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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757054/pre-season-body-composition-adaptations-in-elite-caucasian-and-polynesian-rugby-union-athletes
#1
Adam J Zemski, Shelley E Keating, Elizabeth M Broad, Damian J March, Karen Hind, Gary J Slater
During pre-season training, rugby union (RU) athletes endeavour to enhance physical performance characteristics that are aligned with on-field success. Specific physique traits are associated with performance, therefore body composition assessment is routinely undertaken in elite environments. This study aimed to quantify pre-season physique changes in elite RU athletes with unique morphology and divergent ethnicity. Twenty-two Caucasian and Polynesian professional RU athletes received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessments at the beginning and conclusion of an 11-week pre-season...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749641/antioxidant-rich-foods-and-response-to-altitude-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#2
Anu Elisa Koivisto, Gøran Paulsen, Ingvild Paur, Ina Garthe, Espen Tønnessen, Truls Raastad, Nasser Ezzatkhah Bastani, Jostein Hallén, Rune Blomhoff, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn
High doses of isolated antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E, have demonstrated the potential to blunt cellular adaptations to training It is, however, unknown whether intake of high doses of antioxidants from foods has similar effects. Hence, the aim of the study was to investigate whether intake of antioxidant-rich foods affects adaptations to altitude training in elite athletes. In a randomized controlled trial, 31 national team endurance athletes (23 ± 5 years), ingested antioxidant-rich foods (n=16) or eucaloric control foods (n=15) daily during a 3-week altitude training camp (2320 m)...
May 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746803/urine-specific-gravity-as-an-indicator-of-dehydration-in-olympic-combat-sport-athletes-considerations-for-research-and-practice
#3
Damir Zubac, Reid Reale, Hrvoje Karnincic, Anamaria Sivric, Igor Jelaska
Urine specific gravity (USG ) is the most commonly reported biochemical marker used in research and applied settings to detect fluid deficits in athletes, including those participating in combat sports. Despite the popularity of its use, there has been a growing debate regarding the diagnostic accuracy and the applicability of USG in characterizing whole-body fluid status and fluctuations. Moreover, recent investigations report universally high prevalence of hypohydration (∼90%) via USG assessment in combat sport athletes, often in spite of stable body-mass...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745773/muscle-oxygenation-rather-than-vo-2-max-is-a-strong-predictor-of-performance-in-sprint-canoe-kayak
#4
Myriam Paquette, François Bieuzen, François Billaut
PURPOSE: This study aimed to characterize the relationships between muscle oxygenation and performance during on- and off-water tests in highly trained sprint canoe-kayak athletes. METHODS: Thirty athletes (19 kayakers and 11 canoeists) performed a maximal incremental test on a canoe or kayak ergometer for determination of VO2max and examination of the relation between peak power output (PPO) and physiological parameters. A subset of 21 athletes also performed a 200-m and a 500-m (for women) or 1000-m (for men) on-water time trials...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742749/the-relationship-between-asymmetry-and-athletic-performance-a-critical-review
#5
Sean J Maloney
Maloney, SJ. The relationship between asymmetry and athletic performance: A critical review. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Symmetry may be defined as the quality to demonstrate an exact correspondence of size, shape, and form when split along a given axis. Although it has been widely asserted that the bilateral asymmetries are detrimental to athletic performance, research does not wholly support such an association. Moreover, the research rarely seeks to distinguish between different types of bilateral asymmetry...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720949/active-recovery-after-high-intensity-interval-training-does-not-attenuate-training-adaptation
#6
Thimo Wiewelhove, Christoph Schneider, Alina Schmidt, Alexander Döweling, Tim Meyer, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, Alexander Ferrauti
Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can be extremely demanding and can consequently produce high blood lactate levels. Previous studies have shown that lactate is a potent metabolic stimulus, which is important for adaptation. Active recovery (ACT) after intensive exercise, however, enhances blood lactate removal in comparison with passive recovery (PAS) and, consequently, may attenuate endurance performance improvements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of regular ACT on training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719234/maximizing-cellular-adaptation-to-endurance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#7
REVIEW
John A Hawley, Carsten Lundby, James D Cotter, Louise M Burke
The application of molecular techniques to exercise biology has provided novel insight into the complexity and breadth of intracellular signaling networks involved in response to endurance-based exercise. Here we discuss several strategies that have high uptake by athletes and, on mechanistic grounds, have the potential to promote cellular adaptation to endurance training in skeletal muscle. Such approaches are based on the underlying premise that imposing a greater metabolic load and provoking extreme perturbations in cellular homeostasis will augment acute exercise responses that, when repeated over months and years, will amplify training adaptation...
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710694/seeking-the-optimal-hematocrit-may-hemorheological-modelling-provide-a-solution
#8
Jean-Frédéric Brun, Emmanuelle Varlet-Marie, Marlène Richou, Eric Raynaud de Mauverger
Hematocrit increases during exercise and is usually decreased after regular training. However the interpretation of these facts is ambiguous since hematocrit is both a determinant of oxygen supply and the major determinant of blood viscosity. Classically hematocrit was assumed to impair blood flow, but it has been evidenced to exert a biphasic effect on it. In order to cope with these two apparently opposite effects of hematocrit, hemorheologists have proposed the concept hematocrit/viscosity ratio (h/η). This h/η ratio is related to tissue oxygenation in vascular diseases (eg, POAD) but not in healthy subjects...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671383/sport-specific-biomechanical-responses-to-an-acl-injury-prevention-programme-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Jeffrey B Taylor, Kevin R Ford, Randy J Schmitz, Scott E Ross, Terry A Ackerman, Sandra J Shultz
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programmes have not been as successful at reducing injury rates in women's basketball as in soccer. This randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02530333) compared biomechanical adaptations in basketball and soccer players during jump-landing activities after an ACL injury prevention programme. Eighty-seven athletes were cluster randomised into intervention (6-week programme) and control groups. Three-dimensional biomechanical analyses of drop vertical jump (DVJ), double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg (SAG-SL) sagittal, and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) frontal plane jump landing tasks were tested before and after the intervention...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666559/assessing-performance-in-pre-season-wrestling-athletes-using-biomarkers
#10
Ionas Papassotiriou, Artemissia-Phoebe Nifli
Introduction: Although regular training introduces the desired changes in athletes' metabolism towards optimal final performance, literature is rarely focusing on the metabolic responses off-competition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical indices during typical preseason training in wrestling athletes. Materials and methods: Twenty male freestyle and Greco-roman wrestlers (14 to 31 years) followed a typical session of the preparatory phase...
June 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662456/dynamic-regulation-of-circulating-micrornas-during-acute-exercise-and-long-term-exercise-training-in-basketball-athletes
#11
Yongqin Li, Mengchao Yao, Qiulian Zhou, Yan Cheng, Lin Che, Jiahong Xu, Junjie Xiao, Zhongming Shen, Yihua Bei
Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643999/sympatho-adrenergic-activation-by-endurance-exercise-effect-on-metanephrines-spillover-and-its-role-in-predicting-athlete-s-performance
#12
Elisa Danese, Cantor Tarperi, Gian Luca Salvagno, Alessandra Guzzo, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Luca Festa, Luciano Bertinato, Martina Montagnana, Federico Schena, Giuseppe Lippi
Background: The sympatho-adrenergic activation during exercise is implicated in many cardiovascular respiratory and metabolic adaptations which have been thought to partially explain the different levels of performance observed between trained and untrained subjects. To date, no evidence exists about the association between competition performance and markers of "acute stress response". We designed this study to investigate; (i) the acute sympatho-adrenergic activation during endurance exercise in recreational runners by measuring plasma levels of free metanephrine (MN) and normethanephrine (NMN) before and after a half-marathon run; (ii) the association between the metanephrines levels and the running time...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623049/specific-changes-in-young-soccer-player-s-fitness-after-traditional-bilateral-vs-unilateral-combined-strength-and-plyometric-training
#13
Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Javier Sanchez-Sanchez, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Alejandro Rodríguez-Fernandez, Manuel Carretero, Fabio Y Nakamura
The aim of this study was to compare changes in young soccer player's fitness after traditional bilateral vs. unilateral combined plyometric and strength training. Male athletes were randomly divided in two groups; both received the same training, including strength training for knee extensors and flexors, in addition to horizontal plyometric training drills. The only difference between groups was the mode of drills technique: unilateral (UG; n = 9; age, 17.3 ± 1.1 years) vs. bilateral (TG; n = 9; age, 17...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618981/influence-of-endurance-training-during-childhood-on-total-hemoglobin-mass
#14
Nicole Prommer, Nadine Wachsmuth, Ina Thieme, Christian Wachsmuth, Erica M Mancera-Soto, Andreas Hohmann, Walter F J Schmidt
Elite endurance athletes are characterized by markedly increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). It has been hypothesized that this adaptation may occur as a response to training at a very young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor changes in Hbmass in children aged 8-14 years following systematic endurance training. In the first study, Hbmass, VO2max, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured in 17 endurance-trained children (13 boys and 4 girls; aged 9.7 ± 1.3 years; training history 1.5±1.8 years; training volume 3...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609946/exercise-induced-cardiac-remodeling-in-athletes-and-in-special-forces-soldiers
#15
Paulo Dinis, Rogério Teixeira, Hélder Dores, Pedro Correia, Hanna Lekedal, Marie Bergman, Maria Carmo Cachulo, Joaquim Cardoso, Lino Gonçalves
INTRODUCTION: Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling is frequent in athletes. This adaptation is structurally manifested by an increase in cardiac dimensions and mass. Soldiers are also subject to intense physical exercise, although with different characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To compare exercise-induced cardiac remodeling in competitive athletes and in soldiers on a special forces training course. METHODS: We studied 17 soldiers (all male and Caucasian, mean age 21±3 years) who completed a special forces course and 17 basketball players (47...
March 30, 2018: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589810/visuomotor-learning-is-dependent-on-direction-specific-error-saliency
#16
Wanying Jiang, Xianzhi Yuan, Cong Yin, Kunlin Wei
People perceive better in cardinal directions compared to oblique ones. This directional effect, called as oblique effect, has been documented in perception studies for long. However, typical motor studies do not differentiate learning in different directions. Here we identify a significant directional effect in motor learning using visuomotor rotation paradigms. We find that adaptation to visual perturbations yields more savings when both initial learning and relearning are performed in cardinal directions than in oblique directions...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584523/brain-behavior-mechanisms-for-the-transfer-of-neuromuscular-training-adaptions-to-simulated-sport-initial-findings-from-the-train-the-brain-project
#17
Dustin R Grooms, Adam W Kiefer, Michael A Riley, Jonathan D Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz, Gregory D Myer
CONTEXT: A limiting factor for reducing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk is ensuring that the movement adaptions made during the prevention program transfer to sport-specific activity. Virtual reality provides a mechanism to assess transferability and neuroimaging provides a means to assay the neural processes allowing for such skill transfer. OBJECTIVE: To determine the neural mechanisms for injury risk reducing biomechanics transfer to sport after ACL injury prevention training...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575714/blood-flow-restricted-exercise-providing-more-bang-for-buck-in-trained-athletes
#18
EDITORIAL
Richard A Ferguson
Blood flow restriction (BFR) has been utilised in physiology for centuries; from William Harvey's (1578-1657) initial use of a tourniquet to describe in detail the systemic circulation of blood, to the use in the last 40 years in the investigation of cardiovascular reflex responses, angiogenesis, skeletal muscle metabolism and fatigue. Recent investigation has largely focussed on the adaptive potential of BFR exercise training, with particular reference to skeletal muscle strength and hypertrophy and its use in the rehabilitation process...
March 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575042/monitoring-morphologic-changes-in-male-rowers-using-limited-portable-echocardiography-performed-by-a-frontline-physician
#19
Deanna L Kerkhof, Caroline Lucas, Gianmichel D Corrado
Athletes' hearts have been studied for adaptive changes in response to exercise. Physiologic changes are normal responses to intense athletic training regimens, whereas pathologic changes predispose athletes to sudden cardiac death. The two alterations overlap in clinical presentation. Research continues to investigate the upper limits of cardiac remodeling to aid clinical decision making. Studying normal changes that occur in response to exercise will advance physicians' understanding of physiologic responses to exercise and potentially improve clinical distinction...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569522/can-athletes-reports-of-self-regulated-learning-distinguish-deliberate-practice-from-physical-preparation-activity
#20
Dora Bartulovic, Bradley W Young, Lindsay McCardle, Joseph Baker
Sustained persistence in deliberate practice (DP) could be aided by engagement in adaptive motivational and metacognitive types of self-regulated learning (SRL) processes. We examined relationships between SRL and each of DP and physical preparation (PP; e.g., cross-training) in supervised, unsupervised, social and non-social practice contexts. 272 individual-sport athletes (from city to international level; M sport activity = 13.54 hrs/wk; 200 males, ages 18-35) completed the Self-Regulation of Learning Self-Report Scale and reported weekly DP and PP amounts...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
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