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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723472/human-prostate-tissue-derived-extracellular-matrix-as-a-model-of-prostate-microenvironment
#1
Walter Cazzaniga, Manuela Nebuloni, Erika Longhi, Irene Locatelli, Raffaele Allevi, Roberta Lucianò, Gelsomina Senatore, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Vito Cucchiara, Luca Genovese, Francesco Montorsi, Massimo Alfano, Andrea Salonia, Ilaria Cavarretta
BACKGROUND: Clinical experience highlights the wide heterogeneity of primary prostate cancer (PPCa), even when potentially related to the same grade and stage. Currently available prediction tools and biomarkers do not always allow for early recognition of PPCa aggressive phenotype, sometimes making it impossible to distinguish among men harbouring indolent tumours or life-threatening disease. OBJECTIVE: To establish a novel ex vivo/in vitro model suitable to estimate the invasive phenotype of PPCa cells (PPCaC)...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723230/retrograde-endourological-management-of-upper-urinary-tract-abnormalities-in-patients-with-ileal-conduit-urinary-diversion-a-dual-center-experience
#2
Louise Olson, Hywel Satherley, Paul Cleaveland, Bachar Zelhof, Max Mokete, Donald Neilson, Shalom Srirangam
INTRODUCTION: Patients with ileal conduit urinary diversions are at an increased risk of long-term upper urinary tract (UUT) complications, including anastomotic strictures, infections, and urolithiasis. The reconstructed urinary system poses challenges for endoscopic manipulation. We present and describe our dual-center experience in performing retrograde ureteroscopy to treat or diagnose UUT abnormalities in patients with ileal conduit incontinent diversion. PATIENT AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records for all patients with previous urinary diversion who underwent retrograde ureteroscopic procedures via the ileal loop in our institutions over a 9 year period (between June 2007 and August 2016)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722744/electrostatic-interactions-in-concentrated-colloidal-dispersions
#3
Håkan Wennerström
An explicit expression, free from adjustable parameters, is derived for the effective pair interaction between charged colloidal spheres at high concentration in a medium containing an electrolyte. This is accomplished by first considering the electrostatic interaction between two infinite charged plates placed in a stack of identical plates. These act as a reservoir defining the chemical potentials of solvent and electrolyte ions in a way that depends on the plate separation in the stack. The results for the planar case are then applied to a suspension of identical charged spheres...
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722683/comparison-of-direct-sequencing-and-amplification-refractory-mutation-system-for-detecting-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Qi Feng, Zu-Yao Yang, Jia-Tong Zhang, Jin-Ling Tang
BACKGROUND: Direct sequencing and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) are commonly used to detect epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer to inform the decision-making on tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment. This study aimed to systematically compare the two methods in terms of the rate of detected mutations and the association of detected mutations with clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (in Chinese) and Wanfang database (in Chinese) were searched to identify relevant studies...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720487/pdms-b-pmoxa-polymersomes-for-hepatocyte-targeting-and-assessment-of-toxicity
#5
Klara Kiene, Susanne H Schenk, Fabiola Porta, Alexandra Ernst, Dominik Witzigmann, Philip Grossen, Jörg Huwyler
Nanoparticles, such as polymersomes, can be directed to the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor to achieve targeted drug delivery. In this study, we prepared asialofetuin conjugated polymersomes based on the amphiphilic di-block copolymer poly(dimethylsiloxane)-b-poly(2-methyloxazoline) (PDMS-b-PMOXA). They had an average diameter of 150nm and formed monodisperse vesicles. Drug encapsulation and sustained release was monitored using the hydrophilic model compound carboxyfluorescein. Asialoglycoprotein receptor specific uptake by HepG2 cells in vitro was energy dependent and could be competitively inhibited by the free targeting ligand...
July 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720474/nitrous-oxide-cryotherapy-for-treatment-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-neoplasia-initial-multicenter-international-experience-with-a-novel-portable-cryoballoon-ablation-system-with-video
#6
Marcia Irene Canto, Julian Abrams, Hannah Kunzli, Bas Weusten, Yoshihiro Komatsu, Blair Jobe, Charles J Lightdale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Early esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) can be successfully treated by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), or radiofrequency ablation (RFA). A new portable, battery-powered cryotherapy system using nitrous oxide (cryoballoon focal ablation system (CbFAS) has been used for Barrett's esophagus. It consists of a small hand-held device containing liquid nitrous oxide, which converts to gas within a low-pressure-compliant through-the-scope balloon and freezes targeted mucosa in contact with the balloon...
July 15, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719025/frequency-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-central-nervous-system-relapse-in-lymphoma-patients-treated-with-dose-adjusted-epoch-plus-rituximab
#7
M K Malecek, A M Petrich, S Rozell, B Chu, S Trifilio, N Galanina, M Maurer, U Farooq, B Link, G S Nowakowski, C Nabhan, A O Ayed
Background Central nervous system (CNS) relapse in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a rare but serious complication that carries a poor prognosis. The use of infusional etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab (EPOCH-R) for frontline treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is increasing, though little is known about incidence of and risk factors for CNS relapse with this regimen Patients and methods We completed a chart review of patients with NHL who received EPOCH-R as front line therapy...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718911/clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-validation-of-who-isup-grading
#8
Julien Dagher, Brett Delahunt, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Lars Egevad, John R Srigley, Geoffrey Coughlin, Nigel Dunglinson, Troy Gianduzzo, Boon Kua, Greg Malone, Ben Martin, John Preston, Morgan Pokorny, Simon Wood, John Yaxley, Hemamali Samaratunga
AIM: In 2012, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced a novel grading system for clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based upon increasing nucleolar prominence in grades 1 to 3, with the presence of extreme nuclear pleomorphism and/or tumour giant cells and/or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation as criteria for grade 4. This system is now incorporated in the latest World Health Organization renal tumour classification, being designated WHO/ISUP grading...
July 18, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718848/label-free-high-throughput-holographic-screening-and-enumeration-of-tumor-cells-in-blood
#9
Dhananjay Kumar Singh, Caroline C Ahrens, Wei Li, Siva A Vanapalli
We introduce inline digital holographic microscopy (in-line DHM) as a label-free technique for detecting tumor cells in blood. The optimized DHM platform fingerprints every cell flowing through a microchannel at 10 000 cells per second, based on three features - size, maximum intensity and mean intensity. To identify tumor cells in a background of blood cells, we developed robust gating criteria using machine-learning approaches. We established classifiers from the features extracted from 100 000-cell training sets consisting of red blood cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor cell lines...
July 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718767/in-vitro-analysis-of-rqc-activities-provides-insights-into-the-mechanism-and-function-of-cat-tailing
#10
Beatriz A Osuna, Conor J Howard, Subheksha Kc, Adam Frost, David E Weinberg
Ribosomes can stall during translation due to defects in the mRNA template or translation machinery, leading to the production of incomplete proteins. The Ribosome-associated Quality control Complex (RQC) engages stalled ribosomes and targets nascent polypeptides for proteasomal degradation. However, how each RQC component contributes to this process remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that key RQC activities-Ltn1p-dependent ubiquitination and Rqc2p-mediated Carboxy-terminal Alanine and Threonine (CAT) tail elongation-can be recapitulated in vitro with a yeast cell-free system...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718468/dna-melting-in-the-presence-of-molecular-crowders
#11
Amar Singh, Navin Singh
We study the opening of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the presence of molecular crowders using the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois (PBD) model. It is a known fact that about 15-20% of the total volume of a cell is occupied by molecular crowders. The presence of crowders in the model is represented through the potential depth in the Morse potential. Using equilibrium statistical calculations we find the melting profile and the melting probabilities of the chain. We found that the melting temperature, Tm, increases in the presence of a crowder...
July 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718378/microrna-613-is-downregulated-in-hcmv-positive-glioblastoma-and-inhibits-tumour-progression-by-targeting-arginase-2
#12
Yan Wang, Peng Zhao, Dongmeng Qian, Ming Hu, Li Zhang, Hailei Shi, Bin Wang
Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant tumour that occurs primarily in nervous system and has a high morbidity. Research on glioblastoma has recently focused on human cytomegalovirus, belonging to the beta subfamily of Herpesviridae that plays crucial roles in cancer development and progression. This study aimed to investigate the role of human cytomegalovirus-associated microRNA-613 in glioblastoma. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA-613 expression was frequently reduced in human cytomegalovirus-positive glioblastoma specimens/cells compared with human cytomegalovirus-negative glioblastoma tissue/cells, and a significant correlation was observed between the reduction in microRNA-613 expression and the presence of unfavourable variables, including tumour size (p = 0...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717763/burkitt-s-lymphoma-and-b-cell-lymphoma-unclassifiable-with-features-intermediate-between-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-burkitt-s-lymphoma-in-patients-with-hiv-outcomes-in-a-south-african-public-hospital
#13
Gerhard Sissolak, Matthew Seftel, Thomas S Uldrick, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Nooroudien Mohamed, Danie Kotze
PURPOSE: Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a common HIV-associated lymphoma in South Africa. B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL/DLBCL) also occurs in HIV infection. Outcomes of HIV-infected patients with BL or BL/DLBCL in a resource-constrained setting are not defined. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of HIV-positive patients with BL or BL/DLBCL treated from 2004 to 2012 with curative intent at a publically funded academic medical center in South Africa...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717571/visible-spectrum-extended-focus-optical-coherence-microscopy-for-label-free-sub-cellular-tomography
#14
Paul J Marchand, Arno Bouwens, Daniel Szlag, David Nguyen, Adrien Descloux, Miguel Sison, Séverine Coquoz, Jérôme Extermann, Theo Lasser
We present a novel extended-focus optical coherence microscope (OCM) attaining 0.7 μm axial and 0.4 μm lateral resolution maintained over a depth of 40 μm, while preserving the advantages of Fourier domain OCM. Our system uses an ultra-broad spectrum from a supercontinuum laser source. As the spectrum spans from near-infrared to visible wavelengths (240 nm in bandwidth), we call the system visOCM. The combination of such a broad spectrum with a high-NA objective creates an almost isotropic 3D submicron resolution...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717261/microbial-fuel-cells-from-fundamentals-to-applications-a-review
#15
Carlo Santoro, Catia Arbizzani, Benjamin Erable, Ioannis Ieropoulos
In the past 10-15 years, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has captured the attention of the scientific community for the possibility of transforming organic waste directly into electricity through microbially catalyzed anodic, and microbial/enzymatic/abiotic cathodic electrochemical reactions. In this review, several aspects of the technology are considered. Firstly, a brief history of abiotic to biological fuel cells and subsequently, microbial fuel cells is presented. Secondly, the development of the concept of microbial fuel cell into a wider range of derivative technologies, called bioelectrochemical systems, is described introducing briefly microbial electrolysis cells, microbial desalination cells and microbial electrosynthesis cells...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Power Sources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715477/the-rhlr-quorum-sensing-receptor-controls-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pathogenesis-and-biofilm-development-independently-of-its-canonical-homoserine-lactone-autoinducer
#16
Sampriti Mukherjee, Dina Moustafa, Chari D Smith, Joanna B Goldberg, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-to-cell communication process that relies on the production, release, and response to extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. QS controls virulence and biofilm formation in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa possesses two canonical LuxI/R-type QS systems, LasI/R and RhlI/R, which produce and detect 3OC12-homoserine lactone and C4-homoserine lactone, respectively. Here, we use biofilm analyses, reporter assays, RNA-seq studies, and animal infection assays to show that RhlR directs both RhlI-dependent and RhlI-independent regulons...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715399/integration-free-derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-laminin-521-matrix
#17
Elias Uhlin, Ana Marin Navarro, Harriet Rönnholm, Kelly Day, Malin Kele, Anna Falk
Xeno-free and fully defined conditions are key parameters for robust and reproducible generation of homogenous human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. Maintenance of hiPS cells on feeder cells or undefined matrices are susceptible to batch variances, pathogenic contamination and risk of immunogenicity. Utilizing the defined recombinant human laminin 521 (LN-521) matrix in combination with xeno-free and defined media formulations reduces variability and allows for the consistent generation of hiPS cells...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715393/generation-and-long-term-maintenance-of-nerve-free-hydra
#18
Cassidy M Tran, Sharon Fu, Trevor Rowe, Eva-Maria S Collins
The interstitial cell lineage of Hydra includes multipotent stem cells, and their derivatives: gland cells, nematocytes, germ cells, and nerve cells. The interstitial cells can be eliminated through two consecutive treatments with colchicine, a plant-derived toxin that kills dividing cells, thus erasing the potential for renewal of the differentiated cells that are derived from the interstitial stem cells. This allows for the generation of Hydra that lack nerve cells. A nerve-free polyp cannot open its mouth to feed, egest, or regulate osmotic pressure...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715368/loading-a-calcium-dye-into-frog-nerve-endings-through-the-nerve-stump-calcium-transient-registration-in-the-frog-neuromuscular-junction
#19
Dmitry V Samigullin, Eduard F Khaziev, Nikita V Zhilyakov, Ellya A Bukharaeva, Eugeny E Nikolsky
One of the most feasible methods of measuring presynaptic calcium levels in presynaptic nerve terminals is optical recording. It is based on using calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes that change their emission intensity or wavelength depending on the concentration of free calcium in the cell. There are several methods used to stain cells with calcium dyes. Most common are the processes of loading the dyes through a micropipette or pre-incubating with the acetoxymethyl ester forms of the dyes. However, these methods are not quite applicable to neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) due to methodological issues that arise...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714596/multifunctional-nanotube-mucoadhesive-poly-methyl-vinyl-ether-co-maleic-acid-hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-acetate-succinate-composite-for-site-specific-oral-drug-delivery
#20
Nattha Kerdsakundee, Wei Li, João Pedro Martins, Zehua Liu, Feng Zhang, Marianna Kemell, Alexandra Correia, Yaping Ding, Mikko Airavaara, Jouni Hirvonen, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee, Hélder A Santos
An advanced oral drug delivery system that can effectively deliver drugs with poor oral bioavailability is strongly desirable. Herein, a multifunctional nano-in-micro structured composite is developed by encapsulation of the mucoadhesive poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) modified halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with the pH-responsive hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate by the microfluidics to control the drug release, increase cell-particle interaction, and improve drug absorption. The microparticles show spherical shape, homogeneous particle size distribution (58 ± 1 µm), and pH-responsive dissolution behavior at pH > 6, and they prevent the premature release of curcumin in simulated pH conditions of the stomach and immediately release the curcumin in simulated pH conditions of the small intestine...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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