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resistance training, athlete

Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Michael E Holmstrup, Brock T Jensen, William S Evans, Emily C Marshall
The kettlebell swing (KBS), emphasizing cyclical, explosive hip extension in the horizontal plane, aligns with movement- and velocity-specificity of sprinting. The present study examined the effect of an eight-week KBS intervention on sprinting in recreationally-active females, in comparison to an eight-week intervention using the stiff-legged deadlift (SDL). Following a pre-testing session measuring 30 meter sprint and countermovement vertical jump performance, participants were divided evenly by sprint time into KBS (n=8) and SDL (n=10) cohorts...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Yen-Dun Tzeng
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Kyle T Aune, Joseph M Powers
BACKGROUND: Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. HYPOTHESIS: The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back...
October 19, 2016: Sports Health
Shannon Jordan, Justin Karcher, Rebecca Rogers, Kathleen Kennedy, Anne Lawrence, Jenny Adams
PURPOSE: Updated cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and return-to-work guidelines from the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) now include specificity of training for industrial athletes (exercise training that involves the muscle groups, movements, and energy systems that these patients use during occupational tasks). However, many CR facilities do not apply this principle, relying instead on the traditional protocol that consists primarily of aerobic exercise. This study was conducted to measure the metabolic cost of typical farming tasks and to compare 2 methods of calculating training intensities...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Kestutis Skucas, Vaida Pokvytyte
BACKGROUND: Of the research was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of combined dry land strength and resistance swimming training for increasing upper body strength, swimming performance and stroking parameters in swimmers with paraplegia and to determine correlation between these parameters. METHODS: The preliminary, the second (after 4 weeks), the third (after 8 weeks) and the last (after 12 weeks) testing were performed. The measurements consisted of the following assessments: the assessment of isometric strength in dry land (tension force), the assessment of swimming performance and stroke parameters during 50m backstroke, the assessment of strength during tethered swimming (tension force)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Kirsten Legerlotz, Robert Marzilger, Sebastian Bohm, Adamantios Arampatzis
PURPOSE: To understand the mechanisms for the effects of resistance training on functional parameters, and to assess the injury risk of the involved tissues, it is necessary to examine the underlying morphological and structural changes of the respective tissues. METHODS: The presented information on physiological adaptations have been deduced from cross-sectional studies comparing youth athletes with controls and children with adults as well as from longitudinal studies examining the effects of resistance training in untrained children and adolescents and in youth athletes...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
E M Beckman, M J Connick, S M Tweedy
OBJECTIVES: Classification in Paralympic Sport aims to minimize the impact of 10 eligible types of impairment on the outcome of competition. Methods for assessing the extent to which a given body structure or function has been impaired are required, but are challenging because it is not possible to directly measure an absence or loss. Rather, impairment must be inferred by measurement of extant body structures or functions. METHODS: This manuscript reviews the literature concerning the assessment of strength with the aim of identifying and describing the most appropriate method for inferring strength impairment in para-athletes...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Luis Manuel Martinez-Aranda, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e. loads) during iso-inertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force and eccentric-overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n=11) and men (n=11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing six inertias (0...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is an integral component of physical preparation for athletes. A growing body of evidence indicates that eccentric strength training methods induce novel stimuli for neuromuscular adaptations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of eccentric training in comparison to concentric-only or traditional (i.e. constrained by concentric strength) resistance training. METHODS: Searches were performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE via EBSCO, PubMed and SPORTDiscus via EBSCO...
September 19, 2016: Sports Medicine
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch, Meredith G Mock
The effects of pomegranate extract (PE) supplementation were evaluated on high-intensity exercise performance, blood flow, vessel diameter, oxygen saturation (SPO2), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP). In a randomized, crossover design, nineteen recreationally resistance-trained participants were randomly assigned to PE (1000 mg) or placebo (PL), which were consumed 30 min prior to a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and repetitions to fatigue (RTF) on bench and leg press. The RSA consisted of ten six-second sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer with 30 s recovery...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony L Almada, Leighsa E Van Eck, Meena Shah, Joel B Mitchell, Margaret T Jones, Andrew R Jagim, David S Rowlands
Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW) carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW) carbohydrate ingestion...
2016: PloS One
James R Head, Matthew S Tenan, Andrew J Tweedell, Thomas F Price, Michael E LaFiandra, William S Helton
Prior investigations have shown measurable performance impairments on continuous physical performance tasks when preceded by a cognitively fatiguing task. However, the effect of cognitive fatigue on bodyweight resistance training exercise task performance is unknown. In the current investigation 18 amateur athletes completed a full body exercise task preceded by either a cognitive fatiguing or control intervention. In a randomized repeated measure design, each participant completed the same exercise task preceded by a 52 min cognitively fatiguing intervention (vigilance) or control intervention (video)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
J L Ayers, M DeBeliso, T G Sevene, K J Adams
Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program...
September 2016: Biology of Sport
Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala
This study analyzed the possibility of using movement velocity and the perceived exertion as predictors of relative load in the parallel squat exercise. In order to determine the full load-velocity and load-perceived exertion relationships, 290 young, resistance-trained athletes (209 male and 81 female) performed a progressive strength test up to the one-repetition maximum. Longitudinal regression models were used to predict the relative load from the average velocity and the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale, considering sets as the time-related variable...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ronaldo Kobal, Irineu Loturco, Renato Barroso, Saulo Gil, Rogério Cuniyochi, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Hamilton Roschel, Valmor Tricoli
The combination of strength (ST) and plyometric training (PT) has been shown to be effective for improving sport specific performance. However, there is no consensus about the most effective way to combine these methods in the same training session, in order to produce greater improvements in neuromuscular performance of soccer players. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different combinations of ST and PT sequences on strength, jump, speed, and agility capacities of elite young soccer players...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Paul Macadam, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin
Wearable resistance (WR) in the form of weighted vests and shorts enables movement specific sprint running to be performed under load. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute changes in kinematics and kinetics when an additional load equivalent to 3% body mass (BM) was attached to the anterior or posterior surface of the lower limbs during sprint running. Nineteen male rugby athletes (age: 19.7 ± 2.3 years; body mass: 96.1 ± 16.5 kg; height: 181 ± 6.5 cm) volunteered to participate in the study...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ralf Jäger, Kevin A Shields, Ryan P Lowery, Eduardo O De Souza, Jeremy M Partl, Chase Hollmer, Martin Purpura, Jacob M Wilson
Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout...
2016: PeerJ
Eric R Helms, John Cronin, Adam Storey, Michael C Zourdos
August 2016: Strength and Conditioning Journal
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