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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538317/effects-of-inertial-setting-on-power-force-work-and-eccentric-overload-during-flywheel-resistance-exercise-in-women-and-men
#1
Luis M Martinez-Aranda, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
Martinez-Aranda, LM and Fernandez-Gonzalo, R. Effects of inertial setting on power, force, work and eccentric overload during flywheel resistance exercise in women and men. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1653-1661, 2017-Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e., loads) during isoinertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force, and eccentric overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530078/-athlete-s-heart-the-more-the-merrier
#2
REVIEW
Reut Shavit, Michael Glikson, Naama Constantini
Regular moderate exercise training is effective for the prevention and treatment of many common chronic diseases and improves cardiovascular health and life expectancy. However, long-term excessive endurance exercise may induce pathological structural remodeling of the heart. The athlete's heart is characterized by enlargement of cardiac chambers and eccentric hypertrophy with preserved myocardial function as normal physiological adaptations for prolonged and intense endurance physical stress. However, recent studies have demonstrated transient right ventricular dysfunction and elevation of cardiac biomarkers following intense endurance exercise...
September 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516252/chronic-eccentric-arm-cycling-improves-maximum-upper-body-strength-and-power
#3
Steven J Elmer, Dakota J Anderson, Travis R Wakeham, Matthew A Kilgas, John J Durocher, Stan L Lindstedt, Paul C LaStayo
INTRODUCTION: Eccentric leg cycling (cycle ergometry adapted to impose muscle lengthening contractions) offers an effective exercise for restoring lower-body muscular function, maintaining health, and improving performance in clinical and athletic populations. PURPOSE: We extended this model to the upper body and evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-week eccentric arm cycling (ECCarm) intervention to improve upper-body muscular function. We also explored whether ECCarm would alter arterial function...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508888/association-among-practice-frequency-on-depression-and-stress-among-competitive-us-male-wheelchair-rugby-athletes-with-tetraplegia
#4
S L Silveira, T Ledoux, M Cottingham, D C Hernandez
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether frequency of training is related to self-reported lower psychological distress, defined as depressive symptomology and perceived stress, among the US male wheelchair rugby athletes with tetraplegia. SETTING: United States. METHODS: Survey data were collected on a convenience sample at wheelchair rugby tournaments from January-April 2016. Participants self-reported depressive symptomology (CES-D-10), perceived stress scale (PSS), and frequency of rugby practice...
May 16, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493406/beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-and-muscle-wasting-conditions
#5
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490543/molecular-regulation-of-exercise-induced-muscle-fiber-hypertrophy
#6
Marcas M Bamman, Brandon M Roberts, Gregory R Adams
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a widely sought exercise adaptation to counteract the muscle atrophy of aging and disease, or to improve athletic performance. While this desired muscle enlargement is a well-known adaptation to resistance exercise training (RT), the mechanistic underpinnings are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is thus to provide the reader with a summary of recent advances in molecular mechanisms-based on the most current literature-that are thought to promote RT-induced muscle hypertrophy...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490541/exosomes-as-mediators-of-the-systemic-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise
#7
Adeel Safdar, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Habitual endurance exercise training is associated with multisystemic metabolic adaptations that lower the risk of inactivity-associated disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Identification of complex systemic signaling networks responsible for these benefits are of great interest because of their therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases; however, specific signals that modulate the multisystemic benefits of exercise in multiple tissues and organs are only recently being discovered...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486334/aerobic-exercise-supplemented-with-muscular-endurance-training-improves-onset-of-blood-lactate-accumulation
#8
John W Farrell, David J Lantis, Carl J Ade, Greg S Cantrell, Rebecca D Larson
Studies have shown that when aerobic exercise is supplemented with muscular endurance training metabolic adaptions occur that result in the delay of the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). However, previous studies have not explored any submaximal cardiorespiratory adaptations that may result from this training protocol. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with a muscular endurance training program on various cardiorespiratory and metabolic measurements...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481126/increased-levels-of-alveolar-and-airway-exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-runners
#9
Alexandra Thornadtsson, Nikola Drca, Fabio Ricciardolo, Marieann Högman
AIM: The objective of this study was to apply extended NO analysis for measurements of NO dynamics in the lung, divided into alveolar and airway contribution, in amateur runners and marathoners. METHODS: The athletes participated in either a marathon or a half marathon. The athletes self-reported their age, weight, height, training distance per week, competing distance, cardio-pulmonary health, atopic status, and use of tobacco. Measurements of exhaled NO (FENO) with estimation of alveolar NO (CANO) and airway flux (JawNO), ventilation, pulse oximetry, and peak flow were performed before, immediately after, and 1 hour after completing the race...
May 8, 2017: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480694/long-term-high-intensity-sport-practice-modulates-adaptative-changes-in-athletes-heart-and-in-the-autonomic-nervous-system-profile
#10
Witold Slomko, Joanna Slomko, Tomasz Kowalik, Jacek J Klawe, Malgorzata Tafil-Klawe, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Julia L Newton, Pawel Zalewski
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular and autonomic adaptation changes in athletes exposed to high intensity and uninterrupted training for extended periods of time. METHODS: We assessed hemodynamic profile and cardiac function in 22 international master-level athletes, free of cardiovascular disease who experienced particularly intensive and uninterrupted training over a 8- to 21-year-period. RESULTS: One-way ANOVA revealed that in athletes, extreme and uninterrupted strength and endurance training over long periods of time (up to 21 years) causes an increase in resting heart rate (50...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479388/acceleration-based-training-a-new-mode-of-training-in-senescent-rats-improving-performance-and-left-ventricular-and-muscle-functions
#11
Thierry Launay, Iman Momken, Serge Carreira, Nathalie Mougenot, Xian-Long Zhou, Leanne De Koning, Romain Niel, Bruno Riou, Véronique Billat, Sophie Besse
High intensity training (HIT) has been shown to improve maximal aerobic capacity and muscle protein synthesis but has not yet been investigated in senescent rats. We hypothesized that the change of speed (acceleration) during each bout of HIT acts as a stimulus responsible for the adaptations of the organism to exercise. Twenty two month-old (mo) rats (n=14) were subjected to a short acceleration protocol (20-30min) of exercise, comprising 3 independent bouts of acceleration and compared to an age-matched sedentary group (n=14)...
May 4, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475643/a-combination-of-routine-blood-analytes-predicts-fitness-decrement-in-elderly-endurance-athletes
#12
Helmuth Haslacher, Franz Ratzinger, Thomas Perkmann, Delgerdalai Batmyagmar, Sonja Nistler, Thomas M Scherzer, Elisabeth Ponocny-Seliger, Alexander Pilger, Marlene Gerner, Vanessa Scheichenberger, Michael Kundi, Georg Endler, Oswald F Wagner, Robert Winker
Endurance sports are enjoying greater popularity, particularly among new target groups such as the elderly. Predictors of future physical capacities providing a basis for training adaptations are in high demand. We therefore aimed to estimate the future physical performance of elderly marathoners (runners/bicyclists) using a set of easily accessible standard laboratory parameters. To this end, 47 elderly marathon athletes underwent physical examinations including bicycle ergometry and a blood draw at baseline and after a three-year follow-up period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469745/adequacy-of-the-ultra-short-term-hrv-to-assess-adaptive-processes-in-youth-female-basketball-players
#13
Fabio Y Nakamura, Lucas A Pereira, Cesar C Cal Abad, Igor F Cruz, Andrew A Flatt, Michael R Esco, Irineu Loturco
Heart rate variability has been widely used to monitor athletes' cardiac autonomic control changes induced by training and competition, and recently shorter recording times have been sought to improve its practicality. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between the (ultra-short-term) natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (lnRMSSD - measured in only 1 min post-1 min stabilization) and the criterion lnRMSSD (measured in the last 5 min out of 10 min of recording) in young female basketball players...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467942/sprinting-toward-fitness
#14
Martin J Gibala, John A Hawley
Intense intermittent exercise, or interval training, is a powerful stimulus to induce many of the physiological adaptations typically associated with traditional, moderate-intensity continuous training. While coaches and athletes have recognized the value of interval training to enhance performance for over a century, recent scientific interest has focused on the application of this training method for health promotion. Despite renewed attention, the mechanistic basis for the physiological remodeling that occurs after interval training and the role that the stochastic nature of this type of exercise plays in mediating adaptive responses remains to be elucidated...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467934/ppar%C3%AE-promotes-running-endurance-by-preserving-glucose
#15
Weiwei Fan, Wanda Waizenegger, Chun Shi Lin, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Ming-Xiao He, Christopher E Wall, Hao Li, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Annette R Atkins, Johan Auwerx, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
Management of energy stores is critical during endurance exercise; a shift in substrate utilization from glucose toward fat is a hallmark of trained muscle. Here we show that this key metabolic adaptation is both dependent on muscle PPARδ and stimulated by PPARδ ligand. Furthermore, we find that muscle PPARδ expression positively correlates with endurance performance in BXD mouse reference populations. In addition to stimulating fatty acid metabolism in sedentary mice, PPARδ activation potently suppresses glucose catabolism and does so without affecting either muscle fiber type or mitochondrial content...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465675/dietary-thiols-in-exercise-oxidative-stress-defence-exercise-performance-and-adaptation
#16
REVIEW
Yanita McLeay, Stephen Stannard, Stuart Houltham, Carlene Starck
Endurance athletes are susceptible to cellular damage initiated by excessive levels of aerobic exercise-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whilst ROS can contribute to the onset of fatigue, there is increasing evidence that they play a crucial role in exercise adaptations. The use of antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E in athletes is common; however, their ability to enhance performance and facilitate recovery is controversial, with many studies suggesting a blunting of training adaptations with supplementation...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455943/achilles-tendon-adaptation-in-cross-country-runners-across-a-competitive-season
#17
Laura E Stanley, Angela Lucero, Timothy C Mauntel, Madison Kennedy, Nina Walker, Stephen W Marshall, Darin A Padua, David J Berkoff
PURPOSE: Ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) is an imaging tool used to quantify tendon structural integrity. UTC has quantified Achilles tendon (AT) acute response to load in athletes; however, AT response to cumulative load over a season is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate AT response across a 4-month competitive season in collegiate cross-country (XC) runners. METHODS: Participants (n=21; male=9, female=12; age=19.8±1.2yrs; height=171...
April 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423014/initial-systemic-inflammatory-state-perturbs-exercise-training-adaptations-in-elite-taekwondo-athletes
#18
Chung-Yu Chen, Yi-Hung Liao, Chun-Chung Chou, Yu-Chi Sung, Shiow-Chwen Tsai
PURPOSE: This study examined ten-week TKD-specific training effects on aerobic capacity, body composition, hormone responses and hematological parameters in elite TKD athletes with varied initial inflammatory states. METHODS: Twenty-two elite college TKD athletes were divided into two groups according to their initial neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio (NLR) values: Low NLR (N = 11, 9M/2F, age: 21.6 ± 1.0 yrs; NLR: 1.3 ± 0.2) and High NLR (N = 11, 8M/3F, age: 22...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417093/instability-resistance-training-for-health-and-performance
#19
REVIEW
Erika Zemková
Recently, resistance exercises performed on an unstable surface have become part of athletic training and rehabilitation. Accordingly, their role in performance and health-oriented strength training has increasingly emerged as a matter of interest to researchers and conditioning specialists. A more pronounced activation of stabilizing muscles is assumed to be the main feature of instability resistance exercises. This assumption has been proven by EMG studies, which have highlighted significantly greater electromyographic activity of trunk-stabilizing muscles during exercises under unstable as compared to stable conditions...
April 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415084/p260right-cardiac-chambers-remodeling-in-marathon-and-ultra-trail-athletes-detected-by-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#20
K Ujka, R M Bruno, B Catuzzo, L Bastiani, A Tonacci, G D'angelo, S Mrakic-Sposta, A Vezzoli, G Giardini, L Pratali
Background: Strenuous and chronic exercise training can have detrimental effects on cardiac morphology and function. Our aim was to evaluate the cardiac adaptation between 2 different specialties' endurance athletes: marathon runners (M) and ultra-trailers (UT). Methods: 47 M (age 45±7, men 32; training: 18 (9-53) years*days/week), 41 UT (age 42±9, men 38, training: 30 (15-66) years*days/week) were submitted in rest condition to conventional 2D echocardiography and Speckle-Tracking echo (STE) (Beyond Diogenes 2...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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