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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716705/pathobiology-of-biliary-epithelia
#1
REVIEW
Angela C Cheung, Maria J Lorenzo Pisarello, Nicholas F LaRusso
Cholangiocytes are epithelial cells that line the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. They serve predominantly to mediate the content of luminal biliary fluid, which is controlled via numerous signaling pathways influenced by endogenous (e.g., bile acids, nucleotides, hormones, neurotransmitters etc.) and exogenous (microbes/microbial products, drugs etc.) molecules. When injured, cholangiocytes undergo apoptosis/lysis, repair and proliferation. They also become senescent, a form of cell cycle arrest, which may prevent propagation of injury and/or malignant transformation...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710974/predictors-of-recovery-in-cyclists-hospitalised-for-orthopaedic-trauma-following-an-on-road-crash
#2
Ben Beck, Christina L Ekegren, Peter Cameron, Elton R Edwards, Andrew Bucknill, Rodney Judson, Richard Page, Raphael Hau, Mark Stevenson, Belinda J Gabbe
BACKGROUND: As cycling-related injury rates are on the rise, there is a need to understand the long term outcomes of these patients in order to quantify the burden of injury and to inform injury prevention strategies. This study aimed to investigate predictors of return to work and functional recovery in a cohort of cyclists hospitalised for orthopaedic trauma from crashes occurring on-road. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR) was conducted for patients who were hospitalised for orthopaedic trauma following a cycling crash that occurred on-road between July 2007 and June 2015...
July 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710541/injury-induced-purinergic-signalling-molecules-upregulate-pluripotency-gene-expression-and-mitotic-activity-of-progenitor-cells-in-the-zebrafish-retina
#3
Matías P Medrano, Claudio A Bejarano, Ariadna G Battista, Graciela D Venera, Ramón O Bernabeu, Maria Paula Faillace
Damage in fish activates retina repair that restores sight. The purinergic signalling system serves multiple homeostatic functions and has been implicated in cell cycle control of progenitor cells in the developing retina. We examined whether changes in the expression of purinergic molecules were instrumental in the proliferative phase after injury of adult zebrafish retinas with ouabain. P2RY1 messenger RNA (mRNA) increased early after injury and showed maximal levels at the time of peak progenitor cell proliferation...
July 14, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703082/dental-injuries-in-younger-emergency-department-patients
#4
Vigil James, Yona R Vandersluis, Evangeline W J Zhang, Dennis Scolnik
BACKGROUND: Dental trauma is a relatively common occurrence in childhood, with an impact exceeding that of periodontal diseases. It places a significant burden on the public health system because of its high frequency, impact on quality of life and consumption of resources. OBJECTIVES: To identify changing trends of dental injury in patients between 0-18 years of age in Canada and provide a detailed assessment of dental injury patterns in patients attending a large pediatric tertiary care hospital...
July 13, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676707/the-gut-microbiome-and-liver-cancer-mechanisms-and-clinical-translation
#5
REVIEW
Le-Xing Yu, Robert F Schwabe
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality. HCC almost exclusively develops in patients with chronic liver disease, driven by a vicious cycle of liver injury, inflammation and regeneration that typically spans decades. Increasing evidence points towards a key role of the bacterial microbiome in promoting the progression of liver disease and the development of HCC. Here, we will review mechanisms by which the gut microbiota promotes hepatocarcinogenesis, focusing on the leaky gut, bacterial dysbiosis, microbe-associated molecular patterns and bacterial metabolites as key pathways that drive cancer-promoting liver inflammation, fibrosis and genotoxicity...
July 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656880/downregulation-of-%C3%AE-catenin-blocks-fibrosis-via-wnt2-signaling-in-human-keloid-fibroblasts
#6
Yumei Cai, Shize Zhu, Weiqun Yang, Mingmeng Pan, Chaoyang Wang, Wenyi Wu
Keloid is a disorder of fibroproliferative diseases that occurs in wounds, characterized by an exaggerated response to injury. The key factor responsible for the disease process has not been identified. This study sought to elucidate the role of β-catenin in the regulation of keloid phenotypes and signaling. Expression of β-catenin in keloid and normal non-keloid samples was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Knockdown of β-catenin was achieved by delivering small interfering RNA to target β-catenin...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650927/dexamethasone-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-rat-ileum
#7
Aline Barbosa Ribeiro, Humberto Giusti, Ana Paula Trevelin Souza, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Rafael Simone Saia
Inflammatory mediators have been postulated as elementary inducing factors to the disruption of the intestinal tight junctions (TJ) and consequently, gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Corticosteroids are considered the mainstay in the treatment of septic shock; however the impact of this therapy on the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. Our aims were to demonstrate the role of low dexamethasone (DEX) doses in modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the expression and the arrangement of TJ proteins in endotoxemic rats...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645042/the-changing-health-priorities-of-earthquake-response-and-implications-for-preparedness-a-scoping-review
#8
REVIEW
C Cartwright, M Hall, A C K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes have substantial impacts on mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The academic evidence base to support Disaster Risk Reduction activities in LMIC settings is, however, limited. We sought to address this gap by identifying the health and healthcare impacts of earthquakes in LMICs and to identify the implications of these findings for future earthquake preparedness. STUDY DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken with systematic searches of indexed databases to identify relevant literature...
June 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643424/mdm2-is-implicated-in-high-glucose-induced-podocyte-mitotic-catastrophe-via-notch1-signalling
#9
Hui Tang, Chun-Tao Lei, Chen Ye, Pan Gao, Cheng Wan, Shan Chen, Fang-Fang He, Yu-Mei Wang, Hua Su, Chun Zhang
Podocyte injury and depletion are essential events involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). As a terminally differentiated cell, podocyte is restricted in 'post-mitosis' state and unable to regenerate. Re-entering mitotic phase will cause podocyte disastrous death which is defined as mitotic catastrophe (MC). Murine double minute 2 (MDM2), a cell cycle regulator, is widely expressed in renal resident cells including podocytes. Here, we explore whether MDM2 is involved in podocyte MC during hyperglycaemia...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641058/acute-kinematics-changes-in-marathon-runners-using-different-footwear
#10
Tania Socorro Amorim Soares, Camila Fonseca de Oliveira, Federico Pizzuto, Rui Manuel Garganta, João Paulo Vila-Boas, Mario Casimiro da Anunciação Paiva
The effects of running with or without shoes on injury prevention have been extensively studied, and several investigations have assessed biomechanical differences between them. However, findings are not consensual and further insights on biomechanical load associated with differently shod or barefoot conditions may be needed. This study aimed to observe if habitually shod marathon runners show acute alterations when running barefoot or with minimalist shoes, and to determine whether the running kinematical adaptations of wearing minimalist shoes were similar to barefoot running...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637354/essential-dietary-bioactive-lipids-in-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#11
M Valeria Catani, Valeria Gasperi, Tiziana Bisogno, Mauro Maccarrone
Under physiological conditions, neurons and glia are in a healthy, redox-balanced environment; when injury perturbs this equilibrium, a neuroinflammatory state is established by activated microglia that triggers pro-inflammatory responses and alters the oxidant/antioxidant balance, thus leading to neuronal loss and neurodegeneration. In neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyothrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis), the brain is in a constitutively self-sustaining cycle of inflammation and oxidative stress that prompts and amplifies brain damage...
June 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634089/wedelolactone-a-plant-coumarin-prevents-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-injury-induced-neointimal-hyperplasia-through-akt-and-ampk-signaling
#12
Lu Peng, Xuefeng Huang, Xin Jin, Zuo Jing, Lichao Yang, Yu Zhou, Jie Ren, Yun Zhao
Wedelolactone (WDL) is a natural compound derived from Chinese herbal medicine Eclipta prostrate L, and has been reported to exhibit various effects potentially beneficial for human health. However, the possible preventive effects of WDL toward vascular remodeling and mechanisms involved have not been investigated to date. In this study, we investigated the effects of WDL on proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and on neointimal hyperplasia resulted from balloon injury in rats...
June 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609381/remote-ischemic-conditioning-preserves-cognition-and-motor-coordination-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Alexander J Sandweiss, Asad Azim, Kareem Ibraheem, Tally M Largent-Milnes, Peter Rhee, Todd W Vanderah, Bellal Joseph
INTRODUCTION: Management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is focused on minimizing or preventing secondary brain injury. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is an established treatment modality that has been shown to improve patient outcomes in different clinical settings by influencing inflammatory insults. In a clinical trial, RIC showed amelioration of SB100 and NSE. The aim of our study was to further elucidate the mechanisms and outcome when applying RIC in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603874/impact-of-rest-duration-on-achilles-tendon-structure-and-function-following-isometric-training
#14
C M Waugh, T Alktebi, A de Sa, A Scott
Intervention programs are often sought to strengthen the Achilles tendon (AT) due to its high injury rate. Long rest periods between loading cycles have been found to increase collagen synthesis by tenocytes, suggesting rest duration may be important for tendon adaptation in vivo, however exercise programs comparing long and short rest duration have not been directly compared. Fourteen adults completed a 12-week progressive training intervention; training sessions consisted of 5 x 10 isometric plantarflexion contractions each of 3-s duration performed at 90% of MVC three times weekly...
June 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602615/pten-mediates-activation-of-core-clock-protein-bmal1-and-accumulation-of-epidermal-stem-cells
#15
Chiara Zagni, Luciana O Almeida, Tarek Balan, Marco T Martins, Luciana K Rosselli-Murai, Petros Papagerakis, Rogerio M Castilho, Cristiane H Squarize
Tissue integrity requires constant maintenance of a quiescent, yet responsive, population of stem cells. In the skin, hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) that reside within the bulge maintain tissue homeostasis in response to activating cues that occur with each new hair cycle or upon injury. We found that PTEN, a major regulator of the PI3K-AKT pathway, controlled HFSC number and size in the bulge and maintained genomically stable pluripotent cells. This regulatory function is central for HFSC quiescence, where PTEN-deficiency phenotype is in part regulated by BMAL1...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596740/ultrasound-imaging-of-mouse-fetal-intracranial-hemorrhage-due-to-ischemia-reperfusion
#16
Kenichi Funamoto, Takuya Ito, Kiyoe Funamoto, Clarissa L Velayo, Yoshitaka Kimura
Despite vast improvement in perinatal care during the 30 years, the incidence rate of neonatal encephalopathy remains unchanged without any further Progress towards preventive strategies for the clinical impasse. Antenatal brain injury including fetal intracranial hemorrhage caused by ischemia/reperfusion is known as one of the primary triggers of neonatal injury. However, the mechanisms of antenatal brain injury are poorly understood unless better predictive models of the disease are developed. Here we show a mouse model for fetal intracranial hemorrhage in vivo developed to investigate the actual timing of hypoxia-ischemic events and their related mechanisms of injury...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590566/phenotypic-switching-prevention-and-proliferation-migration-inhibition-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-by-the-ruthenium-nitrosyl-complex-trans-ru-no-cl-cyclam-pf6-2
#17
Mariana G de Oliveira, Fabio G Doro, Elia Tfouni, Marta H Krieger
OBJECTIVES: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation at sites of vascular injury are both critical steps in the development of intimal hyperplasia (IH). Local delivery of nitric oxide (NO) largely prevents these events. Among the NO donors, tetraazamacrocyclic nitrosyl complexes, such as trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(cyclam)](PF6 )2 (cyclamNO), gained attention for their features, which include the possibility of being embedded in solid matrices, and ability to participate in a nitrite/NO catalytic conversion cycle...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590233/mitoxantrone-suppresses-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-balloon-injury-induced-neointima-formation-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#18
Yuan Teng, Chun Liang, Ziyi Wang, Wen Li, Jianxing Yu, Zhen Shan, Shenming Wang
Neointima formation, which occurs after vascular injury due to vascular disease or interventions such as angioplasty and stent placement, is a complex process that involves multiple molecular and cellular mechanisms. The inhibition of neointima formation is vital to prevent restenosis of blood vessels. In the present study, we investigated whether the systemic administration of mitoxantrone can inhibit neointima formation, and evaluated the underlying mechanisms under in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions...
June 4, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586068/sulforaphane-increases-nrf2-expression-and-protects-alveolar-epithelial-cells-against-injury-caused-by-cigarette-smoke-extract
#19
Zongxian Jiao, Jiachen Chang, Jing Li, Dengmei Nie, Huijuan Cui, Dongfang Guo
Cigarette smoking is a primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as it damages epithelial cells through a variety of mechanisms. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an antioxidant agent, which exerts protective effects against cell damage by activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (NFE2L2; Nrf2). The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of SFN in preventing cigarette smoke extract (CSE)‑induced oxidative damage to RLE‑6TN rat lung epithelial cells...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566501/prevention-of-contrast-induced-nephropathy-by-limb-ischemic-preconditioning-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#20
George Dugbartey, Andrew N Redington
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an important complication following diagnostic radiographic imaging and interventional therapy. It results from administration of intravascular iodinated contrast media (CM) and is currently the third most common cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. CIN is associated with increased morbidity, prolonged hospitalization and higher mortality. Although the importance of CIN is widely appreciated, and its occurrence can be mitigated by the use of pre- and post-hydration protocols and low osmolar instead of high osmolar iodine-containing CM, specific prophylactic therapy is lacking...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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