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Injury prevention, cycling

Thiago Hérick Sá, Ana Clara Duran, Marko Tainio, Carlos Augusto Monteiro, James Woodcock
The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS). At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people). Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Pavlína Hašková, Hana Jansová, Jan Bureš, Miloslav Macháček, Anna Jirkovská, Katherine J Franz, Petra Kovaříková, Tomáš Šimůnek
Catecholamines may undergo iron-promoted oxidation resulting in formation of reactive intermediates (aminochromes) capable of redox cycling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Both of them induce oxidative stress resulting in cellular damage and death. Iron chelation has been recently shown as a suitable tool of cardioprotection with considerable potential to protect cardiac cells against catecholamine-induced cardiotoxicity. However, prolonged exposure of cells to classical chelators may interfere with physiological iron homeostasis...
October 12, 2016: Toxicology
Liang Wei, Brian J Leibowitz, Xinwei Wang, Michael Epperly, Joel Greenberger, Lin Zhang, Jian Yu
Radiotherapy causes dose-limiting toxicity and long-term complications in rapidly renewing tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there is no FDA-approved agent for the prevention or treatment of radiation-induced intestinal injury. In this study, we have shown that PD 0332991 (PD), an FDA-approved selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6), prevents radiation-induced lethal intestinal injury in mice. Treating mice with PD or a structurally distinct CDK4/6 inhibitor prior to radiation blocked proliferation and crypt apoptosis and improved crypt regeneration...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yong-Fang Gong, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Fei Liu, Zhen-Zhen Wang, Xue-Fei Deng, Yi Jiao, Xiao-Jing Li, Xue-Ying Huang
Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a pathological scar that particularly occurs after traumatic injuries, surgical procedures and burning. Abnormal activation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) intensifies fibrosis during wound healing. Our previous studies demonstrated that recombinant human endostatin (rhEndostatin) prevented synovial thickening in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats via inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis in synovial fibroblasts. However, the effect of this protein on HSF proliferation is not known...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Mary Clare Luca, Andrew Liuni, Paula Harvey, Susanna Mak, John D Parker
In premenopausal women, ovarian steroids are felt to play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess whether menstrual cycle variations in estrogen can modify the response to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in humans. In an investigator-blinded crossover study, 10 healthy premenopausal women with regular menstrual cycles were studied. They had flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) measured by ultrasound in the radial artery before and after IR (15 min of brachial artery ischemia, 15 min of reperfusion) during both the early and late follicular phases of the menstrual cycle...
July 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Julien Caquot, Anaick Perrochon, Jean-Luc Bugeaud, Xavier Dumélié, Marc Pajon, Jean-Christophe Daviet
OBJECTIVE: The jumper-Knee is common among basketball player's with adverse consequences on the practice. For the sake of prevention, it seems interesting to study its importance in the younger categories. The aim of the present study was to collect epidemiological data on pain below patella in France hope Championship basketball. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a sectional survey by questionnaire, a given day. We sent ten questionnaires to the attention of players and a questionnaire to the attention of the coaches of the 18 participating training centers at the Championship of France pro A hope...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Wei-Gang Wang, Wei-Xia Sun, Bao-Shan Gao, Xin Lian, Hong-Lan Zhou
The current lack of complete understanding of the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant barrier to its early diagnosis and treatment. Cell cycle arrest plays an important role in the protection of renal tubular epithelial cells and maladaptive repair following AKI. G1 phase cell arrest serves as a protective mechanism following AKI, avoiding replication of damaged DNA. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) are closely associated with G1 cell cycle arrest during the very early phase of cellular damage and can serve as an ideal biomarker to predict AKI...
September 15, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Ward Vanlaar, Marisela Mainegra Hing, Steve Brown, Heather McAteer, Jennifer Crain, Steven McFaull
INTRODUCTION: The goals of this study were to analyze possible trends of fatal and serious injuries related to vulnerable road users in Canada (pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists) from 1990 to 2012 and the role of alcohol and drugs in these cases. Drugs have rarely been documented with respect to vulnerable road users. METHOD: The Traffic Injury Research Foundation's National Fatality and Serious Injury Databases and the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program databases were used...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Rajesh G Mishra, Tzu-Ling Tseng, Mei-Fang Chen, Po-Yi Chen, Tony J-F Lee
Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in vasodilatory shock in sepsis, leading to septic encephalopathy and accelerating cerebral ischemic injury. An abbreviated urea-cycle (L-citrulline-L-arginine-NO cycle) has been demonstrated in cerebral perivascular nitrergic nerves and endothelial cells but not in normal cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (CVSMC). This cycle indicates that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) catalyzes L-citrulline (L-cit) conversion to form argininosuccinate (AS), and subsequent AS cleavage by argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) forms L-arginine (L-arg), the substrate for NO synthesis...
September 7, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Nicole E Frank, Barry J Cusack, Todd T Talley, Gerald M Walsh, Richard D Olson
Purpose A novel doxorubicin (DOX) analog, 13-deoxy, 5-iminodoxorubicin (DIDOX), was synthesized to prevent quinone redox cycling and alcohol metabolite formation, two prevailing hypotheses of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. The chronic cardiotoxicity of DOX and DIDOX was compared. Since a recent hypothesis posits that DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity may be mediated by inhibition of the topoisomerase IIβ/DNA reaction, we also compared potency of DOX and DIDOX to inhibit topoisomerase IIβ decatenation of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) (a series or interlocking small rings of DNA)...
August 31, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
Domokos Gerő, Roberta Torregrossa, Alexis Perry, Alicia Waters, Sophie Le-Trionnaire, Jacqueline L Whatmore, Mark Wood, Matthew Whiteman
The development of diabetic vascular complications is initiated, at least in part, by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in endothelial cells. Hyperglycemia induces superoxide production in the mitochondria and initiates changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential that leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) supplementation has been shown to reduce the mitochondrial oxidant production and shows efficacy against diabetic vascular damage in vivo. However, the half-life of H2S is very short and it is not specific for the mitochondria...
August 23, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
M J Boele-Vos, K Van Duijvenvoorde, M J A Doumen, C W A E Duivenvoorden, W J R Louwerse, R J Davidse
The number of seriously injured cyclists is increasing in the Netherlands. The majority of these seriously injured cyclists were involved in single-bicycle or bicycle-bicycle crashes. Little is known about the circumstances in which these crashes occur, as the police only registers 4% of these crashes. Therefore, an in-depth study was carried out to gain insight into the factors and circumstances that influence the occurrence and consequences of these crashes. The focus was on crashes involving cyclists aged 50 and over, as this group has a large share in the number of cyclist-only crashes...
August 17, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Fabia Gamboni, Cameron Anderson, Sanchayita Mitra, Julie A Reisz, Travis Nemkov, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Kenneth L Jones, Kirk C Hansen, Angelo D'Alessandro, Anirban Banerjee
Uncontrolled inflammatory responses underlie the etiology of acute lung injury and acute distress respiratory syndrome, the most common late complications in trauma, the leading cause of death under the age of 59. Treatment with HTS decreases lung injury in clinical trials, rat models of trauma and hemorrhagic shock and inflammation in lung cell lines, although the mechanisms underlying these responses are still incompletely understood. Transcriptomics (RNaseq), proteomics, and U-(13)C-glucose tracing metabolomics experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms of cellular responses to HTS treatment in primary small airway epithelial cells in the presence or absence of inflammatory injury mediated by a cocktail of cytokines (10 ng/mL of IFNγ, IL-1β, and TNFα)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Sinead FitzGibbon, Bill Vicenzino, Sue Ann Sisto
BACKGROUND: Competitive cyclists are susceptible to injury from the highly repetitive nature of pedaling during training and racing. Deviation from an optimal movement pattern is often cited as a factor contributing to tissue stress with specific concern for excessive frontal plane knee motion. Wedges and orthoses are increasingly used at the foot-shoe-pedal-interface (FSPI) in cycling shoes to alter the kinematics of the lower limb while cycling. Determination of the effect of FSPI alteration on cycling kinematics may offer a simple, inexpensive tool to reduce anterior knee pain in recreational and competitive cyclists...
August 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Talal Zahoor, Reed Mitchell, Priya Bhasin, Lew Schon, Zijun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is secondary to an array of joint injuries. Animal models are useful tools for addressing the uniqueness of PTOA progression in each type of joint injury and developing strategies for PTOA prevention and treatment. HYPOTHESIS: Intra-articular fracture induces PTOA pathology. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Through a parapatellar incision, the medial tibial plateau was exposed in the left knees of 8 Sprague-Dawley rats...
July 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Derya Özer Kaya, Şeyda Toprak Çelenay
BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate differences in state anxiety, spinal posture and mobility, postural competency, and stability across the menstrual cycle in active women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen physically active women (18-25 years) with a regular menstrual cycle were recruited. Anxiety with the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory; spinal posture, mobility, and competency with a Spinal Mouse device (Idiag, Fehraltorf, Switzerland); and postural stability with a Biodex Balance System SD (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Mathew W Hill, Matthew F Higgins, Michael J Price
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high-intensity cycling training leads to adapted responses of balance performance in response to exercise-induced muscle fatigue. METHODS: Eighteen healthy adults were assigned to either 3-weeks (n = 8, age 20.1 ± 2.6 years, height 177 ± 5 cm, mass 73.6 ± 5.1 kg) or 6-weeks (n = 10, age 24.3 ± 5.8 years, height 179 ± 6 cm, mass 81.0 ± 15.8 kg) of high-intensity training (HIT) on a cycle ergometer...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jose Ignacio Priego Quesada, Pedro Pérez-Soriano, Angel Gabriel Lucas-Cuevas, Rosario Salvador Palmer, Rosa M Cibrián Ortiz de Anda
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different bike positions on the perception of fatigue, pain and comfort. Twenty cyclists underwent three tests that involved cycling for 45 min at their individual 50% peak aerobic power output while adopting different positions on the bike. Participants performed the cycling tests adopting three positions defined by two parameters (knee flexion angle [20°, 30°, 40°] and trunk flexion angle [35°, 45°, 55°]) in random order. Angles were measured using a 2D motion analysis system during cycling and applying Fonda's correction factor...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Weiyan Lai, Ying Tang, Xiao R Huang, Patrick Ming-Kuen Tang, Anping Xu, Alexander J Szalai, Tan-Qi Lou, Hui Y Lan
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is exacerbated in C-reactive protein transgenic mice but alleviated in Smad3 knockout mice. Here we used C-reactive protein transgenic/Smad3 wild-type and C-reactive protein transgenic/Smad3 knockout mice to investigate the signaling mechanisms by which C-reactive protein promotes AKI. Serum creatinine was elevated, and the extent of tubular epithelial cell necrosis following ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI was greater in C-reactive protein transgenics but was blunted when Smad3 was deleted...
September 2016: Kidney International
Kay Teschke, Jessica Dennis, Conor C O Reynolds, Meghan Winters, M Anne Harris
BACKGROUND: Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. METHODS: We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada...
2016: BMC Public Health
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