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Mahesh Rangu, Zhujia Ye, Sarabjit Bhatti, Suping Zhou, Yong Yang, Tara Fish, Theodore W Thannhauser
In this paper, we report on aluminum (Al)-induced root proteomic changes in switchgrass. After growth in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 400 μM of Al, plants began to show signs of physiological stress such as a reduction in photosynthetic rate. At this time, the basal 2-cm long root tips were harvested and divided into two segments, each of 1-cm in length, for protein extraction. Al-induced changes in proteomes were identified using tandem mass tags mass spectrometry (TMT-MS)-based quantitative proteomics analysis...
March 22, 2018: Proteomes
Gileung Lee, Kang-Ie Lee, Yunjoo Lee, Backki Kim, Dongryung Lee, Jeonghwan Seo, Su Jang, Joong Hyoun Chin, Hee-Jong Koh
The split-hull phenotype caused by reduced lemma width and low lignin content is under control of SPH encoding a type-2 13-lipoxygenase and contributes to high dehulling efficiency. Rice hulls consist of two bract-like structures, the lemma and palea. The hull is an important organ that helps to protect seeds from environmental stress, determines seed shape, and ensures grain filling. Achieving optimal hull size and morphology is beneficial for seed development. We characterized the split-hull (sph) mutant in rice, which exhibits hull splitting in the interlocking part between lemma and palea and/or the folded part of the lemma during the grain filling stage...
March 21, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
J M M Adams, A L Winters, E M Hodgson, J A Gallagher
Background: Energy crops including Miscanthus provide a storable, portable energy source which can be used to complement a wide range of products and energy generation systems. Miscanthus is predominantly used in Europe as a combustion material for electricity generation but also has the potential for biochemical conversion due to its high yield and low-nutrient requirements. The ratio of holocellulose (hemicellulose and cellulose combined) to acid detergent lignin (H:L) within the senesced material has previously been shown to indicate the relative suitability of Miscanthus accessions for thermochemical conversion...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Tuerdimaimaiti Abudula, Lassaad Gzara, Giovanna Simonetti, Ahmed Alshahrie, Numan Salah, Pierfrancesco Morganti, Angelo Chianese, Afsoon Fallahi, Ali Tamayol, Sidi A Bencherif, Adnan Memic
Chitin and lignin primarily accumulate as bio-waste resulting from byproducts of crustacean crusts and plant biomass. Recently, their use has been proposed for diverse and unique bioengineering applications, amongst others. However, their weak mechanical properties need to be improved in order to facilitate their industrial utilization. In this paper, we fabricated hybrid fibers composed of a chitin-lignin (CL)-based sol-gel mixture and elastomeric poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) using a standard electrospinning approach...
March 19, 2018: Materials
Lilong Zhang, Keli Chen, Liang He, Lincai Peng
Background: Pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a versatile means to convert biomass into valuable products. Wheat straw has been considered to be a promising biomass resource due to its low price and easy availability. However, most of the products obtained from wheat straw pyrolysis are usually of low quality. Hot soda extraction has the advantage of selective dissolution of lignin whilst retaining the carbohydrates. This can selectively convert biomass into high-quality desired products and suppress the formation of undesirable products...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Caroline Mosbech, Jesper Holck, Anne S Meyer, Jane Wittrup Agger
Background: Glucuronoyl esterases belong to carbohydrate esterase family 15 and catalyze de-esterification. Their natural function is presumed to be cleavage of ester linkages in lignin-carbohydrate complexes particularly those linking lignin and glucuronoyl residues in xylans in hardwood. Results: Here, we show for the first time a detailed product profile of aldouronic acids released from birchwood lignin by a glucuronoyl esterase from the white-rot fungus Cerrena unicolor ( Cu GE)...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Chidi E Efika, Jude A Onwudili, Paul T Williams
The effect of heating rates ranging from 5 °C min-1 to 350 °C min-1 on the yields of pyrolysis products of wood and its main pseudo-components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) have been investigated at a temperature of 800 °C in a horizontal fixed bed reactor. Results showed a successive dramatic increase and decrease in gas and liquid yields, respectively, while the yields of solid products showed a gradual decrease as heating rates increased. Increased gas formation and an increasingly aromatic oil/tar support the theory of rapid devolatilization of degradation products with increasing heating rate, leading to extensive cracking of primary pyrolysis vapours...
March 17, 2018: Waste Management
Takuji Miyamoto, Masaomi Yamamura, Yuki Tobimatsu, Shiro Suzuki, Miho Kojima, Keiji Takabe, Yoshifumi Terajima, Asako Mihashi, Yoshinori Kobayashi, Toshiaki Umezawa
A comprehensive understanding of the structure and properties of gramineous lignocelluloses is needed to facilitate their uses in biorefinery. In this study, lignocelluloses from fractionated internode tissues of two taxonomically close species, Erianthus arundinaceus and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), were characterized. Our analyses determined that syringyl (S) lignins were predominant over guaiacyl (G) or p-hydroxyphenyl (H) lignins in sugarcane tissues; on the other hand, S lignin levels were similar to those of G lignin in Erianthus tissues...
March 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hongdan Zhang, Meishan Fan, Xin Li, Aiping Zhang, Jun Xie
In this work, a FeCl3 -catalyzed organosolv pretreatment was employed at 160 °C to remove hemicellulose and lignin in sugarcane bagasse leaving the cellulose-enriched residue for enzymatic hydrolysis to sugars. The solubilized hemicellulose fractions consisted more monomer xylose than oligomer xylose. The FeCl3 -catalyzed organosolv pretreatment significantly improved the enzymatic hydrolysis, nearly 100% of cellulose components were converted to glucose after pretreatment with 0.05 M FeCl3 . Structural analysis was employed to reveal how pretreatment affected the enzymatic hydrolysis...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Liguang Li, Zhenli L He, Malak M Tfaily, Patrick Inglett, Peter J Stoffella
Leaching of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has been reported as a pathway of N loss from agriculture, but the molecular composition of DON in agricultural water is poorly understood. Runoff water samples were collected from citrus grove furrows (CGF), ditches (CGD) and pasture ditches (PD) in four seasons. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) was used to investigate molecular composition of DON. Chemodiversity index of DON had spatiotemporal variations, while the molecular composition of total DON showed minimal variations, except for PD in November...
March 16, 2018: Water Research
Ellen Young, Manus Carey, Andrew A Meharg, Caroline Meharg
BACKGROUND: Plants can adapt to edaphic stress, such as nutrient deficiency, toxicity and biotic challenges, by controlled transcriptomic responses, including microbiome interactions. Traditionally studied in model plant species with controlled microbiota inoculation treatments, molecular plant-microbiome interactions can be functionally investigated via RNA-Seq. Complex, natural plant-microbiome studies are limited, typically focusing on microbial rRNA and omitting functional microbiome investigations, presenting a fundamental knowledge gap...
March 20, 2018: Microbiome
Guangshuai Zhang, Xiubo Yu, Jun Xu, Houlang Duan, Loretta Rafay, Quanjun Zhang, Ya Li, Yu Liu, Shaoxia Xia
Unique hydrological characteristics and complex topography can create wide-ranging dry season environmental heterogeneity in response to groundwater level across China's Jiangxi Province Poyang Lake wetland. Soil traits are one of several fluctuating environmental variables. To determine the effects of soil variables on stable isotope (δ13 C and δ15 N) abundances during decomposition, we performed a field experiment using Carex cinerascens along a groundwater level gradient (GT-L: -25 to -50cm, GT-LM: -15 to -25cm, GT-MH: -5 to -15cm, GT-H: 5 to -5cm) in a shallow lake...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xia Zhou, Dayong Ding, Tingting You, Xun Zhang, Keiji Takabe, Feng Xu
As the main hemicellulose of poplar, the interaction of xylan with lignin was expected to have profound effect on biomass recalcitrance. In this paper, the dynamic changes of xylan and lignin in poplar cell wall during a mild pretreatment using γ-valerolactone (GVL) was investigated using chemical and microscopic techniques. Synergetic dissolution of branched xylan and lignin from the secondary wall of fibre cell was found to play a major role in openning the cell wall structure for enzymatic attack. In the case of the removal of xylan and lignin reaching a certain level, β-O-4' cleavage of lignin which destroyed its interaction with hydrophobic cellulose face was found to make great contribution to the enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chuang Li, Shaohua Jin, Weixiang Guan, Chi-Wing Tsang, Wing-Kin Chu, Wai Kin Lau, Changhai Liang
We demonstrate a method for the synthesis of NixNb1-xO catalysts with sponge-like and fold-like nanostructures. By varying the Nb:Ni ratio, a series of NixNb1-xO nanoparticles with different atomic compositions (x = 0.03, 0.08, 0.15, and 0.20) have been prepared by chemical precipitation. These NixNb1-xO catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The study revealed the sponge-like and fold-like appearance of Ni0.97Nb0.03O and Ni0.92Nb0...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sunil Ghatge, Youri Yang, Woo-Young Song, Tae-Young Kim, Hor-Gil Hur
In the present study, the gene encoding a multicopper oxidase, more precisely a laccase from the thermoalkaliphilic aerobic bacterium Caldalkalibacillus thermarum strain TA2.A1 (CtLac), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. CtLac is a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 57 kDa as determined by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature for 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) oxidation were 8.0 and 70 °C, respectively. The kinetic constants Km and kcat for 2,6-DMP were of 200 μM and 23 s-1 , respectively...
March 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jörg Dörrstein, Ronja Scholz, Dominik Schwarz, Doris Schieder, Volker Sieber, Frank Walther, Cordt Zollfrank
This article presents experimental data of organosolv lignin from Poacea grass and structural changes after compounding and injection molding as presented in the research article "Effects of high-lignin-loading on thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties of bioplastic composites" [1]. It supplements the article with morphological (SEM), spectroscopic (31 P NMR, FT-IR) and chromatographic (GPC, EA) data of the starting lignin as well as molar mass characteristics (mass average molar mass (Mw ) and Polydispersity (D)) of the extracted lignin...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Jasmine C Hollinger, Kunal Angra, Rebat M Halder
BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmentation disorders are commonly encountered in dermatology clinics. Botanical and natural ingredients have gained popularity as alternative depigmenting products. OBJECTIVE: We sought to review clinical studies evaluating the use of different natural products in treating hyperpigmentation so clinicians are better equipped to educate their patients. Specific ingredients reviewed include azelaic acid, aloesin, mulberry, licorice extracts, lignin peroxidase, kojic acid, niacinamide, ellagic acid, arbutin, green tea, turmeric, soy, and ascorbic acid...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Po-Hsiang Wang, Anna N Khusnutdinova, Fei Luo, Johnny Xiao, Kayla Nemr, Robert Flick, Greg Brown, Radhakrishnan Mahadevan, Elizabeth A Edwards, Alexander F Yakunin
Prenylated flavin mononucleotide (prFMN) is a recently discovered cofactor required by the UbiD family of reversible decarboxylases involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis, biological decomposition of lignin, and biotransformation of aromatic compounds. This cofactor is synthesized by UbiX-like prenyltransferases catalyzing the transfer of the dimethylallyl moiety of dimethylallyl-monophosphate (DMAP) to FMN. The origin of DMAP for prFMN biosynthesis and the biochemical properties of free prFMN are unknown. We show that in Escherichia coli cells, DMAP can be produced by phosphorylating prenol using ThiM or dephosphorylating DMAPP using Nudix hydrolases...
March 13, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Aritri Sanyal, Runa Antony, Gautami Samui, Meloth Thamban
Cryoconite holes (cylindrical melt-holes on the glacier surface) are important hydrological and biological systems within glacial environments that support diverse microbial communities and biogeochemical processes. This study describes retrievable heterotrophic microbes in cryoconite hole water from three geographically distinct sites in Antarctica, and a Himalayan glacier, along with their potential to degrade organic compounds found in these environments. Microcosm experiments (22 days) show that 13-60% of the dissolved organic carbon in the water within cryoconite holes is bio-available to resident microbes...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Mark A Lee
Forage plants are valuable because they maintain wild and domesticated herbivores, and sustain the delivery of meat, milk and other commodities. Forage plants contain different quantities of fibre, lignin, minerals and protein, and vary in the proportion of their tissue that can be digested by herbivores. These nutritive components are important determinants of consumer growth rates, reproductive success and behaviour. A dataset was compiled to quantify variation in forage plant nutritive values within- and between-plant species, and to assess variation between plant functional groups and bioclimatic zones...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
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