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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103813/fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-gene-influences-skeletal-muscle-phenotypes-in-non-resistance-trained-males-and-elite-rugby-playing-position
#1
S M Heffernan, G K Stebbings, L P Kilduff, R M Erskine, S H Day, C I Morse, J S McPhee, C J Cook, B Vance, W J Ribbans, S M Raleigh, C Roberts, M A Bennett, G Wang, M Collins, Y P Pitsiladis, A G Williams
BACKGROUND: FTO gene variants have been associated with obesity phenotypes in sedentary and obese populations, but rarely with skeletal muscle and elite athlete phenotypes. METHODS: In 1089 participants, comprising 530 elite rugby athletes and 559 non-athletes, DNA was collected and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant using real-time PCR. In a subgroup of non-resistance trained individuals (NT; n = 120), we also assessed structural and functional skeletal muscle phenotypes using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry...
January 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067740/update-on-management-of-type-1-diabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-in-athletes
#2
Jane E Yardley, Sheri R Colberg
Optimal blood glucose management still remains the biggest challenge in active individuals with diabetes, particularly in insulin users, but some newer strategies have been introduced to maintain blood glucose control. Recent studies emphasize the importance of exercise intensity on glycemic balance. In individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, both resistance and high-intensity intermittent exercise have been shown to confer beneficial physiological adaptations in training studies, while also showing acute glycemic benefits from single sessions...
January 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051333/optimal-loading-for-maximising-power-during-sled-resisted-sprinting
#3
Matt R Cross, Matt Brughelli, Pierre Samozino, Scott R Brown, Jean-Benoit Morin
Purpose We sought to ascertain whether force-velocity-power relationships could be compiled from a battery of sled-resisted over-ground sprints, and to clarify and compare the optimal loading conditions for maximising power production for different athlete cohorts. Methods Recreational mixed-sport athletes (n=12) and sprinters (n=15) performed multiple trials of maximal sprints unloaded and towing a selection of sled masses (20-120% body-mass). Velocity data were collected by sports radar, and kinetics at peak velocity were quantified using friction coefficients and aerodynamic drag...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044282/are-prepubertal-children-metabolically-comparable-to-well-trained-adult-endurance-athletes
#4
REVIEW
Sébastien Ratel, Anthony J Blazevich
It is well acknowledged that prepubertal children have smaller body dimensions and a poorer mechanical (movement) efficiency, and thus a lower work capacity than adults. However, the scientific evidence indicates that prepubertal children have a greater net contribution of energy derived from aerobic metabolism in exercising muscle and reduced susceptibility to muscular fatigue, which makes them metabolically comparable to well-trained adult endurance athletes. For example, the relative energy contribution from oxidative and non-oxidative (i...
January 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028619/effects-of-protein-carbohydrate-supplementation-on-immunity-and-resistance-training-outcomes-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Nadia Ashrafi, Marco Seijo, Birthe Nielsen, Judith Allgrove, Conrad P Earnest
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on resistance training outcomes, body composition, muscle thickness, blood indices of health and salivary human neutrophil peptides (HNP1-3), as reference of humoral immunity followed an 8-week resistance training program in college athletes. METHODS: Twenty-seven recreationally physically active males and females (n = 9 per treatment) were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, or non-protein isoenergetic carbohydrate...
December 27, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996378/fast-early-recovery-after-transabdominal-preperitoneal-repair-in-athletes-with-sportsman-s-groin-a-prospective-clinical-cohort-study
#6
Herwig Pokorny, Christoph Resinger, Ines Fischer, Veit Lorenz, Helge Noske, Stefan Podar, Friedrich Längle, Rudolf Schrittwieser
BACKGROUND: Current literature on chronic groin pain suggests that laparoscopic mesh repair on athletes enables a faster recovery and subsequent return to unrestricted athletic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) mesh repair in athletes resistant to conservative therapy. METHODS: A multidisciplinary approach with tailored physiotherapy. Thirty-nine professional athletes with chronic groin pain were referred to surgery at a single clinic...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990226/the-effects-of-eccentric-velocity-based-training-on-strength-and-power-in-collegiate-athletes
#7
Samantha M Dolezal, Derek L Frese, Tamra L Llewellyn
The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984499/effects-of-pre-exhaustion-on-the-patterns-of-muscular-activity-in-the-flat-bench-press
#8
Gołaś Artur, Maszczyk Adam, Pietraszewski Przemyslaw, Petr Stastny, Tufano James, Zając Adam
Pre-exhaustion (PE) has been applied in resistance training to manipulate the order of performing two resistance exercises, a single joint exercise to momentary exhaustion, followed by a multi-joint movement which includes the same muscle group. This method ensures greater recruitment of muscles or muscle groups in the multi-joint exercise to further increase muscle strength and overcome strength plateaus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle activity by electromyography during high-intensity (95% of 1 repetition maximum) bench press (BP), before and after PE of the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles in order to determine the effects of PE of the prime movers...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983587/role-of-redox-signaling-and-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-training
#9
REVIEW
Maria Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Jose Viña, Li Li Ji
The inflammatory response to exercise-induced muscle damage has been extensively described. Exercise has important modulatory effects on immune function. These effects are mediated by diverse factors including pro-inflammatory cytokines, classical stress hormones, and hemodynamic effects leading to cell redistribution. As has been reported regarding oxidative stress, inflammation can have both detrimental and beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. In this review we will address the role of inflammation on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle...
December 13, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977300/preventive-neuromuscular-training-for-young-female-athletes-comparison-of-coach-and-athlete-compliance-rates
#10
Dai Sugimoto, Carl G Mattacola, Heather M Bush, Staci M Thomas, Kim D Barber Foss, Gregory D Myer, Timothy E Hewett
CONTEXT:  Fewer athletic injuries and lower anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence rates were noted in studies of neuromuscular training (NMT) interventions that had high compliance rates. However, several groups have demonstrated that preventive NMT interventions were limited by low compliance rates. OBJECTIVE:  To descriptively analyze coach and athlete compliance with preventive NMT and compare the compliance between study arms as well as among school levels and sports...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918675/biomechanics-in-paralympics-implications-for-performance
#11
Floor Morriën, Matthew J D Taylor, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports. METHODS: Search terms ' Paralympic Biomechanics', 'Paralympic Sport Performance', 'Paralympic Athlete Performance', and Paralympic Athlete' were entered into the electronic database PubMed. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n=32) and/or injury prevention (n=6)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918654/cold-water-immersion-and-contrast-water-therapy-do-not-improve-short-term-recovery-following-resistance-training
#12
Christos K Argus, James R Broatch, Aaron C Petersen, Remco Polman, David J Bishop, Shona Halson
PURPOSE: An athlete's ability to recover quickly is important when there is limited time between training and competition. As such, recovery strategies are commonly used to expedite the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of both cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) compared to control on short-term recovery (<4h) following a single full-body resistance training session. METHODS: Thirteen males (age, 26 ± 5 years; weight, 79 ± 7 kg; height, 177 ± 5 cm) were assessed for perceptual (fatigue and soreness) and performance measures (maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors, weighted and unweighted countermovement jumps) prior to and immediately following the training session...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904541/effect-of-eight-week-aerobic-resistive-and-interval-exercise-routines-on-respiratory-parameters-in-non-athlete-women
#13
Vahan Moradians, Alireza Rahimi, Seyed Ali Javad Moosavi, Fateme Sadat Sahebkar Khorasani, Ali Mazaherinejad, Masoud Mortezazade, Hanieh Raji
BACKGROUND: There are not many studies about the effects of physical activity on pulmonary function in normal population. However, it seems that strengthening and persevering respiratory muscles is an effective technique for improving pulmonary function. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of eight-week aerobic, resistance, and interval exercise routines on respiratory parameters in non-athlete women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six non-athlete women between 18-25 years old participated in this prospective quasi-experimental trial...
2016: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903048/resistance-exercise-induced-rhabdomyolysis-need-for-immediate-intervention-and-proper-counselling
#14
Maysaa A Khalil, Basem R Saab
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyolysis results from damage to skeletal muscle. Improper resistance training may result in rhabdomyolysis, which can cause acute kidney injury, serious metabolic abnormalities, compartmental syndrome and even death. Proper counselling for athletes may prevent this condition. OBJECTIVE: We present two patients with unilateral swelling after resistance exercise. The workup revealed rhabdomyolysis. We highlight the importance of counselling to prevent rhabdomyolysis secondary to resistance exercise...
December 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899894/moderate-load-eccentric-exercise-a-distinct-novel-training-modality
#15
REVIEW
Hans Hoppeler
Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893481/the-effect-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-after-a-bout-of-accentuated-eccentric-load-drop-jumps-and-the-repeated-bout-effect
#16
Lee A Bridgeman, Nicholas D Gill, Deborah K Dulson, Michael R McGuigan
Although previous studies have investigated exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) after a bout of unloaded drop jumps (DJ) none have investigated the effects of accentuated eccentric load (AEL) DJs on EIMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 30 and 50 AEL DJs on strength, jump performance, muscle soreness and blood markers. Eight resistance trained athletes participated in this study. In week 1 baseline countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), concentric and eccentric peak force (PF), creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness (SOR) were assessed...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891737/role-of-resistance-physical-exercise-in-preventing-testicular-damage-caused-by-chronic-ethanol-consumption-in-uchb-rats
#17
Gessica Dutra Gonçalves, Nichelle Antunes Vieira, Henrique Rodrigues Vieira, Aline Dias Valério, Gláucia Elóisa Munhoz de Lion Siervo, Patricia Fernanda Felipe Pinheiro, Francisco Eduardo Martinez, Flávia Alessandra Guarnier, Giovana Rampazzo Teixeira, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves Fernandes
Ethanol consumption is associated with spermatogenesis damage and testosterone level alterations. Alcohol remains the most commonly used substance among athletes and sports enthusiasts. This study evaluated whether resistance physical exercise can reduce the testicular damage caused by ethanol exposure. A total of 36 ethanol drinking (UChB) rats were divided into four groups: C (control rats), ETOH (ethanol consumption), ETOH + T (ethanol consumption + physical training), and T (group physical training)...
November 28, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855701/left-ventricular-remodeling-and-the-athlete-s-heart-irrespective-of-quality-load-training
#18
Giorgio Galanti, Laura Stefani, Gabriele Mascherini, Valentina Di Tante, Loira Toncelli
BACKGROUND: Regular physical exercise determines a progressive increase of the cardiac mass known as adaptive hypertrophy. Up to now, two morphological echocardiographic heart patterns of athletes have been described by Morganroth in 1975: predominant augmentation of wall thickness, and major cavity size in chamber dimensions in the case of prevalent static or dynamic components. The aim of the study was to follow up the impact of physical training on heart morphology and function in a group of elite soccer and rugby players for at least five years...
November 17, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843418/effects-of-acute-carbohydrate-ingestion-on-anaerobic-exercise-performance
#19
Ben M Krings, Jaden A Rountree, Matthew J McAllister, Patrick M Cummings, Timothy J Peterson, Brent J Fountain, JohnEric W Smith
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during endurance exercises has been shown to increase performance, but there is limited research with CHO supplementation during strength and conditioning exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of CHO ingestion during acute testing sessions requiring participants to complete a strength and conditioning program designed for collegiate athletes. METHODS: Participants (n = 7) performed a series of exercises while ingesting an amino-acid electrolyte control (CON) or CON plus varying levels of CHO...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834560/very-heavy-sled-training-for-improving-horizontal-force-output-in-soccer-players
#20
Jean-Benoît Morin, George Petrakos, Pedro Jimenez-Reyes, Scott R Brown, Pierre Samozino, Matt R Cross
Sprint running acceleration is a key feature of physical performance in team sports, and recent literature shows that the ability to generate large magnitudes of horizontal ground reaction force and mechanical effectiveness of force application are paramount. We tested the hypothesis that very-heavy loaded sled sprint training would induce an improvement in horizontal force production, via an increased effectiveness of application. Training-induced changes in sprint performance and mechanical outputs were computed using a field method based on velocity-time data, before and after an 8-week protocol (16 sessions of 10x20-m sprints)...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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