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Injury prevention, swimming

Joseph Chorley, Richard E Eccles, Armand Scurfield
Shoulder complaints are common in the overhead athlete. Understanding the biomechanics of throwing and swimming requires understanding the importance of maintaining the glenohumeral relationship of the shoulder. Capsular laxity, humeral retrotorsion, glenoid retroversion, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, and scapular dyskinesis can all contribute to shoulder dysfunction and pain. Injuries are more likely during peak height velocity, especially when coupled with overuse, previous injuries not adequately treated, or change in the demands on the shoulder such as a new technique, bigger field, or longer race...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
Joyce Alencar Santos, Ana Claudia Piccinelli, Maira Dante Formagio, Cristhian Santos Oliveira, Elide Pereira Dos Santos, Maria Élida Alves Stefanello, Ubirajara Lanza Junior, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Mário Mateus Sugizaki, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract (SLEE) and pure fruticuline A obtained from Salvia lachnostachys leaves on rats and mice. METHODS: In this study, SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. route) was evaluated for its effects on spared nerve injury (SNI) in rats. The animals were submitted to mechanical sensitivity, forced swim (FST) and cold sensitivity tests 10 and 15 days after surgery. SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and fruticuline A (3 mg/kg, p...
2017: PloS One
Jun Tashiro, Cathy A Burnweit
OBJECTIVE: Electrical injuries in swimming pools are an important pediatric public health concern. We sought to (1) improve our understanding of the clinical presentation and outcomes following and (2) describe the epidemiology of swimming pool electrical injuries in the United States. METHODS: We reviewed 4 cases of pediatric (<18 y old) electrical injury from a single, urban level 1 pediatric trauma center. We also queried the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) for emergency department visits due to electrical injury associated with swimming pools, occurring between 1991 and 2013...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
Xiao-Yan Zhou, Fang Zhang, Xiao-Tong Hu, Jing Chen, Ren-Xian Tang, Kui-Yang Zheng, Yuan-Jian Song
The critical factor considered in a depression induced by diabetes is the inflammation eliciting hippocampal, amygdala and thalamic neuronal injury. Therefore, inhibiting inflammatory reactions in the brain and reducing neuronal injury can alleviate depression in rodents suffering from diabetes mellitus. The oral administration of astaxanthin has been employed in emotional disorders and diabetic complications due to its anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic functions. However, it has not been reported whether astaxanthin can improve diabetes-related depression-like behavior, and its potential mechanisms have not been elucidated...
December 22, 2016: Brain Research
Satoshi Iizuka, Atsushi Imai, Keisuke Koizumi, Keisuke Okuno, Koji Kaneoka
BACKGROUND: In recent years, deep trunk muscle training has been adopted in various sports, including swimming. This is performed both in everyday training and as part of the warm-up routine before competitive races. It is suggested that trunk stabilization exercises are effective in preventing injury, and aid in improving performance. However, conclusive evidence of the same is yet to be obtained. The time of start phase of swimming is a factor that can significantly influence competition performance in a swimming race...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Floor Morriën, Matthew J D Taylor, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports. METHODS: Search terms ' Paralympic Biomechanics', 'Paralympic Sport Performance', 'Paralympic Athlete Performance', and Paralympic Athlete' were entered into the electronic database PubMed. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n=32) and/or injury prevention (n=6)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Colin J Berriault, Nancy E Lightfoot, Steven K Seilkop, Bruce R Conard
Injury mortality was followed up from 1950 to 2000 in a cohort of 56,576 nickel workers. Injury fatalities were elevated throughout the cohort of never sinter plant workers (SMR = 134, 95% CI: 129-140). Elevations were also observed in injury mortality sub-categories of road, rail, and air (SMR = 137, 95% CI: 127-147); boating and swimming (SMR = 150, 95% CI: 128-176); suicide and possible suicide (SMR = 124, 95% CI: 114-135); and possibly job-related accidents (SMR = 160, 95% CI: 145-175). The results were largely attributed to underground miners with 61...
November 30, 2016: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Jill Thein-Nissenbaum
The postpartum period in a woman's life is filled with numerous changes, including physical changes, changes in sleep habits, and learning how to best care for a newborn. A common goal among postpartum women is to either begin or resume an active lifestyle, which often includes physical activity such as running, biking and swimming. The postpartum athlete may discover barriers that prevent her from returning to or beginning an exercise routine. These obstacles include muscle weakness, fatigue, depression and physical changes that require exercise modification...
September 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Pierre Louge, Mathieu Coulange, Frederic Beneton, Emmanuel Gempp, Olivier Le Pennetier, Maxime Algoud, Lorene Dubourg, Pierre Naibo, Marion Marlinge, Pierre Michelet, Donato Vairo, Nathalie Kipson, François Kerbaul, Yves Jammes, Ian M Jones, Jean-Guillaume Steinberg, Jean Ruf, Régis Guieu, Alain Boussuges, Emmanuel Fenouillet
Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is a misdiagnosed environmental illness caused by water immersion, cold, and exertion. IPE occurs typically during SCUBA diving, snorkeling, and swimming. IPE is sometimes associated with myocardial injury and/or loss of consciousness in water, which may be fatal. IPE is thought to involve hemodynamic and cardiovascular disturbances, but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear, which makes IPE prevention difficult. This observational study aimed to document IPE pathogenesis and improve diagnostic reliability, including distinguishing in some conditions IPE from decompression sickness (DCS), another diving-related disorder...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Annika Prien, Margo Mountjoy, Jim Miller, Kevin Boyd, Cees van den Hoogenband, David Gerrard, Mohamed Yahia Cherif, Yifan Lu, Kyriakos Nanousis, Edgar Ivan Ortiz Liscano, Farhad Moradi Shahpar, Astrid Junge
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological information on injury/illness is required to develop effective injury prevention strategies. AIM: To assess the frequency and characteristics of injuries/illnesses (1) in the 4 weeks prior to and (2) during the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Championships 2015 compared with 2013 and 2009. METHOD: (1) Athletes answered a retrospective questionnaire, and (2) the medical staff reported injuries/illnesses prospectively during the championships...
February 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Thiago Beltram Marcelino, Patricia Idalina de Lemos Rodrigues, Caroline Peres Klein, Bernardo Gindri Dos Santos, Patrícia Maidana Miguel, Carlos Alexandre Netto, Lenir Orlandi Pereira Silva, Cristiane Matté
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) represents one of the most common causes of neonatal encephalopathy. The central nervous system injury comprises several mechanisms, including inflammatory, excitotoxicity, and redox homeostasis unbalance leading to cell death and cognitive impairment. Exercise during pregnancy is a potential therapeutic tool due to benefits offered to mother and fetus. Swimming during pregnancy elicits a strong metabolic programming in the offspring's brain, evidenced by increased antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis, and neurogenesis...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Michele C Hlavsa, Taryn R Gerth, Sarah A Collier, Elizabeth L Dunbar, Gouthami Rao, Gregory Epperson, Becky Bramlett, David F Ludwig, Diana Gomez, Monty M Stansbury, Freeman Miller, Jeffrey Warren, Jim Nichol, Harry Bowman, Bao-An Huynh, Kara M Loewe, Bob Vincent, Amanda L Tarrier, Timothy Shay, Robert Wright, Allison C Brown, Jasen M Kunz, Kathleen E Fullerton, James R Cope, Michael J Beach
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Aquatic facility-associated illness and injury in the United States include disease outbreaks of infectious or chemical etiology, drowning, and pool chemical-associated health events (e.g., respiratory distress or burns). These conditions affect persons of all ages, particularly young children, and can lead to disability or even death. A total of 650 aquatic facility-associated outbreaks have been reported to CDC for 1978-2012. During 1999-2010, drownings resulted in approximately 4,000 deaths each year in the United States...
2016: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Gustavo Barbosa Dos Santos, André Gustavo de Oliveira, Luiz Alberto Ferreira Ramos, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes, Miguel Arcanjo Areas
What is the central question of this study? Can long-term leucine supplementation prevent prolonged strenuous endurance exercise induced cardiac injury? What is the main finding and its importance? Prolonged endurance exercise does not seem to exceed cardiac energetic capacity, hence it does not represent an energy threat to this organ, at least in trained subjects. However, it may induce, in susceptible individuals, a state of cardiac electrical instability, which has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death...
July 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Amalia Tinto, Marta Campanella, Milena Fasano
BACKGROUND: Developing muscle strength and full body stability is essential for the efficient execution of technical moves in synchronised swimming.[1] However, many swimmers find it difficult to control body stability while executing particular figures in water. We evaluated the effects of TRX® suspension training (2 sessions weekly for 6 months on core strength and core stability in young female. METHODS: Twenty synchronised swimmers (Beginners A category, mean age 10±1 years) are divided in Experimental Group (EG; n° 10 athletes) and Control Group (CG; n° 10 athletes)...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Timothy F Mott, Kelly M Latimer
Nearly 4,000 drowning deaths occur annually in the United States, with drowning representing the most common injury-related cause of death in children one to four years of age. Drowning is a process that runs the spectrum from brief entry of liquid into the airways with subsequent clearance and only minor temporary injury, to the prolonged presence of fluid in the lungs leading to lung dysfunction, hypoxia, neurologic and cardiac abnormalities, and death. The World Health Organization has defined drowning as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid...
April 1, 2016: American Family Physician
Erman Caner Bulut, Leyla Abueid, Feriha Ercan, Selami Süleymanoğlu, Mehmet Ağırbaşlı, Berrak Ç Yeğen
What is the central question of this study? Could the activation of oxytocin or oestrogen receptors be protective against myocardial injury after ovariectomy? If so, would exercising have an additional ameliorating effect? What is the main finding and its importance? The results revealed that when accompanied by exercise, both oestrogen receptor agonists and oxytocin improved cardiac dysfunction, inhibited the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced myocardial injury in ovariectomized female rats, suggesting a new approach for protecting postmenopausal women against ischaemia-induced myocardial injury...
May 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Elena Moretti, Lucia Mazzi, Claudia Bonechi, Maria Cristina Salvatici, Francesca Iacoponi, Claudio Rossi, Giulia Collodel
A strategy to circumvent the poor polyphenols bioavailability is to load these compounds into liposomes. We evaluated the in vitro effects of quercetin (Q) and Q-loaded liposomes (QLL, 30, 50, 100μM) on motility, viability and chromatin integrity of swim-up selected human sperm. Antioxidant power was assayed against tert-butylhydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) using C11-BODIPY581/591 fluorescent probe and transmission electron microscopy. QLL showed decreased toxicity for sperm motility and viability and increased DNA damage compared to Q...
April 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Jun Xie, Guixin He, Qinhua Chen, Jiayin Sun, Qin Dai, Jianrong Lu, Guannan Li, Han Wu, Ran Li, Jianzhou Chen, Wei Xu, Biao Xu
Cardiac hypertrophy can be broadly classified as either physiological or pathological. Physiological stimulus such as exercise cause adaptive cardiac hypertrophy and normal heart function. Pathological stimulus such as hypertension and aortic valvular stenosis cause maladaptive cardiac remodeling and ultimately heart failure. Syndecan 4(synd4) is a transmembrane proteoglycan and identified to be involved in cardiac adaptation after injury. Whether it takes part in physiological cardiac hypertrophy is unclear...
January 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Elizabeth E Hibberd, Kevin Laudner, David J Berkoff, Kristen L Kucera, Bing Yu, Joseph B Myers
CONTEXT: Alterations to upper extremity physical characteristics of competitive swimmers (posture, range of motion [ROM], and subacromial-space distance) are commonly attributed to cumulative training load during a swimmer's competitive career. However, this accepted clinical belief has not been established in the literature. It is important to understand whether alterations in posture and associated physical characteristics occur as a result of sport training or factors other than swimming participation to better understand injury risk and possible interventions...
January 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Irina C Chis, Andrei Coseriu, Ramona Simedrea, Adrian Oros, Andras L Nagy, Simona Clichici
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine-metabolic disorder associated with endothelial dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and abnormal nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation are the major causal factors in the development of endothelial dysfunction in DM. The prevention of endothelial dysfunction may be a first target against the appearance of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the synergistic protective effects of quercetin administration and moderate exercise training on thoracic aorta injuries induced by diabetes...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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