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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745932/genetic-deletion-of-microglial-panx1-attenuates-morphine-withdrawal-but-not-analgesic-tolerance-or-hyperalgesia-in-mice
#1
Nicole E Burma, Heather Leduc-Pessah, Tuan Trang
Opioids are among the most powerful analgesics for managing pain, yet their repeated use can lead to the development of severe adverse effects. In a recent study, we identified the microglial pannexin-1 channel (Panx1) as a critical substrate for opioid withdrawal. Here, we investigated whether microglial Panx1 contributes to opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) and opioid analgesic tolerance using mice with a tamoxifen-inducible deletion of microglial Panx1. We determined that escalating doses of morphine resulted in thermal pain hypersensitivity in both Panx1-expressing and microglial Panx1-deficient mice...
July 26, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744879/procarbazine-lomustine-and-vincristine-for-recurrent-high-grade-glioma
#2
REVIEW
Saurabh Parasramka, Goutham Talari, John L Villano, Myrna Rosenfeld, Jing Guo
BACKGROUND: Recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG) carries an extremely poor prognosis. There is no current standard of care or guideline-based recommendations. Nitrosourea-based multidrug chemotherapy or PCV - procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU) and vincristine - is one of the treatment options at recurrence. There has been no meta-analysis which looks at the benefits and harms of PCV chemotherapy in adults with recurrent HGG. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy with other interventions in adults with recurrent high-grade glioma...
July 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742832/the-relationship-between-movement-speed-and-duration-during-soccer-matches
#3
Kai Roecker, Hubert Mahler, Christian Heyde, Mareike Röll, Albert Gollhofer
The relationship between the time duration of movement (t(dur)) and related maximum possible power output has been studied and modeled under many conditions. Inspired by the so-called power profiles known for discontinuous endurance sports like cycling, and the critical power concept of Monod and Scherrer, the aim of this study was to evaluate the numerical characteristics of the function between maximum horizontal movement velocity (HSpeed) and t(dur) in soccer. To evaluate this relationship, GPS data from 38 healthy soccer players and 82 game participations (≥30 min active playtime) were used to select maximum HSpeed for 21 distinct t(dur) values (between 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742779/a-novel-method-of-evaluating-key-factors-for-success-in-a-multifaceted-critical-care-fellowship-using-data-envelopment-analysis
#4
Vikram Tiwari, Avinash B Kumar
BACKGROUND: The current system of summative multi-rater evaluations and standardized tests to determine readiness to graduate from critical care fellowships has limitations. We sought to pilot the use of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to assess what aspects of the fellowship program contribute the most to an individual fellow's success. DEA is a nonparametric, operations research technique that uses linear programming to determine the technical efficiency of an entity based on its relative usage of resources in producing the outcome...
July 21, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739841/the-goldilocks-zone-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-to-ensure-that-the-relationship-with-cardiac-function-is-just-right
#5
REVIEW
Matthew Kerr, Michael S Dodd, Lisa C Heather
Fatty acids (FA) are the main fuel used by the healthy heart to power contraction, supplying 60-70% of the ATP required. FA generate more ATP per carbon molecule than glucose, but require more oxygen to produce the ATP, making them a more energy dense but less oxygen efficient fuel compared with glucose. The pathways involved in myocardial FA metabolism are regulated at various subcellular levels, and can be divided into sarcolemmal FA uptake, cytosolic activation and storage, mitochondrial uptake and β-oxidation...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737187/recent-advances-in-asymmetric-total-synthesis-of-prostaglandins
#6
REVIEW
Haihui Peng, Fen-Er Chen
Prostaglandins (PGs) are a series of hormone-like chemical messengers and play a critical role in regulating physiological activity. The diversified therapeutic activities and complex molecular architectures of PGs have attracted special attention, and huge progress has been made in asymmetric total synthesis and discovery of pharmaceutically useful drug candidates. In the last 10 years, several powerful syntheses have emerged as new solutions to the problem of building PGs and represent major breakthroughs in this area...
July 24, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736534/self-organizing-complex-networks-individual-versus-global-rules
#7
Korosh Mahmoodi, Bruce J West, Paolo Grigolini
We introduce a form of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) inspired by the new generation of evolutionary game theory, which ranges from physiology to sociology. The single individuals are the nodes of a composite network, equivalent to two interacting subnetworks, one leading to strategy choices made by the individuals under the influence of the choices of their nearest neighbors and the other measuring the Prisoner's Dilemma Game payoffs of these choices. The interaction between the two networks is established by making the imitation strength K increase or decrease according to whether the last two payoffs increase or decrease upon increasing or decreasing K...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736464/the-generalized-higher-criticism-for-testing-snp-set-effects-in-genetic-association-studies
#8
Ian Barnett, Rajarshi Mukherjee, Xihong Lin
It is of substantial interest to study the effects of genes, genetic pathways, and networks on the risk of complex diseases. These genetic constructs each contain multiple SNPs, which are often correlated and function jointly, and might be large in number. However, only a sparse subset of SNPs in a genetic construct is generally associated with the disease of interest. In this article, we propose the generalized higher criticism (GHC) to test for the association between an SNP set and a disease outcome. The higher criticism is a test traditionally used in high-dimensional signal detection settings when marginal test statistics are independent and the number of parameters is very large...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734964/removing-user-fees-for-health-services-a-multi-epistemological-perspective-on-access-inequities-in-senegal
#9
Philipa Mladovsky, Maymouna Ba
Plan Sésame (PS) is a user fee exemption policy launched in 2006 to provide free access to health services to Senegalese citizens aged 60 and over. Analysis of a large household survey evaluating PS echoes findings of other studies showing that user fee removal can be highly inequitable. 34 semi-structured interviews and 19 focus group discussions with people aged 60 and over were conducted in four regions in Senegal (Dakar, Diourbel, Matam and Tambacounda) over a period of six months during 2012. They were analysed to identify underlying causes of exclusion from/inclusion in PS and triangulated with the household survey...
July 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734477/polarity-sensitive-probes-for-superresolution-stimulated-emission-depletion-microscopy
#10
Erdinc Sezgin, Falk Schneider, Victoria Zilles, Iztok Urbančič, Esther Garcia, Dominic Waithe, Andrey S Klymchenko, Christian Eggeling
The lateral organization of molecules in the cellular plasma membrane plays an important role in cellular signaling. A critical parameter for membrane molecular organization is how the membrane lipids are packed. Polarity-sensitive dyes are powerful tools to characterize such lipid membrane order, employing, for example, confocal and two-photon microscopy. The investigation of potential nanodomains, however, requires the use of superresolution microscopy. Here, we test the performance of the polarity-sensitive membrane dyes Di-4-ANEPPDHQ, Di-4-AN(F)EPPTEA, and NR12S in superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy...
July 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734361/preparation-of-intact-mitochondria-using-free-flow-isoelectric-focusing-with-post-ph-gradient-sample-injection-for-morphological-functional-and-proteomics-studies
#11
Yu-Chen He, Fan-Zhi Kong, Liu-Yin Fan, Jane Y Wu, Xiao-Ping Liu, Jun Li, Yan Sun, Qiang Zhang, Ying Yang, Xue-Jing Wu, Hua Xiao, Cheng-Xi Cao
Mitochondria play essential roles in both energy metabolism and cell signaling, which are critical for cell survival. Although significant efforts have been invested in understanding mitochondrial biology, methods for intact mitochondria preparation are technically challenging and remain to be improved. New methods for heterogeneous mitochondria purification will therefore boost our understanding on their physiological and biophysical properties. Herein, we developed a novel recycling free-flow isoelectric focusing (RFFIEF) with post-pH gradient sample injection (post-PGSI) for preparative separation of mitochondria...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733933/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-h3k27me3-demonstrates-global-reduction-in-group-a-childhood-posterior-fossa-ependymoma-and-is-a-powerful-predictor-of-outcome
#12
Pooja Panwalkar, Jonathan Clark, Vijay Ramaswamy, Debra Hawes, Fusheng Yang, Christopher Dunham, Stephen Yip, Juliette Hukin, Yilun Sun, Matthew J Schipper, Lukas Chavez, Ashley Margol, Melike Pekmezci, Chan Chung, Adam Banda, Jill M Bayliss, Sarah J Curry, Mariarita Santi, Fausto J Rodriguez, Matija Snuderl, Matthias A Karajannis, Amanda M Saratsis, Craig M Horbinski, Anne-Sophie Carret, Beverly Wilson, Donna Johnston, Lucie Lafay-Cousin, Shayna Zelcer, David Eisenstat, Marianna Silva, Katrin Scheinemann, Nada Jabado, P Daniel McNeely, Marcel Kool, Stefan M Pfister, Michael D Taylor, Cynthia Hawkins, Andrey Korshunov, Alexander R Judkins, Sriram Venneti
Posterior fossa ependymomas (EPN_PF) in children comprise two morphologically identical, but biologically distinct tumor entities. Group-A (EPN_PFA) tumors have a poor prognosis and require intensive therapy. In contrast, group-B tumors (EPN_PFB) exhibit excellent prognosis and the current consensus opinion recommends future clinical trials to test the possibility of treatment de-escalation in these patients. Therefore, distinguishing these two tumor subtypes is critical. EPN_PFA and EPN_PFB can be distinguished based on DNA methylation signatures, but these assays are not routinely available...
July 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733647/boiling-and-quenching-heat-transfer-advancement-by-nanoscale-surface-modification
#13
Hong Hu, Cheng Xu, Yang Zhao, Kirk J Ziegler, J N Chung
All power production, refrigeration, and advanced electronic systems depend on efficient heat transfer mechanisms for achieving high power density and best system efficiency. Breakthrough advancement in boiling and quenching phase-change heat transfer processes by nanoscale surface texturing can lead to higher energy transfer efficiencies, substantial energy savings, and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports breakthrough advancements on both fronts of boiling and quenching. The critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling and the Leidenfrost point temperature (LPT) in quenching are the bottlenecks to the heat transfer advancements...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733178/clinical-usefulness-of-serum-antibodies-as-biomarkers-of-gastrointestinal-and-liver-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Antonio Di Sabatino, Federico Biagi, Marco Lenzi, Luca Frulloni, Marco Vincenzo Lenti, Paolo Giuffrida, Gino Roberto Corazza
The progressively growing knowledge of the pathophysiology of a number of immune-mediated gastrointestinal and liver disorders, including autoimmune atrophic gastritis, coeliac disease, autoimmune enteropathy, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cholangitis and autoimmune pancreatitis, together with the improvement of their detection methods have increased the diagnostic power of serum antibodies. In some cases - coeliac disease and autoimmune atrophic gastritis - they have radically changed gastroenterologists' diagnostic ability, while in others - autoimmune hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune pancreatitis - their diagnostic performance is still inadequate...
June 23, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732757/multimodal-exercise-training-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-persons-with-substantial-mobility-disability
#15
Brian M Sandroff, Rachel E Bollaert, Lara A Pilutti, Melissa L Peterson, Tracy Baynard, Bo Fernhall, Edward McAuley, Robert W Motl
BACKGROUND: Mobility disability is a common, debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been identified as an approach to improve MS-related mobility disability. However, exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobility in MS have generally not selectively targeted those with the onset of irreversible mobility disability. OBJECTIVES: The current multi-site RCT compared the efficacy of 6-months of supervised, multimodal exercise training with an active control condition for improving mobility, gait, physical fitness, and cognitive outcomes in persons with substantial MS-related mobility disability...
July 18, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731635/university-foodservices-potential-for-providing-environmental-education-to-students
#16
Chelsea Slobbé, Miranda Mirosa, Carla Thomson
AIMS: University foodservices are potentially well placed to foster environmental education in a non-classroom setting and so could have the power to benefit communities through producing environmentally literate graduates. Buy-in from foodservice staff is critical for realising this potential, so understanding what foodservice staff think about their foodservice engaging in the provision of environmental education is essential. The aim of this study was to identify the dominant perspectives held by university foodservice staff about the desirability and realities of fostering environmental education in their workplaces...
April 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731618/controlling-the-near-infrared-transparency-of-costal-cartilage-by-impregnation-with-clearing-agents-and-magnetite-nanoparticles
#17
Yulia Alexandrovskaya, Kirill Sadovnikov, Andrey Sharov, Anna Sherstneva, Evgeniy Evtushenko, Alexander Omelchenko, Mariya Obrezkova, Valery Tuchin, Valery Lunin, Emil Sobol
Penetration depth of near infrared laser radiation to costal cartilage is controlled by the tissue absorption and scattering and it is the critical parameter to provide the relaxation of mechanical stress throughout the whole thickness of cartilage implant. To enhance the penetration for the laser radiation on 1.56 μm the optical clearing solutions of glycerol and fructose of various concentrations are tested. The effective and reversible tissue clearance was achieved. However, the increasing absorption of radiation should be concerned: 5-8(ᴼ) C increase of tissue temperature was detected...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730890/the-biopsychosocial-model-of-illness-a-model-whose-time-has-come
#18
Derick T Wade, Peter W Halligan
The biopsychosocial model outlined in Engel's classic Science paper four decades ago emerged from dissatisfaction with the biomedical model of illness, which remains the dominant healthcare model. Engel's call to arms for a biopsychosocial model has been taken up in several healthcare fields, but it has not been accepted in the more economically dominant and politically powerful acute medical and surgical domains. It is widely used in research into complex healthcare interventions, it is the basis of the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning (WHO ICF), it is used clinically, and it is used to structure clinical guidelines...
August 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729730/a-selective-inhibitor-of-histone-deacetylase-3-prevents-cognitive-deficits-and-suppresses-striatal-cag-repeat-expansions-in-huntington-s-disease-mice
#19
Nuria Suelves, Lucy Kirkham-McCarthy, Robert S Lahue, Silvia Ginés
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder whose major symptoms include progressive motor and cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive decline is a critical quality of life concern for HD patients and families. The enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) appears to be important in HD pathology by negatively regulating genes involved in cognitive functions. Furthermore, HDAC3 has been implicated in the aberrant transcriptional patterns that help cause disease symptoms in HD mice. HDAC3 also helps fuel CAG repeat expansions in human cells, suggesting that HDAC3 may power striatal expansions in the HTT gene thought to drive disease progression...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729412/simple-scoring-system-to-predict-in-hospital-mortality-after-surgery-for-infective-endocarditis
#20
Giuseppe Gatti, Andrea Perrotti, Jean-François Obadia, Xavier Duval, Bernard Iung, François Alla, Catherine Chirouze, Christine Selton-Suty, Bruno Hoen, Gianfranco Sinagra, François Delahaye, Pierre Tattevin, Vincent Le Moing, Aniello Pappalardo, Sidney Chocron
BACKGROUND: Aspecific scoring systems are used to predict the risk of death postsurgery in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). The purpose of the present study was both to analyze the risk factors for in-hospital death, which complicates surgery for IE, and to create a mortality risk score based on the results of this analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Outcomes of 361 consecutive patients (mean age, 59.1±15.4 years) who had undergone surgery for IE in 8 European centers of cardiac surgery were recorded prospectively, and a risk factor analysis (multivariable logistic regression) for in-hospital death was performed...
July 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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