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Yuanyuan Li, Qiliang Fu, Ramiro Rojas, Min Yan, Martin Lawoko, Lars Berglund
Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt% of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Meanwhile, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structure...
July 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
Judith Schäfer, Bernhard Trierweiler, Mirko Bunzel
BACKGROUND: Lignified cell walls are important factors for textural and physiological properties of plant-based foods. However, carrot lignins and their modifications during maturation are poorly described. The objective of this study was to describe carrot lignins in detail and to study lignin structural alterations at later stages of maturity. RESULTS: Klason and acetyl bromide soluble lignin contents of insoluble fibers of carrots harvested at different times (26, 29, and 35 weeks after seeding) ranged between 46...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Lisa Weigand, Shahrokh Mostame, Agnieszka Brandt-Talbot, Tom Welton, Jason P Hallett
The ionoSolv pretreatment is a new technique employing protic low-cost ionic liquids and has previously been applied to successfully fractionate switchgrass and the grass Miscanthus giganteus. This study investigates the effect of using the protic ionic liquid solution [N2220][HSO4]80% with two different acid/base ratios (1.02 and 0.98) at 120, 150 and 170 °C on the pretreatment outcome of the hardwood willow. The ionic liquid solution was able to fractionate willow, and a pulp and lignin fraction were recovered after treatment...
July 18, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Qing-Hu Ma, Hai-Hao Zhu, Jia-Qi Han
ROP is a subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins that uniquely exist in plants. It acts as versatile molecular switches that regulate various developmental processes. Some ROP proteins are also reported to affect defense responses, although their exact mechanism is not fully understood. Herein, ROP members in wheat were mined; the functions of three wheat ROP proteins were studied. RT-PCR results showed that the expression of TaRac1 was rapidly and strongly induced after leaf rust infection. TaRac1 interacted with TaCCR in yeast-hybridization assay...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Martina Benáková, Hassan Ahmadi, Zuzana Dučaiová, Edita Tylová, Stephan Clemens, Jiří Tůma
Clarifying the connection between metal exposure and anatomical changes represents an important challenge for a better understanding of plant phytoextraction potential. A hydroponic screening experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of combined interactions of Cd and Zn on mineral uptake (Mg, K, Ca, Na) and on the physiological and anatomical characteristics of Brassica napus L cv. Cadeli, Viking, and Navajo. Plants were exposed to 5 μM Cd (CdCl2), 10 μM Zn (ZnSO4), or both Cd + Zn, for 14 days...
July 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jie Arro, Jose Cuenca, Yingzhen Yang, Zhenchang Liang, Peter Cousins, Gan-Yuan Zhong
The shoot structure of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera L. typically exhibits a three-node modular repetitive pattern, two sequential leaf-opposed tendrils followed by a tendril-free node. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of this pattern by characterizing differentially expressed genes in 10 bulk samples of young tendril tissue from two grapevine populations showing segregation of mutant or wild-type shoot/tendril phyllotaxy. One population was the selfed progeny and the other one, an outcrossed progeny of a Vitis hybrid, 'Roger's Red'...
2017: Horticulture Research
He Hao, Yonglan Tian, Huayong Zhang, Yang Chai
The effect of copper (added as CuCl2) on the anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites straw and cow dung was studied in pilot experiments by investigating the biogas properties, process stability, substrate degradation and enzyme activities at different stages of mesophilic fermentation. The results showed that 30 and 100 mg/L Cu(2+) addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by up to 43.62 and 20.77% respectively, and brought forward the daily biogas yield peak, while 500 mg/L Cu(2+) addition inhibited biogas production...
July 15, 2017: Biodegradation
Jun-Jian Wang, Oliva Pisani, Lisa H Lin, Olivia O Y Lun, Richard D Bowden, Kate Lajtha, André J Simpson, Myrna J Simpson
Understanding soil organic matter (OM) biogeochemistry at the molecular-level is essential for assessing potential impacts from management practices and climate change on shifts in soil carbon storage. Biomarker analyses and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used in an ongoing detrital input and removal treatment experiment in a temperate deciduous forest in Pennsylvania, USA, to examine how above- and below-ground plant inputs control soil OM quantity and quality at the molecular-level. From plant material to surface soils, the free acyclic lipids and cutin, suberin, and lignin biomarkers were preferentially retained over free sugars and free cyclic lipids...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Junchao Zhao, Xiuna Ren, Ronghua Li, Zhen Wang, Meijing Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0%) of medical stone (MS) on the lignocellulose degradation and organic matter humification during pig manure (PM) composting. The results indicated that the addition of MS drastically promoted the organic carbon and lignin degradation. Compared to the control, the decomposition rate of hemicellulose and cellulose was increased by 9.64-27.08% and 2.11-12.07% in MS added treatments. Meanwhile, MS amendment significantly improved the humification of composting process, and the humic acid contents in MS added treatments were 5...
July 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Isabelle C Valim, Juliana L G Fidalgo, Artur S C Rego, Cecília Vilani, Ana Rosa F A Martins, Brunno F Santos
The present study examines the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as prediction and fault detection tools for the delignification process of sugarcane bagasse via hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Experimental conditions varied from 25 to 45°C for temperature and from 1.5% to 7.5% (v/v) for H2O2 concentrations. Analytical results for the delignification were obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis and used for the ANN training and testing steps, allowing for the development of ANN models. The condition experimentally identified as the most suitable for the delignification process was of 25°C with 4...
July 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Thomas Gillgren, Mattias Hedenström, Leif J Jönsson
Lignin, an underutilized by-product from chemical pulping of wood, can be modified enzymatically through oxidation by laccase. However, little is known about the molecular details surrounding the cross-linking which is a result of the oxidation. To reduce this lack of knowledge, we used oxygen consumption rate data, phenolic content data and molecular weight data together with data from NMR and FTIR spectroscopy to characterize laccase-catalyzed cross-linking of the industrial lignin preparations organosolv lignin and lignosulfonate...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nasrin Jafari, Shahla Rezaei, Rezvan Rezaie, Haleh Dilmaghani, Mohammad Reza Khoshayand, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi
Extremozymes have gained importance for their ability to efficiently develop the processes in rigorous industrial conditions with incidence in the recycling of especially robust natural wastes. The production of an extracellular laccase from the halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens aided for the bio-delignification of almond shell was optimized using response surface methodology followed by one-factor-at-a-time, resulting in an 80-fold increase in the enzyme yield. Out of 10 different medium components, CuSO4, ZnSO4, glucose, and urea were shown to have the greatest effects on the laccase production...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yanan Yin, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Wen Song, Kaiyu Zhang, Xin Zhang, Chunya Lu, Jiayao Liu
The present study investigated the effects of different concentrations of chromium (i.e., 200 and 700mgkg(-1) Cr corresponding to Cr200 and Cr700, respectively) on the microorganisms in swine manure compost. The results demonstrated that a high concentration of Cr(III) could inhibit the activity of key microbial enzymes (i.e., dehydrogenase, cellulase, and urease) in the early composting stages, with maximal inhibition rates of 54.9%, 32.8%, and 46.7% for cellulase, urease, and dehydrogenase, respectively. Furthermore, the bacterial abundances were determined by quantitative PCR and their compositions were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis...
July 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Svetlana V Obydenkova, Panos D Kouris, Emiel J M Hensen, Hero J Heeres, Michael D Boot
This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability. The first factor, the logistics scheme, exhibited the disadvantage of the centralized approach, owing to prohibitively expensive transportation costs of the low energy-dense lignin...
June 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Stefan Salentinig, Mark Schubert
Lignin is a natural, renewable biopolymer synthesized by plants. It is a macromolecule consisting of aromatic structures with high density of functional groups making it an ideal precursor for the design of sustainable biomaterials for applications such as drug delivery. The rational design of these materials requires an in-depth understanding of the underlying lignin self-assembly in solution. Colloidal transformations from nano-sized lignin assemblies to sub-micron sized spherical particles upon solvent exchange were studied using small angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy...
July 14, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Julien Le Roy, Anne-Sophie Blervacq, Anne Créach, Brigitte Huss, Simon Hawkins, Godfrey Neutelings
BACKGROUND: Bast fibres are characterized by very thick secondary cell walls containing high amounts of cellulose and low lignin contents in contrast to the heavily lignified cell walls typically found in the xylem tissues. To improve the quality of the fiber-based products in the future, a thorough understanding of the main cell wall polymer biosynthetic pathways is required. In this study we have carried out a characterization of the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in flax along with some of their regulation mechanisms...
July 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Łukasz Klapiszewski, Tadeusz J Szalaty, Beata Kurc, Małgorzata Stanisz, Andrzej Skrzypczak, Teofil Jesionowski
Kraft lignin (KL) was activated using selected ionic liquids (ILs). The activated form of the biopolymer, due to the presence of carbonyl groups, can be used in electrochemical tests. To increase the application potential of the system in electrochemistry, activated lignin forms were combined with manganese dioxide, and the most important physicochemical and morphological-microstructural properties of the novel, functional hybrid systems were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential analysis, thermal stability (TGA/DTG) and porous structure analysis...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yun-Yan Wang, Yi-Ru Chen, Simo Sarkanen
Lignins upgrade the lignocellulosic cell-wall domains in all vascular plants; they embody 20-30% of terrestrial organic carbon. For 50 years, mistaken assumptions about the configuration of lignin have hindered the development of useful polymeric materials with a lignin content above 40 wt%. Now, polymeric materials composed only of methylated softwood lignin derivatives can exhibit better tensile behavior than polystyrene. Marked improvements may be achieved with small quantities (5-10 wt%) of miscible blend components as simple as poly(ethylene glycol)...
July 12, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Barry Goodell, Yuan Zhu, Seong Kim, Kabindra Kafle, Daniel Eastwood, Geoffrey Daniel, Jody Jellison, Makoto Yoshida, Leslie Groom, Sai Venkatesh Pingali, Hugh O'Neill
Wood decayed by brown rot fungi and wood treated with the chelator-mediated Fenton (CMF) reaction, either alone or together with a cellulose enzyme cocktail, was analyzed by small angle neutron scattering (SANS), sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that the CMF mechanism mimicked brown rot fungal attack for both holocellulose and lignin components of the wood...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Piotr Chylenski, Dejan M Petrović, Gerdt Müller, Marie Dahlström, Oskar Bengtsson, Martin Lersch, Matti Siika-Aho, Svein Jarle Horn, Vincent G H Eijsink
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the development of enzyme cocktails for degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, especially the discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs), have opened new perspectives for process design and optimization. Softwood biomass is an abundant resource in many parts of the world, including Scandinavia, but efficient pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of softwoods are challenging. Sulfite pulping-based pretreatments, such as in the BALI™ process, yield substrates that are relatively easy to degrade...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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