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critical care sonography

Marianna Zatelli, Norberto Vezzali
PURPOSE: Nasogastric feeding tube is routinely positioned in intensive care units. The complications of misplacement are rare but very dangerous for the patients. The aim of this study is to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of this new technique, 4-point ultrasonography to confirm nasogastric tube placement in intensive care. METHODS: One hundred fourteen critical ill patients monitored in ICU were included. The intensivist provided in real time to perform the exam in four steps: sonography from either the right or left side of the patient's neck to visualize the esophagus, sonography of epigastrium to confirm the passage through the esophagogastric junction and the positioning in antrum, sonography of the fundus...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
G Korbakis, P M Vespa
Neurocritical care has two main objectives. Initially, the emphasis is on treatment of patients with acute damage to the central nervous system whether through infection, trauma, or hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. Thereafter, attention shifts to the identification of secondary processes that may lead to further brain injury, including fever, seizures, and ischemia, among others. Multimodal monitoring is the concept of using various tools and data integration to understand brain physiology and guide therapeutic interventions to prevent secondary brain injury...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Suraj H Rambhia, Catherine A D'Agostino, Ali Noor, Robert Villani, Jason J Naidich, John S Pellerito
Thoracic ultrasound is used at the bedside in emergency and critical care settings. Advantages of ultrasound include rapid real-time, low-cost, diagnostic information that can direct patient care without the use of ionizing radiation. We describe methods on how to perform lung ultrasound, with the intent to educate the radiologist who might otherwise be relatively unfamiliar with thoracic sonography. We describe and depict the normal sonographic appearance of lung anatomy. We also show the sonographic appearance of a wide range of lung and pleural pathologies such as pneumonia, pneumothorax, as well as lung and pleural masses...
December 15, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Paul Atkinson, Justin Bowra, James Milne, David Lewis, Mike Lambert, Bob Jarman, Vicki E Noble, Hein Lamprecht, Tim Harris, Jim Connolly
Introduction The International Federation for Emergency Medicine (IFEM) Ultrasound Special Interest Group (USIG) was tasked with development of a hierarchical consensus approach to the use of point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) in patients with hypotension and cardiac arrest. METHODS: The IFEM USIG invited 24 recognized international leaders in PoCUS from emergency medicine and critical care to form an expert panel to develop the sonography in hypotension and cardiac arrest (SHoC) protocol...
December 21, 2016: CJEM
Niranjan Nagaraj, Pramod Kumar Berwal, Anusha Srinivas, Ramnarayan Sehra, Sarika Swami, Prathyusha Jeevaji, Gotam Swami, Lokesh Choudary, Ayush Berwal
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sonography of the brain is now an essential part of newborn care, particularly in high risk and unstable premature infants. Cranial ultrasound is the most available and easily repeatable imaging technique for the neonatal brain showing brain development and the most frequently occurring forms of cerebral injury in the preterm and terms. This study aims to assess the importance of cranial ultrasound as an investigatory modality for high-risk neonates and to find out the morphology of various cerebral lesions and correlate clinically...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Bruce F Sabath, Gurkeerat Singh
Point-of-care (POC) ultrasonography is considered fundamental in emergency medicine training and recently has become a milestone in critical care fellowship programs as well. Currently, there is no such standard requirement for internal medicine residency programs in the United States. We present a new case and briefly review another case at our institution - a community hospital - in which internal medicine house staff trained in ultrasonography were able to uncover unexpected and critical diagnoses that significantly changed patient care and outcomes...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
James Spain, Matthew Rheinboldt
Representing an ascending, sexually spread pyogenic infection of the female genital tract, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a commonly encountered cause for emergency visits and hospitalizations among young and adult female patients. Though gynecologic evaluation and sonography constitute the mainstay of diagnosis, multidetector CT imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is not uncommonly performed, often as the initial imaging modality, due to the frequently vague and indeterminate clinical presentation. As such, knowledge and attenuation to the often subtle early imaging features of PID afford the radiologist a critical chance to direct and expedite appropriate pathways of patient care, minimizing the risk for secondary complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and enteric adhesions...
September 19, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Toru Kameda, Nobuyuki Taniguchi
Point-of-care abdominal ultrasound (US), which is performed by clinicians at bedside, is increasingly being used to evaluate clinical manifestations, to facilitate accurate diagnoses, and to assist procedures in emergency and critical care. Methods for the assessment of acute abdominal pain with point-of-care US must be developed according to accumulated evidence in each abdominal region. To detect hemoperitoneum, the methodology of a focused assessment with sonography for a trauma examination may also be an option in non-trauma patients...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Yunus Oktay Atalay, Ramazan Aydin, Omer Ertugrul, Selim Baris Gul, Ahmet Veysel Polat, Muhammet Sukru Paksu
BACKGROUND: A nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is a common procedure in intensive care units, with some serious complications that result from the malposition of the NGT tip. This pilot study was designed to investigate the efficiency of ultrasound in verifying correct NGT placement and to compare these results with radiographic findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-center, double-blind prospective study of patients who had received an NGT in the pediatric critical care unit...
March 30, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Siew-Na Lim, Yeu-Jhy Chang, Shinn-Kuang Lin
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of carotid disease in stroke patients has been underestimated because most stroke patients who receive carotid sonography have already survived the acute event. Little is known about the extracranial carotid arteries of patients with acute stroke who need intensive care. This study reviewed color-coded carotid duplex sonographic examinations of the extracranial carotid arteries of patients with acute critical hemispheric ischemic stroke. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 30 consecutive patients who had acute critical hemispheric ischemic stroke and received color-coded carotid duplex sonography in the intensive care unit...
February 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
E Guerado, A Medina, M I Mata, J M Galvan, M L Bertrand
PURPOSE: An update paper on massive bleeding after major trauma. A review of protocols to address massive bleeding, and its possible complications, including coagulation abnormalities, complications related to blood storage, immunosuppression and infection, lung injury associated with transfusion, and hypothermia is carried out. METHODS: Literature review and discussion with authors' experience. RESULTS: Massive bleeding is an acute life-threatening complication of major trauma, and consequently its prompt diagnosis and treatment is of overwhelming importance...
June 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
A Seibel, C-A Greim
Since the introduction of portable ultrasound systems, sonography has become well established as an integral part of the anesthesiological and critical care equipment and of monitoring. The selection of various ultrasound transducers, sonographic techniques and imaging modes enables a broad variety of clinical applications. In depth background knowledge of the technical aspects is crucial for obtaining what a highly sophisticated ultrasound system has to offer, i.e., sonographic transparency of the complete body and valid information on the structure and dynamics of organs and the circulation...
November 2015: Der Anaesthesist
Jantina McMurray, Søren Boysen, Serge Chalhoub
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of abdominal- and thoracic-focused assessment with sonography for trauma (AFAST and TFAST) in nontraumatized dogs and cats in the emergency and critical care setting and to compare prevalence of free fluid identified via these techniques between stable and unstable patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University Distributed Veterinary Learning Community. ANIMALS: One hundred client-owned dogs and cats presenting to an emergency service with no evidence of trauma...
January 2016: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Shawn C Roll, Christina Asai, Julieann Tsai
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal sonography use in point-of-care physical medicine and rehabilitation is rapidly expanding, not only by physiatrists, but also by non-physician rehabilitation providers. AIM: The aim of the present review was to evaluate the current range, extent and nature of the related literature and to identify emerging areas of evidence for the use of musculoskeletal sonography involving non-physician rehabilitation providers to guide research and clinical practice...
April 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Robert Ohle, Sarah M McIsaac, Michael Y Woo, Jeffrey J Perry
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in many critically ill patients. The optic nerve sheath is contiguous with the subarachnoid space; thus, an increase in ICP results in a corresponding increase in the optic nerve sheath diameter. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of sonography of the optic nerve sheath diameter compared to computed tomography (CT) for predicting raised ICP. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database from 1986 to August 2013 and performed hand searches...
July 2015: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Aarti Sarwal, Selina M Parry, Michael J Berry, Fang-Chi Hsu, Marc T Lewis, Nicholas W Justus, Peter E Morris, Linda Denehy, Sue Berney, Sanjay Dhar, Michael S Cartwright
OBJECTIVES: There is growing interest in the use of quantitative high-resolution neuromuscular sonography to evaluate skeletal muscles in patients with critical illness. There is currently considerable methodological variability in the measurement technique of quantitative muscle analysis. The reliability of muscle parameters using different measurement techniques and assessor expertise levels has not been examined in patients with critical illness. The primary objective of this study was to determine the interobserver reliability of quantitative sonographic measurement analyses (thickness and echogenicity) between assessors of different expertise levels and using different techniques for selecting the region of interest...
July 2015: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
David Schnell, Michael Darmon
Three Doppler-derived techniques have been proposed to assess renal perfusion at bedside: Doppler-based renal resistive index (RI) which has been extensively but imperfectly studied in assessing renal allograft status and changes in renal perfusion in critically ill patients and for predicting the reversibility of an acute kidney injury (AKI), semi-quantitative evaluation of renal perfusion using colour-Doppler which may be easier to perform and may give similar information than RI and contrast-enhanced sonography that may allow more precise renal and cortical perfusion assessment...
December 2015: Critical Ultrasound Journal
Adam R Parks, Glenn Verheul, Denise LeBlanc-Duchin, Paul Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Goal-directed point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) protocols have been shown to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the initial clinical assessment of the critically ill patient. The diagnostic impact of the Abdominal and Cardiac Evaluation with Sonography in Shock (ACES) protocol was assessed in simulated emergency medical scenarios. METHODS: Following a focused PoCUS training program, the diagnostic accuracy, confidence, and precision of 12 medical learners participating in standardized scenarios were tested using high-fidelity clinical and ultrasound simulators...
May 2015: CJEM
Daniel A Lichtenstein
This review article describes two protocols adapted from lung ultrasound: the bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (BLUE)-protocol for the immediate diagnosis of acute respiratory failure and the fluid administration limited by lung sonography (FALLS)-protocol for the management of acute circulatory failure. These applications require the mastery of 10 signs indicating normal lung surface (bat sign, lung sliding, A-lines), pleural effusions (quad and sinusoid sign), lung consolidations (fractal and tissue-like sign), interstitial syndrome (lung rockets), and pneumothorax (stratosphere sign and the lung point)...
June 2015: Chest
M Cody O'Dell, Christopher Cassady, Gregory Logsdon, Laura Varich
BACKGROUND: Cranial ultrasound is an essential screening and diagnostic tool in the care of neonates and is especially useful in the premature population for evaluation of potential germinal matrix/intraventricular hemorrhage (GM/IVH). There are typically two screening examinations, with the initial cranial sonography performed between 3 days and 14 days after birth, usually consisting of a series of static images plus several cinegraphic sweeps. OBJECTIVE: Our primary goal was to assess whether cinegraphic sweeps alone are as accurate for diagnosing neurological abnormalities as combined static and cinegraphic imaging in the initial cranial US evaluation of premature infants...
October 2015: Pediatric Radiology
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