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Swim, Performance, Athlete

Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene, Younés Hachana
This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb segment length, and girth or breadth ratios of 100-m breaststroke performance in youth swimmers. In total, 59 swimmers [male: n = 39, age = 11.5 (1.3) y; female: n = 20, age = 12.0 (1.0) y] participated in this study. To identify size/shape characteristics associated with 100-m breaststroke swimming performance, we computed a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. Results showed that the 100-m breaststroke performance revealed a significant negative association with fat mass and a significant positive association with the segment length ratio (arm ratio = hand length/forearm length) and limb girth ratio (girth ratio = forearm girth/wrist girth)...
March 16, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Caio Victor Sousa, Beat Knechtle
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of wearing a wetsuit with sex, age group, nationality, calendar year, and performance in crossing the "Strait of Gibraltar"(14.3 km). Materials and methods: A sample of 1,130 open-water (females, n=180, age 35.9±11.9 years; males, n=950, age 40.0±10.2 years) ultra-distance swimmers crossing the "Strait of Gibraltar" since 1950 was analyzed. Results: Male, older, and Spanish swimmers used wetsuits more often than female, younger, and athletes of other nationalities, respectively, and the use of the wetsuit has increased during the past three decades...
2018: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Ruo-Hong Xiong, Shi-Lei Wen, Qiang Wang, Hong-Ying Zhou, Shi Feng
Female athletes may experience difficulties in achieving pregnancy due to athletic amenorrhea (AA); however, the underlying mechanisms of AA remain unknown. The present study focuses on the mitochondrial alteration and its function in detecting the possible mechanism of AA. An AA rat model was established by excessive swimming. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopic methods were performed to evaluate the morphological changes of the ovary, immunohistochemical examinations and radioimmunoassays were used to detect the reproductive hormones and corresponding receptors...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Rachel M Frank, Gift Ukwuani, Jorge Chahla, Brian Batko, Charles A Bush-Joseph, Shane J Nho
PURPOSE: To evaluate patients' ability to return to swimming after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) with capsular closure. METHODS: Consecutive FAIS patients who had undergone hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAIS by a single fellowship-trained surgeon were reviewed. The inclusion criteria included patients with a diagnosis of FAIS who self-reported being swimming athletes with a minimum clinical follow-up duration of 2 years...
February 2, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Stephen Cobley, Shaun Abbott, Sera Dogramaci, Adam Kable, James Salter, Mirjam Hintermann, Michael Romann
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, magnitude and transient patterning of Relative Age Effects (RAEs) according to sex and stroke event across all age-groups at the Australian National age swimming Championships. DESIGN: Repeated years of cross-sectional participation data were examined. METHODS: Participants were 6014 unique male (3185) and female (2829) swimmers (aged 12-18 years) who participated in Freestyle (50, 400m) and/or Breaststroke (100, 200m) at the National age swimming Championships between 2000-2014 (inclusive)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Eileen Bridges, Tawfeeq Altherwi, José A Correa, Tamara Hew-Butler
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether oral administration of 3% hypertonic saline (HTS) is as efficacious as intravenous (IV) 3% saline in reversing symptoms of mild-to-moderate symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in athletes during and after a long-distance triathlon. DESIGN: Noninferiority, open-label, parallel-group, randomized control trial to IV or oral HTS. We used permuted block randomization with sealed envelopes, containing the word either "oral" or "IV...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Daniel Bonnar, Kate Bartel, Naomi Kakoschke, Christin Lang
BACKGROUND: Athletes experience various situations and conditions that can interfere with their sleep, which is crucial for optimal psychological and physiological recovery as well as subsequent performance. Conventional sleep screening and intervention approaches may not be efficacious for athletes given their lifestyle, the demands of training and travel associated with interstate/international competition. OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review aimed to summarize and evaluate sleep intervention studies targeting subsequent performance and recovery in competitive athletes...
January 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Kevin G Keenan, Jonathon W Senefeld, Sandra K Hunter
Men outperform women in many athletic endeavors due to physiological and anatomical differences (e.g. larger and faster muscle); however, the observed sex differences in elite athletic performance are typically larger than expected, and may reflect sex-related differences in opportunity or incentives. As collegiate rowing in the United States has been largely incentivized for women over the last 20 years, but not men, the purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in elite rowing performance over that timeframe...
2018: PloS One
Sunita Potgieter, Hattie H Wright, Carine Smith
The ergogenic effect of caffeine on endurance exercise is commonly accepted. We aimed to elucidate realistically the effect of caffeine on triathlon event performance using a field study design, while allowing investigation into potential mechanisms at play. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, field trial was conducted. Twenty-six triathletes (14 males, 12 females) participated (age: 37.8±10.6 years, habitual caffeine intake: 413±505 mg/day, percentage body fat: 14.5±7.2%, training/week: 12.8±4.5 hours)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
José P Morgado, Cristina P Monteiro, Catarina N Matias, Joana F Reis, Júlia Teles, Maria José Laires, Francisco Alves
PURPOSE: Long-term training influence on athletes' immune cell response to acute exercise has been poorly studied, despite the complexity of both chronic and acute adaptations induced by training. The purpose of the study is to study the influence of a 4-month swimming training cycle on the immune cell response to a high-intensity training session, during 24 h of recovery, considering sex, maturity, and age group. METHODS: Forty-three swimmers (16 females, 14.4 ± 1...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Gabriel Lozano-Berges, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alejandro González-Agüero, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, José A Casajús
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of soccer practice on bone in male and female children and adolescents. MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science databases were searched for scientific articles published up to and including October 2016. Twenty-seven studies were included in this systematic review (13 in the meta-analysis). The meta-analysis was performed by using OpenMeta[Analyst] software. It is well documented that soccer practice during childhood provides positive effects on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) compared to sedentary behaviors and other sports, such as tennis, weightlifting, or swimming...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith, Luciano Sales Prado
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on heart rate variability, subjective measures of fatigue, and swimming performance in young athletes. METHODS: Sixteen swimmers [15.45 (0.51) y old, 7.35 (2.20) y of swimming experience] performed a 1500-m time trial on 2 occasions separated by an interval of at least 72 hours. The 1500-m swimming was preceded by a 30-minute treatment that consisted of performing the Stroop Color and Word test to induce mental fatigue (experimental trial) or watching an emotionally neutral video (control trial)...
December 23, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
Enver Tahir, Jitka Starekova, Kai Muellerleile, Alexandra von Stritzky, Julia Münch, Maxim Avanesov, Julius M Weinrich, Christian Stehning, Sebastian Bohnen, Ulf K Radunski, Eric Freiwald, Stefan Blankenberg, Gerhard Adam, Axel Pressler, Monica Patten, Gunnar K Lund
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the presence of myocardial fibrosis detected by late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in correlation with the performance of competitive triathletes objectified by an exercise test and individual competition history. BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis detected by LGE CMR has been reported to occur in 0% to 50% of asymptomatic athletes. However, the cause and mechanisms of myocardial fibrosis are unclear. METHODS: Eighty-three asymptomatic triathletes undergoing >10 training h per week (43 ± 10 years of age; 65% male) and 36 sedentary controls were studied by using LGE and extracellular volume (ECV) CMR...
December 8, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Leonardo S Fortes, Bruna D V da Costa, Pedro P Paes, José R A do Nascimento Júnior, Lenamar Fiorese, Maria E C Ferreira
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between competitive anxiety and heart rate variability (HRV) in swimming athletes. A total of 66 volunteers (41 male and 27 female) who swam the 400-m freestyle in the Brazilian Swimming Championships participated. Thirty minutes before the 400-m freestyle event, the athletes answered the Competitive Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2R) questionnaire, then underwent anthropometric (body weight, height, and skinfold thickness) and HRV measurements. Then, at a second meeting, held 3 h after the 400-m freestyle event, the athletes returned to the evaluation room for HRV measurement (Polar® RS800cx, Kempele, Finland)...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Monica Tessaro, Giorgio Granzotto, Antonio Poser, Giuseppe Plebani, Alex Rossi
Background: The term "swimmer's shoulder" was first introduced in 1974 by Kennedy and Hawkins to describe a common condition among competitive swimmers characterized by pain and dysfunction of the shoulder complex. Currently, the term does not define a specific clinical diagnosis and its etiology is considered to be multifactorial. In the literature shoulder pain prevalence varies according to the adopted definitions (from 3% to 91%); however, in the Italian environment there is no prevalence study regarding swimmer shoulder...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Pavol Surda, Matus Putala, Pavel Siarnik, Abigail Walker, Ana Bernic, Wytske Fokkens
INTRODUCTION: Limited data suggest that swimmers might be affected by rhinitis significantly more often than the general population. This can have impact on quality of life but also on performance. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and impact of QOL of rhinitis in swimming compared to non-swimming athletes and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational case control, questionnaire based study involving elite (n=101) and non-elite swimming athletes (n=107), non-swimming athletes (n = 38) and sex and age-matched controls (n = 50)...
November 18, 2017: Allergy
Felice Galluccio, Eleonora Bellucci, Francesco Porta, Lorenzo Tofani, Amato De Paulis, Diana Bianchedi, Tatiana Barskova, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
BACKGROUND: Waterpolo consists of a combination of swimming and throwing with close contact between players. The shoulder is the most frequently injured joint, with a combination of rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy, long head biceps tendinopathy, superior labral lesions and shoulder impingement. This unique combination is a challenge for the clinician who must determine which of these shoulder pathologies is responsible for the onset of pain and the best strategy to rehabilitate the joint and prevent recurrence...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Ryan Calsbeek, Debora Goedert
Life-history theory is a cornerstone of modern evolutionary biology that addresses myriad phenomena ranging from demography and population structure to the evolution of aging and senescence. Trade-offs may arise in a number of contexts, from allocation-based (e.g., egg size vs. egg number) to genomic conflicts (e.g., intralocus sexual conflict in which genes that perform well in males perform poorly in females). Here we test for performance tradeoffs in human athletes. We show that in Ironman triathletes, swimming performance trades off with cycling and running performance...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Abolfazl Kalantari, Abbas Saremi, Nader Shavandi, Ali Foroutan Nia
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 week intensive swimming exercise and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on testicular oxidative stress and spermatogenesis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 male rats were randomly assigned to Control (C), Sham (S), Exercise (E) and Exercise + supplement (ES) groups. Exercise training performed for 4 weeks (1session/day, 6days/week). Each session included 180 minutes of swimming. In ES group, alpha-ocopherol was injected at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day...
August 29, 2017: Urology Journal
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Dan Nemet, Eias Kassem, Alon Eliakim
The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
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