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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313111/long-term-swimming-training-modifies-acute-immune-cell-response-to-a-high-intensity-session
#1
José P Morgado, Cristina P Monteiro, Catarina N Matias, Joana F Reis, Júlia Teles, Maria José Laires, Francisco Alves
PURPOSE: Long-term training influence on athletes' immune cell response to acute exercise has been poorly studied, despite the complexity of both chronic and acute adaptations induced by training. The purpose of the study is to study the influence of a 4-month swimming training cycle on the immune cell response to a high-intensity training session, during 24 h of recovery, considering sex, maturity, and age group. METHODS: Forty-three swimmers (16 females, 14.4 ± 1...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282554/soccer-helps-build-strong-bones-during-growth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Gabriel Lozano-Berges, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alejandro González-Agüero, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, José A Casajús
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of soccer practice on bone in male and female children and adolescents. MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science databases were searched for scientific articles published up to and including October 2016. Twenty-seven studies were included in this systematic review (13 in the meta-analysis). The meta-analysis was performed by using OpenMeta[Analyst] software. It is well documented that soccer practice during childhood provides positive effects on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) compared to sedentary behaviors and other sports, such as tennis, weightlifting, or swimming...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276857/mental-fatigue-impairs-physical-performance-in-young-swimmers
#3
Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith, Luciano Sales Prado
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on heart rate variability, subjective measures of fatigue, and swimming performance in young athletes. METHODS: Sixteen swimmers [15.45 (0.51) y old, 7.35 (2.20) y of swimming experience] performed a 1500-m time trial on 2 occasions separated by an interval of at least 72 hours. The 1500-m swimming was preceded by a 30-minute treatment that consisted of performing the Stroop Color and Word test to induce mental fatigue (experimental trial) or watching an emotionally neutral video (control trial)...
December 23, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248656/myocardial-fibrosis-in-competitive-triathletes-detected-by-contrast-enhanced-cmr-correlates-with%C3%A2-exercise-induced-hypertension-and%C3%A2-competition-history
#4
Enver Tahir, Jitka Starekova, Kai Muellerleile, Alexandra von Stritzky, Julia Münch, Maxim Avanesov, Julius M Weinrich, Christian Stehning, Sebastian Bohnen, Ulf K Radunski, Eric Freiwald, Stefan Blankenberg, Gerhard Adam, Axel Pressler, Monica Patten, Gunnar K Lund
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the presence of myocardial fibrosis detected by late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in correlation with the performance of competitive triathletes objectified by an exercise test and individual competition history. BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis detected by LGE CMR has been reported to occur in 0% to 50% of asymptomatic athletes. However, the cause and mechanisms of myocardial fibrosis are unclear. METHODS: Eighty-three asymptomatic triathletes undergoing >10 training h per week (43 ± 10 years of age; 65% male) and 36 sedentary controls were studied by using LGE and extracellular volume (ECV) CMR...
December 8, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238249/influence-of-competitive-anxiety-on-heart-rate-variability-in-swimmers
#5
Leonardo S Fortes, Bruna D V da Costa, Pedro P Paes, José R A do Nascimento Júnior, Lenamar Fiorese, Maria E C Ferreira
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between competitive anxiety and heart rate variability (HRV) in swimming athletes. A total of 66 volunteers (41 male and 27 female) who swam the 400-m freestyle in the Brazilian Swimming Championships participated. Thirty minutes before the 400-m freestyle event, the athletes answered the Competitive Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2R) questionnaire, then underwent anthropometric (body weight, height, and skinfold thickness) and HRV measurements. Then, at a second meeting, held 3 h after the 400-m freestyle event, the athletes returned to the evaluation room for HRV measurement (Polar® RS800cx, Kempele, Finland)...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181257/shoulder-pain-in-competitive-teenage-swimmers-and-it-s-prevention-a-retrospective-epidemiological-cross-sectional-study-of-prevalence
#6
Monica Tessaro, Giorgio Granzotto, Antonio Poser, Giuseppe Plebani, Alex Rossi
Background: The term "swimmer's shoulder" was first introduced in 1974 by Kennedy and Hawkins to describe a common condition among competitive swimmers characterized by pain and dysfunction of the shoulder complex. Currently, the term does not define a specific clinical diagnosis and its etiology is considered to be multifactorial. In the literature shoulder pain prevalence varies according to the adopted definitions (from 3% to 91%); however, in the Italian environment there is no prevalence study regarding swimmer shoulder...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150854/rhinitis-and-its-impact-on-quality-of-life-in-swimmers
#7
Pavol Surda, Matus Putala, Pavel Siarnik, Abigail Walker, Ana Bernic, Wytske Fokkens
INTRODUCTION: Limited data suggest that swimmers might be affected by rhinitis significantly more often than the general population. This can have impact on quality of life but also on performance. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and impact of QOL of rhinitis in swimming compared to non-swimming athletes and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational case control, questionnaire based study involving elite (n=101) and non-elite swimming athletes (n=107), non-swimming athletes (n = 38) and sex and age-matched controls (n = 50)...
November 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021905/the-waterpolo-shoulder-paradigm-results-of-ultrasound-surveillance-at-poolside
#8
Felice Galluccio, Eleonora Bellucci, Francesco Porta, Lorenzo Tofani, Amato De Paulis, Diana Bianchedi, Tatiana Barskova, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
BACKGROUND: Waterpolo consists of a combination of swimming and throwing with close contact between players. The shoulder is the most frequently injured joint, with a combination of rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy, long head biceps tendinopathy, superior labral lesions and shoulder impingement. This unique combination is a challenge for the clinician who must determine which of these shoulder pathologies is responsible for the onset of pain and the best strategy to rehabilitate the joint and prevent recurrence...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859415/performance-tradeoffs-ontogenetic-conflict-and-multisport-athletes-how-is-an-ironman-triathlete-like-a-frog
#9
Ryan Calsbeek, Debora Goedert
Life-history theory is a cornerstone of modern evolutionary biology that addresses myriad phenomena ranging from demography and population structure to the evolution of aging and senescence. Trade-offs may arise in a number of contexts, from allocation-based (e.g., egg size vs. egg number) to genomic conflicts (e.g., intralocus sexual conflict in which genes that perform well in males perform poorly in females). Here we test for performance tradeoffs in human athletes. We show that in Ironman triathletes, swimming performance trades off with cycling and running performance...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853109/impact-of-four-week-swimming-exercise-with-alpha-tocopherol-supplementation-on-fertility-potential-in-healthy-rats
#10
Abolfazl Kalantari, Abbas Saremi, Nader Shavandi, Ali Foroutan Nia
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 week intensive swimming exercise and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on testicular oxidative stress and spermatogenesis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 male rats were randomly assigned to Control (C), Sham (S), Exercise (E) and Exercise + supplement (ES) groups. Exercise training performed for 4 weeks (1session/day, 6days/week). Each session included 180 minutes of swimming. In ES group, alpha-ocopherol was injected at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day...
August 29, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828083/increased-prevalence-of-the-il-6-174c-genetic-polymorphism-in-long-distance-swimmers
#11
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Dan Nemet, Eias Kassem, Alon Eliakim
The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749151/on-the-boundary-conditions-of-effort-losses-and-effort-gains-in-action-teams
#12
Joachim Hüffmeier, Michael Filusch, Jens Mazei, Guido Hertel, Andreas Mojzisch, Stefan Krumm
While people's willingness to work hard can be reduced in teams (i.e., effort losses in teams as compared with individual work), it is less recognized that teamwork can also stimulate additional efforts (i.e., effort gains). Building on and extending existing theory, we (a) suggest an integration of these two research streams, and (b) provide evidence for team-related effort gains in action teams. In a first study, we tested our predictions by reanalyzing a field data set of 302,576 swimming performances in individual and relay races (Neugart & Richiardi, 2013)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731885/effectiveness-of-a-posterior-shoulder-stretching-program-on-university-level-overhead-athletes-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Judy C Chepeha, David J Magee, Martin Bouliane, David Sheps, Lauren Beaupre
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a posterior shoulder stretch was effective in increasing internal rotation (IR) and horizontal adduction (HAd) range of motion (ROM) in overhead athletes identified as having reduced mobility. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (parallel design). SETTING: University-based sports medicine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven university-level athletes in volleyball, swimming, and tennis, with IR ROM deficits ≥15°, were randomized into intervention or control groups...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721108/effect-of-self-paced-active-recovery-and-passive-recovery-on-blood-lactate-removal-following-a-200-m-freestyle-swimming-trial
#14
Márcio Rabelo Mota, Renata Aparecida Elias Dantas, Iransé Oliveira-Silva, Marcelo Magalhães Sales, Rafael da Costa Sotero, Patrícia Espíndola Mota Venâncio, Jairo Teixeira Júnior, Sandro Nobre Chaves, Filipe Dinato de Lima
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of self-paced active recovery (AR) and passive recovery (PR) on blood lactate removal following a 200 m freestyle swimming trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen young swimmers (with a training frequency of 6-8 sessions per week) performed two maximal 200 m freestyle trials followed by 15 minutes of different recovery methods, on separate days. Recovery was performed with 15 minutes of passive rest or 5 minutes of passive rest and 10 minutes of self-paced AR...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719752/return-to-sport-after-shoulder-arthroplasty-in-recreational-athletes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Florence Aim, Jean-David Werthel, Julien Deranlot, Marie Vigan, Geoffroy Nourissat
BACKGROUND: One of the most frequent demands from patients after shoulder replacement surgery is to return to sport. PURPOSE: To determine the rate of return to sport after shoulder arthroplasty (total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse shoulder arthroplasty, hemiarthroplasty) in recreational athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis and systematic review. METHODS: The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed to perform this systematic review and meta-analysis of the results in the literature as well as the presentation of results...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658076/recovery-time-profiling-after-short-middle-and-long-distance-swimming-performance
#16
Alessandro Piras, Matteo Cortesi, Francesco Campa, Monica Perazzolo, Giorgio Gatta
We investigated cardiac autonomic responses and hemodynamic parameters on recovery time following short-, middle- and long-swimming performance. Ten male regional-level swimmers were tested to estimate time and frequency domains of arterial baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability after 100-, 200-, and 400-m of front crawl. We found a BRS reduction for 90 min after a maximal 100- and 200-m front crawl event, meanwhile the reflex was restored back to the baseline value about 70 min after 400-m. The vagally mediated HF power of R-R intervals was significantly reduced for 30 min after 400-m, and more than 90 min after 100- and 200-m, with a concomitant increase of sympathetic modulation...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628968/performance-trends-in-age-group-triathletes-in-the-olympic-distance-triathlon-at-the-world-championships-2009-2014
#17
Martin Wonerow, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Performance trends in elite triathletes competing in age group classes have been investigated for Ironman triathlon in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ but not for short distance triathletes competing at international level in events such as the Olympic distance triathlon at the World Championships. The aim of the present study was to evaluate participation and performance trends of age group triathletes competing in the Olympic distance triathlon at the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships 2009-2014...
June 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597620/critical-velocity-in-swimmers-of-different-ages
#18
Alex Rizzato, Giuseppe Marcolin, Alessandro Rubini, Nicola Olivato, Simone Fava, Antonio Paoli, Gerardo Bosco
BACKGROUND: In swimming one of the most employed training speed among coaches is the non-invasive Theoretical Critical Velocity (TCV) defined as the velocity that can be maintained continuously without exhaustion. METHODS: We calculated the 4mmol/L lactate Critical Velocity (MCV) in a group of swimmers of different ages (Young, Elite and Master), and compared results to the predicted TCV defined starting from the 200 and 400 m freestyle best seasonal performances...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591135/bioelectrical-impedance-vector-analysis-biva-for-measuring-the-hydration-status-in-young-elite-synchronized-swimmers
#19
Marta Carrasco-Marginet, Jorge Castizo-Olier, Lara Rodríguez-Zamora, Xavier Iglesias, Ferran A Rodríguez, Diego Chaverri, Daniel Brotons, Alfredo Irurtia
PURPOSE: The assessment of body hydration is a complex process, and no measurement is valid for all situations. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a relatively novel technique for assessing hydration status in sports. We applied BIVA a) to determine hydration changes evoked by an intense synchronized swimming (SS) training session; b) to characterize the sample of young elite swimmers in relation with a nonathletic reference population; and c) to generate its 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of the bioelectrical variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542004/do-dynamic-fat-and-fat-free-mass-changes-follow-theoretical-driven-rules-in-athletes
#20
Analiza M Silva, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Paulo M Rocha, Cláudia S Minderico, Diana Thomas, Steven B Heymsfield, Luís B Sardinha
INTRODUCTION: Maximizing fat mass (FM) loss while preserving or increasing fat-free mass (FFM) is a central goal for athletic performance but the composition of body weight (BW) changes over time with training are largely unknown. PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze FM and FFM contributions to BW changes and to test if these contributions follow established rules and predictions over one athletic season. METHODS: Seventy athletes (42 men; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive stage of the season and were empirically divided into those who lost (n = 20) or gained >1...
October 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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