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Critical power

Xiaoqing Li, Yiya Chen
An auditory oddball paradigm was employed to examine the unattended processing of pitch variation which functions to signal hierarchically different levels of meaning contrasts. Four oddball conditions were constructed by varying the pitch contour of critical words embedded in a Mandarin Chinese sentence. Two conditions included lexical-level word meaning contrasts (i.e. TONE condition) and the other two sentence-level information-status contrasts (i.e. ACCENTUATION condition). Both included stimuli with early vs...
May 16, 2018: Brain and Language
Rennier A Martinez, Michelle Shnayder, Joshua Parreco, Lukas Gaffney, Marcus Eby, Nicholas Cortolillo, Michael Lopez, Jack Zeltzer
INTRODUCTION: Hospital readmissions are not only associated with increased mortality, morbidity and costs but also, with current healthcare reform, tied to significant financial and administrative penalties. Some studies show that patients undergoing vascular surgery may have higher than average readmission rates. The recently released Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) is the most comprehensive national source of readmission data, gathering discharge information from 22 geographically dispersed states, accounting for 51...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Satoshi Morita, Ryo Igarashi, Hui-Hai Zhao, Naoki Kawashima
An algorithm of the tensor renormalization group is proposed based on a randomized algorithm for singular value decomposition. Our algorithm is applicable to a broad range of two-dimensional classical models. In the case of a square lattice, its computational complexity and memory usage are proportional to the fifth and the third power of the bond dimension, respectively, whereas those of the conventional implementation are of the sixth and the fourth power. The oversampling parameter larger than the bond dimension is sufficient to reproduce the same result as full singular value decomposition even at the critical point of the two-dimensional Ising model...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
L Michiels van Kessenich, M Luković, L de Arcangelis, H J Herrmann
In recent years self organized critical neuronal models have provided insights regarding the origin of the experimentally observed avalanching behavior of neuronal systems. It has been shown that dynamical synapses, as a form of short-term plasticity, can cause critical neuronal dynamics. Whereas long-term plasticity, such as Hebbian or activity dependent plasticity, have a crucial role in shaping the network structure and endowing neural systems with learning abilities. In this work we provide a model which combines both plasticity mechanisms, acting on two different time scales...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Yan Ba, Ningning Wang, Haihu Liu, Qiang Li, Guoqiang He
In this work, a regularized lattice Boltzmann color-gradient model is developed for the simulation of immiscible two-phase flows with power-law rheology. This model is as simple as the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) color-gradient model except that an additional regularization step is introduced prior to the collision step. In the regularization step, the pseudo-inverse method is adopted as an alternative solution for the nonequilibrium part of the total distribution function, and it can be easily extended to other discrete velocity models no matter whether a forcing term is considered or not...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Jia-Yan Liang, Xian-Xiang Zeng, Xu-Dong Zhang, Peng-Fei Wang, Jing-Yuan Ma, Ya-Xia Yin, Xiong-Wei Wu, Yu-Guo Guo, Lijun Wan
The rapid capacity decay caused by the poor contact and large polari-zation at the interface between the cathode and solid electrolytes is still a big challenge to overcome for high-power-density solid batteries. In this study, a superior Li+ conductive transition layer Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 is introduced to coat LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2, as a model cathode, to mitigate polarization and enhance dynamic characteristics. The critical attribute for such superior dynamics is investigated by the atomic force microscopy with boundary potential analysis, revealing that the formed interfacial transition layer provides a gradual potential slope and sustain-released polarization, and endows the battery with improved cycling stability (90% after 100 cycles) and excellent rate capability (116 mA h g-1 at 2C) at room temperature, which enlightens the comprehension of interface engineering in the future solid batteries systems...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jessica A Belser, Wendy Barclay, Ian Barr, Ron A M Fouchier, Ryota Matsuyama, Hiroshi Nishiura, Malik Peiris, Charles J Russell, Kanta Subbarao, Huachen Zhu, Hui-Ling Yen
The ferret transmission model is extensively used to assess the pandemic potential of emerging influenza viruses, yet experimental conditions and reported results vary among laboratories. Such variation can be a critical consideration when contextualizing results from independent risk-assessment studies of novel and emerging influenza viruses. To streamline interpretation of data generated in different laboratories, we provide a consensus on experimental parameters that define risk-assessment experiments of influenza virus transmissibility, including disclosure of variables known or suspected to contribute to experimental variability in this model, and advocate adoption of more standardized practices...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hai-Hui Zhang, Yao-Ping Xie, Mei-Yi Yao, Jing-Xiang Xu, Jin-Long Zhang, Li-Juan Hu
The anisotropy of metal oxidation is a fundamental issue, and the oxidation of Zr surfaces also attracts much attention due to the application of Zr alloys as cladding materials for nuclear fuels in nuclear power plants. In this study, we systematically investigate the diagram of O adsorption on low Miller index Zr surfaces by using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory calculations. We find that O adsorption on the basal surface, Zr(0001), is more favourable than that on the prism surfaces, Zr(112[combining macron]0) and Zr(101[combining macron]0), under strong O-reducing conditions, while O adsorption on the prism surface is more favourable than that of the basal surface under weak O-reducing conditions and the O-rich conditions...
May 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Benjamin Schäfer, Dirk Witthaut, Marc Timme, Vito Latora
Reliable functioning of infrastructure networks is essential for our modern society. Cascading failures are the cause of most large-scale network outages. Although cascading failures often exhibit dynamical transients, the modeling of cascades has so far mainly focused on the analysis of sequences of steady states. In this article, we focus on electrical transmission networks and introduce a framework that takes into account both the event-based nature of cascades and the essentials of the network dynamics...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Fazel Anjomshoa, Burak Kantarci
The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is aiming at being an integral part of the next generation networking services by introducing pervasiveness and ubiquitous interconnectivity of uniquely-identifiable objects. The massive availability of personalized smart devices such as smartphones and wearables enable their penetration into the IoT ecosystem with their built-in sensors, particularly in Mobile Crowd-Sensing (MCS) campaigns. The MCS systems achieve the objectives of the large-scale non-dedicated sensing concept in the IoT if a sufficient number of participants are engaged to the collaborative data acquisition process...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
Chris Molenaar, Kate L Weeks
Nucleocytoplasmic protein shuttling is integral to the transmission of signals between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of proteins of interest can be determined via fluorescence microscopy, following labelling of the target protein with fluorophore-conjugated antibodies (immunofluorescence) or by tagging the target protein with an autofluorescent protein, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP). The latter enables live cell imaging, a powerful approach that precludes many of the artefacts associated with indirect immunofluorescence in fixed cells...
May 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Thomas R Vetter, Patrick Schober
Researchers and clinicians are frequently interested in either: (1) assessing whether there is a relationship or association between 2 or more variables and quantifying this association; or (2) determining whether 1 or more variables can predict another variable. The strength of such an association is mainly described by the correlation. However, regression analysis and regression models can be used not only to identify whether there is a significant relationship or association between variables but also to generate estimations of such a predictive relationship between variables...
May 15, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Paul De Boeck, Minjeong Jeon
An overview and discussion is made of the perceived replication crisis in terms of end problems, explanations, and remedies. Following a discussion of a published large-scale replication study and a review of the meta-analysis literature, we come to the conclusion that many effects are small and that on average the variance of the effects is roughly 10% to 25% of the population variance, most likely because of context dependencies. The proposed explanations such as questionable and suboptimal research practices (low power, poor measurement quality, and the use of NHST) are discussed, as well as more distal explanatory factors such as journals, funding agencies, and institutions...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Ariel L Furst, Matthew J Smith, Matthew B Francis
The interactions between microbes and surfaces provide critically important cues that control the behavior and growth of the cells. As our understanding of complex microbial communities improves, there is a growing need for experimental tools that can establish and control the spatial arrangements of these cells in a range of contexts. Recent improvements in methods to attach bacteria and yeast to nonbiological substrates, combined with an expanding set of techniques available to study these cells, position this field for many new discoveries...
May 17, 2018: Biochemistry
Ran Cao, Xianjie Pu, Xinyu Du, Wei Yang, Jiaona Wang, Hengyu Guo, Shuyu Zhao, Zuqing Yuan, Chi Zhang, Congju Li, Zhong Lin Wang
Electronic textile (E-textile) with designable electric circuit and multi-functionalities holds great application prospect for future wearable electronics. However, most of the E-textiles still have critical challenges, including air permeability, satisfactory washability and massive fabrication. In this work, we fabricate a washable E-textile that addresses all of the concerns and show its application as a self-powered triboelectric gesture textile for intelligent human-machine interface. Utilizing conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and screen-printing technology, this kind of E-textile embraces high conductivity (0...
May 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Marie S Prevost, Gabriel Waksman
Human infections by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila result in a severe form of pneumonia, the Legionnaire's disease. L. pneumophila utilises a type IVb secretion (T4bS) system termed "dot/icm" to secrete protein effectors to the host cytoplasm. The dot/icm system is powered at least in part by a functionally critical AAA+ ATPase, a protein called DotB, thought to belong to the VirB11 family of proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of DotB at 3.19 Å resolution, in its hexameric form...
May 17, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Sophie Françoise Valeix
In parallel with the recent world-wide promotion of One Health (OH) as a policy concept, a growing body of social science studies has raised questions about how successful OH policies and programs have been in managing some global health issues, such as zoonotic diseases. This paper briefly reviews this literature to clarify its critical perspective. Much of the literature on OH also is focused on health management at an international level and has paid less attention to implementation programs and policies for OH at the national and local levels, especially in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Yu Xia, Tyler S Mathis, Meng-Qiang Zhao, Babak Anasori, Alei Dang, Zehang Zhou, Hyesung Cho, Yury Gogotsi, Shu Yang
The scalable and sustainable manufacture of thick electrode films with high energy and power densities is critical for the large-scale storage of electrochemical energy for application in transportation and stationary electric grids. Two-dimensional nanomaterials have become the predominant choice of electrode material in the pursuit of high energy and power densities owing to their large surface-area-to-volume ratios and lack of solid-state diffusion1,2 . However, traditional electrode fabrication methods often lead to restacking of two-dimensional nanomaterials, which limits ion transport in thick films and results in systems in which the electrochemical performance is highly dependent on the thickness of the film1-4 ...
May 2018: Nature
Matthias Liebrand, Jascha Kristek, Elinor Tzvi, Ulrike M Krämer
Proactive motor control is a preparatory mechanism facilitating upcoming action inhibition or adaptation. Previous studies investigating proactive motor control mostly focused on response inhibition, as in the classical go-nogo or stop-signal tasks. However, everyday life rarely calls for the complete suppression of actions without subsequent behavioral adjustment. Therefore, we conducted a modified cued go-nogo-change task, in which cues indicated whether participants might have to change to an alternative action or inhibit the response to an upcoming target...
2018: PloS One
Wei Gong, Pengfei Li, Yunheng Zhang, Xuhui Feng, Joshua Major, Douglas DeVoto, Paul Paret, Charles King, Sreekant Narumanchi, Sheng Shen
Due to the substantial increase in power density, thermal interface resistance that can constitute more than 50 % of the total thermal resistance has generally become a bottleneck for thermal management in electronics. However, conventional thermal interface materials (TIMs) such as solder, epoxy, gel, and grease cannot fulfill the requirements of electronics for high-power and long-term operation. Here we demonstrate a high-performance TIM consisting of a heterogeneous copper-tin nanowire array which we term "super-solder" to emulate the role of conventional solders in bonding various surfaces...
May 16, 2018: Nano Letters
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