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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333744/high-performance-organic-bulk-heterojunction-solar-cells-based-on-multiple-donor-or-multiple-acceptor-components
#1
REVIEW
Wenchao Huang, Pei Cheng, Yang Michael Yang, Gang Li, Yang Yang
Organic solar cells (OSCs) based on bulk heterojunction structures are promising candidates for next-generation solar cells. However, the narrow absorption bandwidth of organic semiconductors is a critical issue resulting in insufficient usage of the energy from the solar spectrum, and as a result, it hinders performance. Devices based on multiple-donor or multiple-acceptor components with complementary absorption spectra provide a solution to address this issue. OSCs based on multiple-donor or multiple-acceptor systems have achieved power conversion efficiencies over 12%...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331956/adenosine-production-by-biomaterial-supported-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduces-the-innate-inflammatory-response-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
Eric Y Shin, Lanfang Wang, Marina Zemskova, Juline Deppen, Kai Xu, Frederick Strobel, Andrés J García, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Rebecca D Levit
BACKGROUND: During myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury, there is extensive release of immunogenic metabolites that activate cells of the innate immune system. These include ATP and AMP, which upregulate chemotaxis, migration, and effector function of early infiltrating inflammatory cells. These cells subsequently drive further tissue devitalization. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a potential treatment modality for MI/R because of their powerful anti-inflammatory capabilities; however, the manner in which they regulate the acute inflammatory milieu requires further elucidation...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330634/corrective-osteotomies-using-patient-specific-3d-printed-guides-a-critical-appraisal
#3
Wouter Rosseels, Michiel Herteleer, An Sermon, Stefaan Nijs, Harm Hoekstra
INTRODUCTION: Over the last decade, the technique of 3D planning has found its way into trauma surgery. The use of this technique in corrective osteotomies for treatment of malunions provides the trauma surgeon with a powerful tool. However, this technique is not entirely straightforward. We aimed to define potential pitfalls of this technique and possible solutions to overcome these shortcomings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with either a uni-, bi- or triplanar malunion of the long bones were included in this study...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330327/signal-complexity-of-human-intracranial-eeg-tracks-successful-associative-memory-formation-across-individuals
#4
Timothy C Sheehan, Vishnu Sreekumar, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Memory performance is highly variable between individuals. Most studies examining human memory, however, have largely focused on the neural correlates of successful memory formation within individuals, rather than the differences between them. As such, what gives rise to this variability is poorly understood. Here, we examined intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings captured from 43 participants (23 male) implanted with subdural electrodes for seizure monitoring as they performed a paired-associates verbal memory task...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327579/can-multielectron-intercalation-reactions-be-the-basis-of-next-generation-batteries
#5
M Stanley Whittingham, Carrie Siu, Jia Ding
Intercalation compounds form the basis of essentially all lithium rechargeable batteries. They exhibit a wide range of electronic and crystallographic structures. The former varies from metallic conductors to excellent insulators. The latter often have layer structures or have open tunnel structures that can act as the hosts for the intercalation of a wide range of metal cation and other guest species. They are fascinating materials with almost infinitely variable properties, with the crystal structure controlling the identity and the amount of the guest species that may be intercalated and subsequently removed...
January 12, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322769/composition-microstructure-and-electrical-performances-of-sputtered-sno-thin-film-for-p-type-oxide-semiconductor
#6
Seung Jun Lee, Yoon Jin Jang, Han Joon Kim, Eun Suk Hwang, Seok Min Jeon, Jun Shik Kim, Taehwan Moon, Kyung-Tae Jang, Young-Chang Joo, Deok-Yong Cho, Cheol Seong Hwang
P-Type SnO thin films were deposited on Si substrate by a co-sputtering process using ce-ramic SnO and metal Sn targets at room temperature without adding oxygen. By varying the DC sputtering power applied to the Sn target while maintaining the RF power to the SnO target constant, the Sn:O ratio could vary from 56:44 to 74:26 at the as-deposited state. After the thermal annealing at 180 oC for 25 min under air atmosphere using a microwave annealing system, the films were crystallized into the tetragonal SnO while the Sn:O ratio became from 44:56 to 57:43...
January 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321955/the-central-domain-of-unc-45-chaperone-inhibits-the-myosin-power-stroke
#7
Paul J Bujalowski, Paul Nicholls, Eleno Garza, Andres F Oberhauser
The multidomain UNC-45B chaperone is crucial for the proper folding and function of sarcomeric myosin. We recently found that UNC-45B inhibits the translocation of actin by myosin. The main functions of the UCS and TPR domains are known but the role of the central domain remains obscure. Here, we show-using in vitro myosin motility and ATPase assays-that the central domain alone acts as an inhibitor of the myosin power stroke through a mechanism that allows ATP turnover. Hence, UNC-45B is a unique chaperone in which the TPR domain recruits Hsp90; the UCS domain possesses chaperone-like activities; and the central domain interacts with myosin and inhibits the actin translocation function of myosin...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321909/detecting-rare-carnivores-using-scats-implications-for-monitoring-a-fox-incursion-into-tasmania
#8
David S L Ramsey, Candida Barclay, Catriona D Campbell, Elise Dewar, Anna J MacDonald, Elodie Modave, Sumaiya Quasim, Stephen D Sarre
The ability to detect the incursion of an invasive species or destroy the last individuals during an eradication program are some of the most difficult aspects of invasive species management. The presence of foxes in Tasmania is a contentious issue with recent structured monitoring efforts, involving collection of carnivore scats and testing for fox DNA, failing to detect any evidence of foxes. Understanding the likelihood that monitoring efforts would detect fox presence, given at least one is present, is therefore critical for understanding the role of scat monitoring for informing the response to an incursion...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321584/the-critical-role-of-phase-difference-in-theta-oscillation-between-bilateral-parietal-cortices-for-visuospatial-working-memory
#9
Philip Tseng, Kai-Chi Iu, Chi-Hung Juan
Visual working memory (VWM) refers to people's ability to maintain and manipulate visual information on line. Its capacity varies between individuals, and neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between one's VWM capacity and theta power in the parietal cortex. However, it is unclear how the parietal cortices communicate with each other in order to support VWM processing. In two experiments we employed transcranial alternate current stimulation (tACS) to use frequency-specific (6 Hz) alternating current to modulate theta oscillation between the left and right parietal cortex with either in-phase (0° difference, Exp 1), anti-phase (180° difference, Exp 2), or sham sinusoidal current stimulation...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321476/sample-handling-of-gastric-tissue-and-o-glycan-alterations-in-paired-gastric-cancer-and-non-tumorigenic-tissues
#10
Barbara Adamczyk, Chunsheng Jin, Karol Polom, Pedro Muñoz, Miguel A Rojas-Macias, David Zeeberg, Mats Borén, Franco Roviello, Niclas G Karlsson
Sample collection, handling and storage are the most critical steps for ensuring the highest preservation of specimens. Pre-analytical variability can influence the results as protein signatures alter rapidly after tissue excision or during long-term storage. Hence, we evaluated current state-of-the-art biobank preservation methods from a glycomics perspective and analyzed O-glycan alterations occurring in the gastric cancer tissues. Paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples were obtained from six patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321268/computational-techniques-for-ecg-analysis-and-interpretation-in-light-of-their-contribution-to-medical-advances
#11
REVIEW
Aurore Lyon, Ana Mincholé, Juan Pablo Martínez, Pablo Laguna, Blanca Rodriguez
Widely developed for clinical screening, electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings capture the cardiac electrical activity from the body surface. ECG analysis can therefore be a crucial first step to help diagnose, understand and predict cardiovascular disorders responsible for 30% of deaths worldwide. Computational techniques, and more specifically machine learning techniques and computational modelling are powerful tools for classification, clustering and simulation, and they have recently been applied to address the analysis of medical data, especially ECG data...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320720/simultaneous-emergence-and-rapid-spread-of-three-oxa-23-producing-acinetobacter-baumannii-st208-strains-in-intensive-care-units-confirmed-by-whole-genome-sequencing
#12
Qiong Chen, Jia-Wei Zhou, Jian-Zhong Fan, Sheng-Hai Wu, Li-Hui Xu, Yan Jiang, Zhi Ruan, Yun-Song Yu, Dao-Jun Yu, Xian-Jun Wang
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a common nosocomial bacterial pathogen with limited treatment options. CRAB outbreaks are disastrous for critically ill patients. This study investigated carbapenemase-produced A. baumannii outbreaks in a tertiary hospital. Although multiple outbreaks were suggested by pulse-field gel electrophoresis, the genetic lineages and evolution between these isolates were not clear. To investigate the genomic epidemiology of these outbreaks and to reveal possible transmission routes, whole genome sequences (WGS) were compared and analyzed...
January 8, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320370/the-spatial-separation-of-electrons-and-holes-for-enhancing-semiconductor-s-gas-sensing-property-zno-znsno3-nanorod-arrays-prepared-by-a-hetero-epitaxial-growth
#13
Ying Wang, Peng Gao, Linna Sha, Yurong Yang, Lei Yang, Jianjiao Zhang, Yujin Chen, Milin Zhang
The construction of semiconductor composites is known a powerful method to realize the spatial separation of electrons and holes in them, which can result in more electrons or holes and further realize more oxygen ions (O2- and O-) (one of the most critical factor for their gas-sensing properties) dispersing on the surface of semiconductor gas sensor. In this work, using one-dimensional ZnO/ZnSnO3 nanoarrays as an example, which are prepared through a hetero-epitaxial growing process to construct a chemically boned interface, the above strategy for better semiconductor gas-sensing preperty has been realized...
January 10, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318953/auto-driven-photo-elicitation-interviews-in-research-with-children-ethical-and-practical-considerations
#14
Karen Ford, Lucy Bray, Tineke Water, Annette Dickinson, Janine Arnott, Bernie Carter
Children can sometimes find it difficult to articulate their experiences if they have to rely solely on words. Giving children the opportunity to use arts-based research approaches can support their participation in research and create a bridge that enables them to express their perspectives and feelings. This paper focuses on the ethical and practical considerations when using photo elicitation interviews (PEI) in research with children. The discussion and examples provided are drawn from an international study that used auto-driven PEI, where photographs are taken by children themselves, to explore children's experiences of living with a chronic condition and the impact condition management may have on their everyday lives...
June 2017: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318673/surpassing-10-efficiency-benchmark-for-nonfullerene-organic-solar-cells-by-scalable-coating-in-air-from-single-nonhalogenated-solvent
#15
Long Ye, Yuan Xiong, Qianqian Zhang, Sunsun Li, Cheng Wang, Zhang Jiang, Jianhui Hou, Wei You, Harald Ade
The commercialization of nonfullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) critically relies on the response under typical operating conditions (for instance, temperature and humidity) and the ability of scale-up. Despite the rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of spin-coated devices fabricated in a protective atmosphere, the efficiencies of printed nonfullerene OSC devices by blade coating are still lower than 6%. This slow progress significantly limits the practical printing of high-performance nonfullerene OSCs...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317246/presynaptic-calcium-channels
#16
REVIEW
Sumiko Mochida
At the presynaptic terminal, neuronal firing activity induces membrane depolarization and subsequent Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels triggers neurotransmitter release from the active zone. Presynaptic Ca2+ channels form a large signaling complex, which targets synaptic vesicles to Ca2+ channels for efficient release and mediates Ca2+ channel regulation. The presynaptic CaV2 channel family (comprising CaV2.1, CaV2.2 and CaV2.3 isoforms) encode the pore-forming α1 subunit. The cytoplasmic regions are the target of regulatory proteins for channel modulation...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316674/the-impact-of-load-carriage-on-measures-of-power-and-agility-in-tactical-occupations-a-critical-review
#17
REVIEW
Aaron Joseph, Amy Wiley, Robin Orr, Benjamin Schram, J Jay Dawes
The current literature suggests that load carriage can impact on a tactical officer's mobility, and that survival in the field may rely on the officer's mobility. The ability for humans to generate power and agility is critical for performance of the high-intensity movements required in the field of duty. The aims of this review were to critically examine the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on measures of power and agility and to synthesize the findings. The authors completed a search of the literature using key search terms in four databases...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315165/exercise-thresholds-on-trial-are-they-really-equivalent
#18
Kevin Caen, Kobe Vermeire, Jan G Bourgois, Jan Boone
PURPOSE: The interchangeable use of whole-body exercise thresholds and breakpoints (BPs) in the local oxygenation response, as measured via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), has recently been questioned in scientific literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the interrelationship of four commonly used exercise thresholds: critical power (CP), the respiratory compensation point (RCP) and BPs in muscle (m[HHb]BP) and brain (c[O2Hb]BP) oxygenation. METHODS: Nine male participants (21...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314747/real-time-monitoring-of-antibody-glycosylation-site-occupancy-by-in-situ-raman-spectroscopy-during-bioreactor-cho-cell-cultures
#19
Meng-Yao Li, Bruno Ebel, Cédric Paris, Fabien Chauchard, Emmanuel Guedon, Annie Marc
The glycosylation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a known critical quality attribute, is often greatly modified during the production process by animal cells. It is essential for biopharmaceutical industries to monitor and control this glycosylation. However, current glycosylation characterization techniques involve time- and labor-intensive analyses, often carried out at the end of the culture when the product is already synthesized. This study proposes a novel methodology for real-time monitoring of antibody glycosylation site occupancy using Raman spectroscopy...
January 5, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313356/sub-cellular-nanorheology-reveals-lysosomal-viscosity-as-a-reporter-for-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#20
John Devany, Kasturi Chakraborty, Yamuna Krishnan
We describe a new method to measure viscosity within sub-cellular organelles of a living cell using nanorheology. We demonstrate proof of concept by measuring viscosity in lysosomes in multiple cell types and disease models. The lysosome is an organelle, which is responsible for the breakdown of complex biomolecules. When different lysosomal proteins are defective, they are unable to breakdown specific biological substrates, that get stored within the lysosome, causing about 70 fatal diseases called lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs)...
January 9, 2018: Nano Letters
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