in bio-oil was dominated by aromatic products from lignocellulose, while in biochar was featured by saturated carboxylic acids from hemi/cellulose and lipids with concentrations decreased with decreasing H/C ratios...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436604/solvent-free-mechanochemical-synthesis-of-nitrogen-doped-nanoporous-carbon-for-electrochemical-energy-storage
#12
Christina Schneidermann, Nicolas Jaeckel, Steffen Oswald, Lars Giebeler, Volker Presser, Lars Borchardt
Nitrogen-doped nanoporous carbons have been synthesized by a solvent-free mechanochemically-induced one-pot synthesis. This facile approach involves the mechanochemical treatment and carbonization of three solid materials: potassium carbonate, urea, and lignin, which is a waste product from pulp industry. The resulting nitrogen-doped porous carbons offer a very high specific surface area up to 3000 m2 g-1 and large pore volume up to 2 cm3 g-1. The mechanochemical reaction and the impact of activation and functionalization are investigated by nitrogen- and water physisorption and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
April 24, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436165/production-of-high-concentration-of-l-lactic-acid-from-oil-palm-empty-fruit-bunch-by-thermophilic-b-coagulans-ji12
#13
Veeresh Juturu, Jin Chuan Wu
Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans JI12 was used to ferment hemicellulose hydrolysate obtained by acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) at 50°C and pH6, producing 105.4 g/L of L-lactic acid with a productivity of 9.3 g/L/h by fed batch fermentation under unsterilized conditions. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed at pH5.5 and 50°C to convert both hemicellulose hydrolysate and cellulose-lignin complex in the presence of Cellic Ctec2 cellulases using yeast extract (20 g/L) as the nitrogen source, giving 114...
April 24, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433594/favouring-no-over-h2o2-production-will-increase-pb-tolerance-in-prosopis-farcta-via-altered-primary-metabolism
#14
Somaieh Zafari, Mohsen Sharifi, Luis A J Mur, Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known in triggering defense functions to detoxify heavy metal stresses. To investigate the relevance of ROS production, Pb treatment (400µM) alone and in combination with 400µM sodium ascorbate (Asc: as H2O2 scavenger) were given to hydroponically grown Prosopis farcta seedlings over a time course of 72h. Data presented here indicate that, the low extent of H2O2 due to scavenging by ascorbate, together with high level of NO improved Pb+Asc- treated Prosopis growth...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433584/electrohydrolysis-pretreatment-of-water-hyacinth-for-enhanced-hydrolysis
#15
Visva Bharati Barua, V Wilson Raju, Sophia Lippold, Ajay S Kalamdhad
This study investigates the use of electrohydrolysis pretreatment on water hyacinth to cut short the hydrolysis step and increase biogas production at the same time. Electrohydrolysis pretreatment of water hyacinth at 20V for 60min exhibited improved solubilisation (42.9%). Therefore, bio-chemical methane potential (BMP) test was carried out between water hyacinth pretreated at 20V for 60min and untreated water hyacinth. By the end of 30days, cumulative methane production of 2455±17mL CH4/g VS for electrohydrolysis pretreated substrate and 1936±27mL CH4/g VS for the untreated substrate was achieved...
April 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433190/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-isolated-lignin-on-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-cellulose
#16
Hongdan Zhang, Shubin Wu, Jun Xie
The different physical and chemical properties of lignin might have various effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates. In this study, the influence of lignin on enzymatic digestibility of cellulose was assessed. Addition of 20% (4g/L) isolated enzymatic lignin (lignin 2 and 3) and kraft lignin (lignin 4) resulted in 5-20% drop of glucose yield, depending on lignin sources. The inhibitory effect of lignin was abated as the enzyme loading increased from 10 to 20FPU/g dry substrate. However, the increasing lignin amount to 40% (8g/L) did not appear to further decrease the cellulose hydrolysis efficiency...
June 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433151/integrated-production-of-lignin-containing-cellulose-nanocrystals-lcnc-and-nanofibrils-lcnf-using-an-easily-recyclable-di-carboxylic-acid
#17
Huiyang Bian, Liheng Chen, Hongqi Dai, J Y Zhu
Here we demonstrate di-carboxylic acid hydrolysis for the integrated production of lignin containing cellulose nanocrystals (LCNC) and nanofibrils (LCNF) using two unbleached mixed hardwood chemical pulps of lignin contents of 3.9 and 17.2%. Acid hydrolysis experiments used maleic acid solution of 60wt% concentration at 120°C for 120min under ambient pressure. Yields of LCNC were low of less than 6% under this set of conditions. The higher lignin content sample produced LCNC with greater height (diameter) of 25nm but similar length of approximately 230nm to that from the lower lignin content fibers (height of 20nm)...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433145/influence-of-the-radial-stem-composition-on-the-thermal-behaviour-of-miscanthus-and-sorghum-genotypes
#18
Lucie Chupin, Dieter de Ridder, Anne Clément-Vidal, Armelle Soutiras, Emilie Gineau, Grégory Mouille, Stéphanie Arnoult, Maryse Brancourt-Hulmel, Catherine Lapierre, David Pot, Luc Vincent, Alice Mija, Patrick Navard
The hypothesis made is that thermal resistance of sorghum and miscanthus stem pieces taken at well-defined positions of the stem is simply related to their biochemical composition. For miscanthus, two different genotypes and two internode levels were selected. For each region, the stem was divided into three radial layers. For sorghum, two different genotypes were selected and the stem was divided into the same three radial layers. The results show that the thermal analysis is only sensitive to very large variations of compositions...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432947/pretreatment-of-eucalyptus-in-biphasic-system-for-furfural-production-and-accelerated-enzymatic-hydrolysis
#19
Xiudong Zhang, Yuanyuan Bai, Xuefei Cao, Runcang Sun
Herein, an efficient biphasic pretreatment process was developed to improve the production of furfural (FF) and glucose from Eucalyptus. The influence of formic acid and NaCl on FF production from xylose in water and various biphasic systems was investigated. Results showed that the addition of formic acid and NaCl significantly promoted the FF yield, and the biphasic system of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone)/water exhibited the best performance for FF production. Then the Eucalyptus was pretreated in the MIBK/water system, and a maximum FF yield of 82...
April 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432679/potential-use-of-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-l-walp-stover-treated-with-white-rot-fungi-as-rabbit-feed
#20
Ederson Andrade, Victor Pinheiro, Alexandre Gonçalves, John W Cone, Guilhermina Marques, Valéria Silva, Luis Ferreira, Miguel Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Lignin inhibitory effects within the cell wall structure constitute a serious drawback in maximizing the utilization of fibrous feedstuffs in animal feeding. In this way, treatments that promote efficient delignification of these materials must be applied. This study evaluated the potential of white-rot fungi to upgrade the nutritive value of cowpea stover for rabbits feeding. RESULTS: There was an increase in the crude protein content of all substrates as a result of fungi treatments reaching a net gain of 13% for Pleurotus citrinopileatus incubation...
April 22, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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