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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099126/aminoguanidine-pretreatment-prevents-methotrexate-induced-small-intestinal-injury-in-the-rat-by-attenuating-nitrosative-stress-and-restoring-the-activities-of-vital-mitochondrial-enzymes
#1
Kasthuri Natarajan, Premila Abraham, Rekha Kota, Dhayakani Selvakumar
BACKGROUND: One of the major toxic side effects of methotrexate (MTX) is enterocolitis, for which there is no efficient standard treatment. Nitric oxide overproduction has been reported to play an important role in MTX-induced mucositis. This study was designed to investigate whether pretreatment with aminoguanidine (AG) - a selective iNOS inhibitor - prevents MTX-induced mucositis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were pretreated with AG (30 and 50 mg/kg body weight) i...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093038/metabonomic-strategy-to-the-evaluation-of-chinese-medicine-salvia-miltiorrhiza-and-dalbergia-odorifera-interfering-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#2
Fei Mu, Jialin Duan, Haixu Bian, Xiaohu Zhai, Peijin Shang, Rui Lin, Meina Zhao, Dongmei Hu, Ying Yin, Aidong Wen, Miaomiao Xi
Extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Dalbergia Odorifera (SM-DOO) has been traditionally used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, information regarding the pharmacodyamic material basis and potential mechanism remain unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Sham, Model, Diltiazem and SM-DOO group, n=6. Rats were pretreated with homologous drugs for 7 days, then subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 180 min of reperfusion. Cardioprotection effects of SM-DOO on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury rats were examined by hemodynamic, infarct area, histopathology, biochemical indicators and western blot analysis...
January 16, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062495/therapeutic-targeting-of-rna-polymerase-i-with-the-small-molecule-cx-5461-for-prevention-of-arterial-injury-induced-neointimal-hyperplasia
#3
Qing Ye, Shu Pang, Wenjing Zhang, Xiaotong Guo, Jianli Wang, Yongtao Zhang, Yang Liu, Xiao Wu, Fan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-dependent rRNA synthesis is a determinant factor in ribosome biogenesis and thus cell proliferation. The importance of dysregulated Pol I activity in cardiovascular disease, however, has not been recognized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific inhibition of Pol I might prevent arterial injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia. APPROACH AND RESULTS: CX-5461 is a novel selective Pol I inhibitor. Using this tool, we demonstrated that local inhibition of Pol I blocked balloon injury-induced neointima formation in rat carotid arteries in vivo...
January 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#4
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049899/the-incidence-of-cisplatin-induced-hypomagnesemia-in-cervical-cancer-patients-receiving-cisplatin-alone
#5
Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Kazushi Watanabe, Hiroshi Matsushita, Ikuto Tsukiyama, Katsuhiko Matsuura, Akihiko Wakatsuki
 Hypomagnesemia is one side effect in patients receiving cisplatin. However, there are few reports of cisplatin-induced hypomagnesemia in Japan. We retrospectively investigated the incidence of hypomagnesemia and nephrotoxicity in patients undergoing radiation therapy who were treated with cisplatin alone (dosage: 40 mg/m(2), administration interval: 1 week) for cervical cancer. Thirty-two patients undergoing radiation therapy who received cisplatin alone for cervical cancer between January 2012 and May 2016 at Aichi Medical University Hospital were included...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012089/orexin-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Claudio Liguori
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent age-related dementia. It prevalently causes cognitive decline, although it is frequently associated with secondary behavioral disturbances. AD neurodegeneration characteristically produces a remarkable destruction of the sleep-wake cycle, with diurnal napping, nighttime arousals, sleep fragmentation, and REM sleep impairment. It was recently hypothesized that the orexinergic system was involved in AD pathology. Accordingly, recent papers showed the association between orexinergic neurotransmission dysfunction, sleep impairment, and cognitive decline in AD...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978507/snail-and-kidney-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
Noémie Simon-Tillaux, Alexandre Hertig
Snail family zinc finger 1 (SNAI1) is a transcription factor expressed during renal embryogenesis, and re-expressed in various settings of acute kidney injury (AKI). Subjected to tight regulation, SNAI1 controls major biological processes responsible for renal fibrogenesis, including mesenchymal reprogramming of tubular epithelial cells, shutdown of fatty acid metabolism, cell cycle arrest and inflammation of the microenvironment surrounding tubular epithelial cells. The present review describes in detail the interactions of SNAI1 with AKI-associated signalling pathways...
October 6, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957288/esophageal-cancer-in-golestan-province-iran-a-review-of-genetic-susceptibility-and-environmental-risk-factors
#8
REVIEW
Mahin Gholipour, Farhad Islami, Gholamreza Roshandel, Masoud Khoshnia, Abbas Badakhshan, Abdolvahab Moradi, Reza Malekzadeh
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor that is typically diagnosed only when the tumor has gained remarkable size, extended to peripheral tissues, and led to dysphagia. Five-year survival of advanced cancer is still very poor (19%), even with improved surgical techniques and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Therefore, early detection and prevention are the most important strategies to reduce the burden of ESCC. Our review will focus on the studies conducted in Golestan province, an area with a high prevalence of ESCC in northern Iran...
October 2016: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941275/increased-postural-sway-and-changes-in-the-neuromuscular-activities-of-the-ankle-stabilizing-muscles-at-ovulation-in-healthy-young-women
#9
Haneul Lee, JongEun Yim
Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries among the physically active subjects. Ankle inversion-eversion laxity is greater and dynamic postural control is less in women compared with men. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in postural sway and its effects on the neuromuscular activities of the ankle stabilizing muscles during the menstrual cycle in young women. Fourteen young women with regular menstrual cycles participated in this experiment. Postural sway and electromyographic signals of the lateral gastrocnemius, peroneus longus (PL), and tibialis anterior (TA) were recorded while the participants performed eight different balance tasks at ovulation and early follicular phase during one full menstrual cycle...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935559/application-of-a-model-to-analyze-shoulder-biomechanics-in-adult-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-when-walking-with-crutches-in-two-different-gait-patterns
#10
Enrique Perez-Rizo, Fernando Trincado-Alonso, Soraya Pérez-Nombela, Antonio Del Ama-Espinosa, Fernando Jiménez-Díaz, Vicente Lozano-Berrio, Angel Gil-Agudo
BACKGROUND: Specific biomechanical models have been developed to study gait using crutches. Clinical application of these models is needed in adult spinal cord injury (SCI) population walking with different patterns of gait with crutches to prevent overuse shoulder injuries. OBJECTIVE: To apply a biomechanical model in a clinical environment to analyze shoulder in adult SCI patients walking with two different patterns of gait with crutches: two point reciprocal gait (RG) and swing-through gait (SG)...
December 8, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923659/matrilin-2-regulates-proliferation-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-during-radiation-induced-injury-in-hpaepic-cell
#11
Junming Luo, Menglan Zhang, Hong Huang, Yichun Wang, Xin Yuan, Siqing Ma, Jingshi Liu, Shiying Zhou, Shukun Zhang
Radiation pulmonary injury is related to the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the alveolar interstitial space. Matrilin-2 as a component of extracellular filamentous networks, present higher level in the lung tissue from irradiated mice and irradiated pulmonary epithelial cell line, HPAEpiC cells. Knockdown of endogenous matrilin-2 prevents the apoptosis of HPAEpiC cell induced by the irradiation injury. Consistently, over-expression of matrilin-2 reduced the proliferation and induced apoptosis of HPAEpiC cells...
December 3, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916427/tea-cocoa-coffee-and-affective-disorders-vicious-or-virtuous-cycle
#12
REVIEW
Tatiana García-Blanco, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is increasing worldwide, which underscores the importance of increasing research in this field, in terms of better detection, prevention based on improvement of lifestyle and diet, and effectiveness of treatment. Increasing evidence suggest that diet and exercise can affect proper neuronal development and physiology and protect the brain from neurological illnesses or injuries. Of note, cocoa, tea, and coffee are being actively investigated because they are rich in (poly)phenolic compounds that can modulate mental health, namely brain plasticity, behavior, mood, depression, and cognition...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906113/dystrophin-restoration-therapy-improves-both-the-reduced-excitability-and-the-force-drop-induced-by-lengthening-contractions-in-dystrophic-mdx-skeletal-muscle
#13
Pauline Roy, Fredérique Rau, Julien Ochala, Julien Messéant, Bodvael Fraysse, Jeanne Lainé, Onnik Agbulut, Gillian Butler-Browne, Denis Furling, Arnaud Ferry
BACKGROUND: The greater susceptibility to contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury (fragility) is an important dystrophic feature and tool for testing preclinic dystrophin-based therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, how these therapies reduce the muscle fragility is not clear. METHODS: To address this question, we first determined the event(s) of the excitation-contraction cycle which is/are altered following lengthening (eccentric) contractions in the mdx muscle...
July 20, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903275/cell-cycle-inhibition-reduces-inflammatory-responses-neuronal-loss-and-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-hypobaria-exposure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Jacob W Skovira, Junfang Wu, Jessica J Matyas, Alok Kumar, Marie Hanscom, Shruti V Kabadi, Raymond Fang, Alan I Faden
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in military settings can be exposed to prolonged periods of hypobaria (HB) during aeromedical evacuation. Hypobaric exposure, even with supplemental oxygen to prevent hypoxia, worsens outcome after experimental TBI, in part by increasing neuroinflammation. Cell cycle activation (CCA) after TBI has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to both post-traumatic cell death and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined whether hypobaric exposure in rats subjected to TBI increases CCA and microglial activation in the brain, as compared to TBI alone, and to evaluate the ability of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CR8) to reduce such changes and improve behavioral outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881386/ppar%C3%AE-augments-heart-function-and-cardiac-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-early-experimental-polymicrobial-sepsis
#15
Stephen Wade Standage, Brock G Bennion, Taft Olpin Knowles, Dolena R Ledee, Michael A Portman, John K McGuire, W Conrad Liles, Aaron K Olson
Children with sepsis and multisystem organ failure have downregulated leukocyte gene expression of PPARα, a nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor that regulates inflammation and lipid metabolism. Mouse models of sepsis have likewise demonstrated that the absence of PPARα is associated with decreased survival and organ injury, specifically of the heart. Using a clinically relevant mouse model of early sepsis, we found that heart function increases in wild type (WT) mice over the first 24 hours of sepsis, but that mice lacking PPARα (Ppara(-/-)) cannot sustain the elevated heart function necessary to compensate for sepsis pathophysiology...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866974/sphingolipids-in-neutrophil-function-and-inflammatory-responses-mechanisms-and-implications-for-intestinal-immunity-and-inflammation-in-ulcerative-colitis
#16
REVIEW
Mel Pilar Espaillat, Richard R Kew, Lina M Obeid
Bioactive sphingolipids are regulators of immune cell function and play critical roles in inflammatory conditions including ulcerative colitis. As one of the major forms of inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis pathophysiology is characterized by an aberrant intestinal inflammatory response that persists causing chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Innate immune cells play an integral role in normal intestinal homeostasis but their dysregulation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis...
November 14, 2016: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849300/ischemic-postconditioning-assessment-in-the-liver-of-rats-undergoing-mesenteric-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#17
Carlos Henrique Marques Dos Santos, Ricardo Dutra Aydos, Ed Nogueira, Luciana Nakao Odashiro Miiji, Pedro Carvalho Cassino, Isadora Ishaq Alves, Nádia Meneguesso Calheiros, Milena Garcia
Introduction: Ischemic postconditioning is a method that shows evidence of efficacy in minimizing reperfusion injury; however, its effectiveness in preventing injuries in distant organs is still unknown, especially in those who have undergone mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion. Objective: To evaluate the effect of ischemic postconditioning in preventing reperfusion injury in the liver of rats submitted to mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion, comparing two different methods of ischemic postconditioning...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833146/activation-of-protein-kinase-g-pkg-reduces-neointimal-hyperplasia-inhibits-platelet-aggregation-and-facilitates-re-endothelialization
#18
Ju-Young Kim, Han-Mo Yang, Joo-Eun Lee, Baek-Kyung Kim, Sooryeonhwa Jin, Jaewon Lee, Kyung-Woo Park, Hyun-Jai Cho, Yoo-Wook Kwon, Hae-Young Lee, Hyun-Jae Kang, Byung-Hee Oh, Young-Bae Park, Hyo-Soo Kim
In spite of its great success in reducing restenosis, drug-eluting stent (DES) has unfavorable aspects such as stent thrombosis and delayed re-endothelialization. We examined the effects of PKG activation by Exisulind on neointimal formation, platelet aggregation, and re-endothelialization. Exisulind significantly reduced VSMCs viability, cell cycle progression, migration, and neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in rat carotid arteries. Interestingly, in contrast to the effect on VSMC viability, Exisulind did not reduce the viability of endothelial cells...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829991/p53-inhibitor-pifithrin-%C3%AE-prevents-the-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-against-injury
#19
Yun-Lin Shen, Lei Sun, Yu-Jie Hu, Hua-Jie Liu, Xin-Yu Kuang, Xiao-Ling Niu, Wen-Yan Huang
The injury and repair of renal tubular epithelial cells play an important role in the pathological process of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study aimed to clarify the role of cell cycle change in renal tubular epithelial cell injury and repair in vivo and in vitro. Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 45 min (ischemia) followed by reperfusion. Pifithrin-α, a p53 inhibitor, was administered at 24 h before renal ischemia and 3 and 14 days after reperfusion. Results showed the tubular epithelial cells in M phase increased significantly at 2 h to 72 h after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), while pifithrin-α decreased them...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815446/blood-stem-cell-activity-is-arrested-by-th1-mediated-injury-preventing-engraftment-following-nonmyeloablative-conditioning
#20
Antonia M S Müller, Mareike Florek, Holbrook E K Kohrt, Natascha J Küpper, Alexander Filatenkov, Jessica A Linderman, Husein Hadeiba, Robert S Negrin, Judith A Shizuru
T cells are widely used to promote engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Their role in overcoming barriers to HSC engraftment is thought to be particularly critical when patients receive reduced doses of preparative chemotherapy and/or radiation compared with standard transplantations. In this study, we sought to delineate the effects CD4(+) cells on engraftment and blood formation in a model that simulates clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation by transplanting MHC-matched, minor histocompatibility-mismatched grafts composed of purified HSCs, HSCs plus bulk T cells, or HSCs plus T cell subsets into mice conditioned with low-dose irradiation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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