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Kyung-Ju Kim, Hee Jung Kwon, Min Chong Kim, Young Kyung Bae
Background: CD9, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, is a tumor suppressor in many malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of CD9 in colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and determine clinicopathological and prognostic significance of its expression. Materials and Methods: The CD9 expression status of 305 CRCs was evaluated using a semi-quantitative scoring system in tumor cells (T-CD9) and immune cells (I-CD9) by classifying the results as high and low expression...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Hassan Bardania, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati, Farzad Kobarfard, Farid Dorkoosh, Marjan Esfahani Zadeh, Mahmoud Naraki, Mehrdad Faizi
Eptifibatide is an antiplatelet drug used for the treatment of thrombosis. However, as a result of its accumulation in non-targeted tissues and short half-life, it has a limited efficacy. In this study, RGD-modified nano-liposomes (RGD-MNL) were prepared as carriers for the targeted delivery of eptifibatide to activated platelets. The nano-liposomes were about 90 ± 10 nm in size, with an encapsulation efficiency of 37 ± 5 % and a good stability during 21 days, with a negligible change in the size of nanoliosomes...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
M A Sotomayor-Sobrino, A Ochoa-Aguilar, L A Méndez-Cuesta, C Gómez-Acevedo
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world; its incidence is increasing due to increased life expectancy. However, treatment options for these patients are limited since no clinically effective drugs have been developed to date. DEVELOPMENT: According to clinical evidence, a number of neurochemical changes take place after stroke, including energy depletion, increased free radical synthesis, calcium accumulation, neurotransmitter imbalance, excitotoxicity, and, at a later stage, immune system activation leading to inflammation...
October 21, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Raj Kumar Koninti, Sandeep Palvai, Sagar Satpathi, Sudipta Basu, Partha Hazra
Mesoporous silica nano-channel (MCM-41) based molecular switching of a biologically important anticancer drug, namely, ellipticine (EPT) has been utilized to probe its efficient loading onto MCM-41, and its subsequent release to intra-cellular biomolecules, like DNA. By exploiting various spectroscopic techniques (like, steady state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism), it has been shown that EPT can be easily translocated from MCM-41 to DNA without using any external stimulant. Blue emission of EPT in a polar aprotic solvent, i...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
A Blomme, B Costanza, P de Tullio, M Thiry, G Van Simaeys, S Boutry, G Doumont, E Di Valentin, T Hirano, T Yokobori, S Gofflot, O Peulen, A Bellahcène, F Sherer, C Le Goff, E Cavalier, A Mouithys-Mickalad, F Jouret, P G Cusumano, E Lifrange, R N Muller, S Goldman, P Delvenne, E De Pauw, M Nishiyama, V Castronovo, A Turtoi
Myoferlin is a multiple C2-domain-containing protein that regulates membrane repair, tyrosine kinase receptor function and endocytosis in myoblasts and endothelial cells. Recently it has been reported as overexpressed in several cancers and shown to contribute to proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells. We have previously demonstrated that myoferlin regulates epidermal growth factor receptor activity in breast cancer. In the current study, we report a consistent overexpression of myoferlin in triple-negative breast cancer cells (TNBC) over cells originating from other breast cancer subtypes...
October 24, 2016: Oncogene
Benxu Cheng, Pinki Anand, Anxiu Kuang, Feroz Akhtar, Virginia L Scofield
Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction has been implicated in the development of many neuronal disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies focused on individual neuroprotective agents and their respective abilities to prevent neurotoxicity following a variety of toxic insults. However, the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on proteasome impairment-induced apoptosis have not been well characterized in human neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether cotreatment of NAC and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) efficiently protected against proteasome inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Sara Gianella, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Michelli F Oliveira, Konrad Scheffler, Matt C Strain, Antonio De la Torre, Scott Letendre, Davey M Smith, Ronald J Ellis
To design effective eradication strategies, it may be necessary to target HIV reservoirs in anatomic compartments other than blood. This study examined HIV RNA rebound following interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS) might serve as an independent source of resurgent viral replication. Paired blood and CSF samples were collected longitudinally from 14 chronically HIV-infected individuals undergoing ART interruption...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
Anil K Deshantri, Sander A A Kooijmans, Sylvia A Kuijpers, Maria Coimbra, Astrid Hoeppener, Gert Storm, Marcel H A M Fens, Raymond M Schiffelers
Cancers are abundantly infiltrated by inflammatory cells that are modulated by tumor cells to secrete mediators fostering tumor cell survival and proliferation. Therefore, agents that interfere with inflammatory signaling molecules or specific immune cell populations have been investigated as anticancer drugs. Corticosteroids are highly potent anti-inflammatory drugs, whose activity is intensified when targeted by nanocarrier systems. Liposome-targeted corticosteroids have been shown to inhibit tumor growth in different syngeneic murine tumor models as well as human xenograft mouse models, which is attributed to a switch in the tumor microenvironment from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory state...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Lili Chen, Fangling Ji, Yongming Bao, Jing Xia, Lianying Guo, Jingyun Wang, Yachen Li
The greatest crux in the combination of chemotherapy and gene therapy is the construction of a feasible and biocompatible carrier for loading the therapeutic drug and gene simultaneously. Here, a new amphiphilic bifunctional pullulan derivative (named as PDP) synthesized by grafting lipophilic desoxycholic acid and low-molecular weight (1kDa) branched polyethylenimine onto the backbone of pullulan was evaluated as a nano-carrier for the co-delivery of drug and gene for potential cancer therapy. PDP exhibited good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity in the hemolysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Michael J Moehlenbrock, Shelley D Minteer
Enzyme stabilization is important for many biomedical or industrial application of enzymes (i.e., cell-free biotransformations and biosensors). In many applications, the goal is to provide extended active lifetime at normal environmental conditions with traditional substrates at low concentrations in buffered solutions. However, as enzymes are used for more and more applications, there is a desire to use them in extreme environmental conditions (i.e., high temperatures), in high substrate concentration or high ionic strength, and in nontraditional solvent systems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Serdar Sivgin, Sinan Nazlim, Gokmen Zararsiz, Osman Baspinar, Leylagul Kaynar, Kemal Deniz, Mustafa Cetin, Ali Unal, Bulent Eser
BACKGROUND: Iron overload is one of the most significant problems as a leading cause of death in patients with leukemia and those who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). METHODS: In the current study, we retrospectively evaluated the bone marrow iron scores (BMIS) in patients who underwent alloHSCT (n = 125). The first available bone marrow biopsy specimens prior to the alloHSCT procedure or date of hospitalization (control group) were assessed in a blinded fashion using a standardized scoring system...
October 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Cong Wu, Meng-Qing Gong, Bo-Ya Liu, Ren-Xi Zhuo, Si-Xue Cheng
To effectively reverse multiple drug resistance (MDR) in tumor treatments, a functional nano-sized drug delivery system with active targeting function and pH sensitivity was prepared for the co-delivery of multiple drug resistance inhibitors. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to inhibit GSH synthesis and celecoxib (CXB) to down-regulate P-gp expression were co-loaded in polymer/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles to form buthionine sulfoximine/celecoxib@biotin-heparin/heparin/calcium carbonate/calcium phosphate nanoparticles (BSO/CXB@BNP)...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yoshiya Horimoto, Atsushi Arakawa, Noriko Sasahara, Masahiko Tanabe, Sei Sai, Takanori Himuro, Mitsue Saito
The combination of CD44 and CD24, or aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) alone, is a widely used cancer stem cell marker in breast cancer. However, no conclusion has yet been reached as to which marker is the best for characterizing cancer stemness. Immunohistochemical evaluation using cancer stem cell markers is clearly less common clinically than in basic experiments and how the expressions of these markers relate to patient outcomes remains controversial. To investigate whether combining these markers might improve the prediction of patient outcomes, we immunohistochemically examined clinical samples...
2016: PloS One
Nitzan Krinsky, Maya Kaduri, Janna Shainsky-Roitman, Mor Goldfeder, Eran Ivanir, Itai Benhar, Yuval Shoham, Avi Schroeder
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3) and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa)...
2016: PloS One
Xiao-Bin Fang, Ying-Qi Xu, Hon-Fai Chan, Chun-Ming Wang, Qing Zheng, Fei Xiao, Mei-Wan Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most current therapeutic agents lack the tumor-targeting efficiency and result in a nonselective biodistribution in the body. In our previous study, we identified a peptide Ala-Pro-Asp-Thr-Lys-Thr-Gln (APDTKTQ) that can selectively bind to the receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), an immunoglobulin superfamily cell surface molecule overexpressed during HCC malignant progression. Here, we report the design of a mixed micelles system modified with this peptide to target HCC cells...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jesús Ignacio Mendieta-Moreno, Daniel G Trabada, Jesus Mendieta, James P Lewis, Paulino Gómez-Puertas, Jose Ortega
The absorption of ultraviolet radiation by DNA may result in harmful genetic lesions that affect DNA replication and transcription, ultimately causing mutations, cancer and/or cell death. We analyze the most abundant photochemical reaction in DNA, the cyclobutane thymine dimer, using hybrid quantum mechanics / molecular mechanics (QM/MM) techniques and QM/MM nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. We find that, due to its double helix structure, DNA presents a free energy barrier between non-reactive and reactive conformations leading to the photolesion...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
R C Gerring, C T Ott, J M Curry, Z B Sargi, S T Wester
PurposeTo describe prognostic factors and survival outcomes in patients who underwent orbital exenteration for periocular non-melanoma cutaneous malignancies.MethodsThe authors performed an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of all patients who underwent orbital exenteration for non-melanoma periocular cutaneous malignancies at a tertiary care hospital system over a 10-year period. Patient demographics, tumor, and treatment data were recorded. Survival outcomes included disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)...
October 21, 2016: Eye
Natália Helen Ferreira, Kelly Jacqueline Barbosa de Andrade, Luís Fernando Leandro, Nathália Oliveira Acésio, Suzana Amorim Mendes, Lucas Silva Cintra, Ana Helena Januário, Denise Crispim Tavares
The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Schefflera vinosa (SV), a plant with schistosomicidal activity, as well as its influence on DNA damage induced by different mutagens, methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in V79 cells and Swiss mice. Schefflera vinosa extract produced cytotoxicity at concentrations of 312.5 µg/ml or higher using the XTT cell proliferation assay kit. Treatment of V79 cell cultures with the highest SV concentration tested (150 µg/ml) significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei (MN) compared to controls...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Davod Pashoutan Sarvar, Karim Shamsasenjan, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue homeostasis through direct cell-to-cell interaction, as well as secretion of soluble factors. Exosomes are the sort of soluble biological mediators that obtained from MSCs cultured media in vitro. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-DEs) which produced under physiological or pathological conditions are central mediators of intercellular communications by conveying proteins, lipids, mRNAs, siRNA, ribosomal RNAs and miRNAs to the neighbor or distant cells. MSC-DEs have been tested in various disease models, and the results have revealed that their functions are similar to those of MSCs...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Nadia F Nocera, M Catherine Lee, Lucy M De La Cruz, Cinthia Rosemblit, Brian J Czerniecki
The ErbB/B2 (HER-2/neu) oncogene family plays a critical role in the development and metastatic spread of several tumor types including breast, ovarian and gastric cancer. In breast cancer, HER-2/neu is expressed in early disease development in a large percentage of DCIS lesions and its expression is associated with an increased risk of invasion and recurrence. Targeting HER-2 with antibodies such as trastuzumab or pertuzumab has improved survival, but patients with more extensive disease may develop resistance to therapy...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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