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Injury prevention, cycling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906113/dystrophin-restoration-therapy-improves-both-the-reduced-excitability-and-the-force-drop-induced-by-lengthening-contractions-in-dystrophic-mdx-skeletal-muscle
#1
Pauline Roy, Fredérique Rau, Julien Ochala, Julien Messéant, Bodvael Fraysse, Jeanne Lainé, Onnik Agbulut, Gillian Butler-Browne, Denis Furling, Arnaud Ferry
BACKGROUND: The greater susceptibility to contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury (fragility) is an important dystrophic feature and tool for testing preclinic dystrophin-based therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, how these therapies reduce the muscle fragility is not clear. METHODS: To address this question, we first determined the event(s) of the excitation-contraction cycle which is/are altered following lengthening (eccentric) contractions in the mdx muscle...
July 20, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903275/cell-cycle-inhibition-reduces-inflammatory-responses-neuronal-loss-and-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-hypobaria-exposure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Jacob W Skovira, Junfang Wu, Jessica J Matyas, Alok Kumar, Marie Hanscom, Shruti V Kabadi, Raymond Fang, Alan I Faden
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in military settings can be exposed to prolonged periods of hypobaria (HB) during aeromedical evacuation. Hypobaric exposure, even with supplemental oxygen to prevent hypoxia, worsens outcome after experimental TBI, in part by increasing neuroinflammation. Cell cycle activation (CCA) after TBI has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to both post-traumatic cell death and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined whether hypobaric exposure in rats subjected to TBI increases CCA and microglial activation in the brain, as compared to TBI alone, and to evaluate the ability of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CR8) to reduce such changes and improve behavioral outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881386/ppar%C3%AE-augments-heart-function-and-cardiac-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-early-experimental-polymicrobial-sepsis
#3
Stephen Wade Standage, Brock G Bennion, Taft Olpin Knowles, Dolena R Ledee, Michael A Portman, John K McGuire, W Conrad Liles, Aaron K Olson
Children with sepsis and multisystem organ failure have downregulated leukocyte gene expression of PPARα, a nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor that regulates inflammation and lipid metabolism. Mouse models of sepsis have likewise demonstrated that the absence of PPARα is associated with decreased survival and organ injury, specifically of the heart. Using a clinically relevant mouse model of early sepsis, we found that heart function increases in wild type (WT) mice over the first 24 hours of sepsis, but that mice lacking PPARα (Ppara(-/-)) cannot sustain the elevated heart function necessary to compensate for sepsis pathophysiology...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866974/sphingolipids-in-neutrophil-function-and-inflammatory-responses-mechanisms-and-implications-for-intestinal-immunity-and-inflammation-in-ulcerative-colitis
#4
REVIEW
Mel Pilar Espaillat, Richard R Kew, Lina M Obeid
Bioactive sphingolipids are regulators of immune cell function and play critical roles in inflammatory conditions including ulcerative colitis. As one of the major forms of inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis pathophysiology is characterized by an aberrant intestinal inflammatory response that persists causing chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Innate immune cells play an integral role in normal intestinal homeostasis but their dysregulation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis...
November 14, 2016: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849300/ischemic-postconditioning-assessment-in-the-liver-of-rats-undergoing-mesenteric-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#5
Carlos Henrique Marques Dos Santos, Ricardo Dutra Aydos, Ed Nogueira, Luciana Nakao Odashiro Miiji, Pedro Carvalho Cassino, Isadora Ishaq Alves, Nádia Meneguesso Calheiros, Milena Garcia
Introduction: Ischemic postconditioning is a method that shows evidence of efficacy in minimizing reperfusion injury; however, its effectiveness in preventing injuries in distant organs is still unknown, especially in those who have undergone mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion. Objective: To evaluate the effect of ischemic postconditioning in preventing reperfusion injury in the liver of rats submitted to mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion, comparing two different methods of ischemic postconditioning...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833146/activation-of-protein-kinase-g-pkg-reduces-neointimal-hyperplasia-inhibits-platelet-aggregation-and-facilitates-re-endothelialization
#6
Ju-Young Kim, Han-Mo Yang, Joo-Eun Lee, Baek-Kyung Kim, Sooryeonhwa Jin, Jaewon Lee, Kyung-Woo Park, Hyun-Jai Cho, Yoo-Wook Kwon, Hae-Young Lee, Hyun-Jae Kang, Byung-Hee Oh, Young-Bae Park, Hyo-Soo Kim
In spite of its great success in reducing restenosis, drug-eluting stent (DES) has unfavorable aspects such as stent thrombosis and delayed re-endothelialization. We examined the effects of PKG activation by Exisulind on neointimal formation, platelet aggregation, and re-endothelialization. Exisulind significantly reduced VSMCs viability, cell cycle progression, migration, and neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in rat carotid arteries. Interestingly, in contrast to the effect on VSMC viability, Exisulind did not reduce the viability of endothelial cells...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829991/p53-inhibitor-pifithrin-%C3%AE-prevents-the-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-against-injury
#7
Yun-Lin Shen, Lei Sun, Yu-Jie Hu, Hua-Jie Liu, Xin-Yu Kuang, Xiao-Ling Niu, Wen-Yan Huang
The injury and repair of renal tubular epithelial cells play an important role in the pathological process of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study aimed to clarify the role of cell cycle change in renal tubular epithelial cell injury and repair in vivo and in vitro. Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 45 min (ischemia) followed by reperfusion. Pifithrin-α, a p53 inhibitor, was administered at 24 h before renal ischemia and 3 and 14 days after reperfusion. Results showed the tubular epithelial cells in M phase increased significantly at 2 h to 72 h after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), while pifithrin-α decreased them...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815446/blood-stem-cell-activity-is-arrested-by-th1-mediated-injury-preventing-engraftment-following-nonmyeloablative-conditioning
#8
Antonia M S Müller, Mareike Florek, Holbrook E K Kohrt, Natascha J Küpper, Alexander Filatenkov, Jessica A Linderman, Husein Hadeiba, Robert S Negrin, Judith A Shizuru
T cells are widely used to promote engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Their role in overcoming barriers to HSC engraftment is thought to be particularly critical when patients receive reduced doses of preparative chemotherapy and/or radiation compared with standard transplantations. In this study, we sought to delineate the effects CD4(+) cells on engraftment and blood formation in a model that simulates clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation by transplanting MHC-matched, minor histocompatibility-mismatched grafts composed of purified HSCs, HSCs plus bulk T cells, or HSCs plus T cell subsets into mice conditioned with low-dose irradiation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814435/cycling-injuries-presenting-to-an-irish-emergency-department
#9
J Foley, J Cronin, A Gheorghescu, D Chetrit, D Evoy, J Ryan
There is little published data on cycling injuries in Ireland and the present study aims to describe the cycling related injuries presenting to the emergency department (ED), of a tertiary urban university hospital. This is a retrospective review of cycling-related injuries presenting to the ED of St. Vincent's University Hospital (SVUH) from 1st of January to 31st of December 2014. There were 534 cycling related injuries presenting to the ED during the study period. Just over 71% of the patients were male, and 14...
June 10, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807687/troxerutin-preconditioning-and-ischemic-postconditioning-modulate-inflammatory-response-after-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat-model
#10
Reza Badalzadeh, Behzad Baradaran, Alireza Alihemmati, Bahman Yousefi, Azam Abbaszadeh
Protective effects of ischemic postconditioning in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have been ever demonstrated, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Because of their multiplex activities, using natural pharmaceuticals seems to be clinically interesting. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of troxerutin preconditioning and ischemic postconditioning on inflammatory responses after myocardial I/R injury in a rat model. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups as the control, troxerutin receiving (TXR), postconditioning receiving (PostC), and combined therapy (TXR + PostC)...
November 2, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803479/analysis-of-vascular-cell-response-to-hypertension-induced-by-pressure-loading-and-its-application-as-a-tool-for-exploring-pharmacological-modes-of-action
#11
Takuji Machida
 Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), resulting in the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandins such as PGI2. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 in cultured VSMCs isolated from 6-7-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) is significantly lower than in cells of normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). These reductions are also found in cells exposed to pulsatile atmospheric pressure between 80-160 mmHg at a rate of 4 cycles/min, which simulates systolic hypertension...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797729/hamstring-injuries-in-elite-gaelic-football-an-8-year-investigation-to-identify-injury-rates-time-loss-patterns-and-players-at-increased-risk
#12
Mark Roe, John C Murphy, Conor Gissane, Catherine Blake
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries occur frequently in field sports, yet longitudinal information to guide prevention programmes is missing. AIM: Investigate longitudinal hamstring injury rates and associated time loss in elite Gaelic football, while identifying subgroups of players at increased risk. METHODS: 38 data sets from 15 elite male Gaelic football teams were received by the National Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) Injury Surveillance Database between 2008 and 2015...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794421/a-topical-mitochondria-targeted-redox-cycling-nitroxide-mitigates-oxidative-stress-induced-skin-damage
#13
Rhonda M Brand, Michael W Epperly, J Mark Stottlemyer, Erin M Skoda, Xiang Gao, Song Li, Saiful Huq, Peter Wipf, Valerian E Kagan, Joel S Greenberger, Louis D Falo
Skin is the largest human organ and provides a first line of defense that includes physical, chemical, and immune mechanisms to combat environmental stress. Radiation is a prevalent environmental stressor. Radiation induced skin damage ranges from photoaging and cutaneous carcinogenesis from UV exposure, to treatment-limiting radiation dermatitis associated with radiotherapy, to cutaneous radiation syndrome, a frequently fatal consequence of exposures from nuclear accidents. The major mechanism of skin injury common to these exposures is radiation induced oxidative stress...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792740/pdlim7-regulates-arf6-dependent-actin-dynamics-and-is-required-for-platelet-mediated-thrombosis-in-mice
#14
Alexander E Urban, Erin O Quick, Kaylie P Miller, Jennifer Krcmery, Hans-Georg Simon
Upon vessel injury, platelets become activated and rapidly reorganize their actin cytoskeleton to adhere to the site of endothelial damage, triggering the formation of a fibrin-rich plug to prevent further blood loss. Inactivation of Pdlim7 provides the new perspective that regulation of actin cytoskeletal changes in platelets is dependent on the encoded PDZ-LIM protein. Loss-of-function of Pdlim7 triggers hypercoagulopathy and causes significant perinatal lethality in mice. Our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that Pdlim7 is dynamically distributed along actin fibers, and lack of Pdlim7 leads to a marked inability to rearrange the actin cytoskeleton...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787475/enzyme-activities-involved-in-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-are-altered-to-reduce-glutamate-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#15
Araceli Diaz-Ruiz, Sergio Montes, Hermelinda Salgado-Ceballos, Valente Maldonado, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Camilo Ríos
Glutamate (Glu) neurotransmitter is involved in the excitotoxic damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Glu is transformed into glutamine (Gln) by glutamine synthetase (GS) enzyme in glial cells. Once into the neurons, Gln is transformed back into Glu by phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG). Glu is also a precursor for the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid through the action of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) enzyme. The contribution of all these Glu biotransformations after SCI has not been determined...
October 26, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761356/cycling-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-1997-2012-correlates-time-trends-and-health-consequences
#16
Thiago Hérick Sá, Ana Clara Duran, Marko Tainio, Carlos Augusto Monteiro, James Woodcock
The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS). At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people). Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744045/cardioprotective-effects-of-iron-chelator-hapi-and-ros-activated-boronate-prochelator-bhapi-against-catecholamine-induced-oxidative-cellular-injury
#17
Pavlína Hašková, Hana Jansová, Jan Bureš, Miloslav Macháček, Anna Jirkovská, Katherine J Franz, Petra Kovaříková, Tomáš Šimůnek
Catecholamines may undergo iron-promoted oxidation resulting in formation of reactive intermediates (aminochromes) capable of redox cycling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Both of them induce oxidative stress resulting in cellular damage and death. Iron chelation has been recently shown as a suitable tool of cardioprotection with considerable potential to protect cardiac cells against catecholamine-induced cardiotoxicity. However, prolonged exposure of cells to classical chelators may interfere with physiological iron homeostasis...
October 12, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701148/inhibition-of-cdk4-6-protects-against-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury-in-mice
#18
Liang Wei, Brian J Leibowitz, Xinwei Wang, Michael Epperly, Joel Greenberger, Lin Zhang, Jian Yu
Radiotherapy causes dose-limiting toxicity and long-term complications in rapidly renewing tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there is no FDA-approved agent for the prevention or treatment of radiation-induced intestinal injury. In this study, we have shown that PD 0332991 (PD), an FDA-approved selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6), prevents radiation-induced lethal intestinal injury in mice. Treating mice with PD or a structurally distinct CDK4/6 inhibitor prior to radiation blocked proliferation and crypt apoptosis and improved crypt regeneration...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693124/inhibitory-effect-of-recombinant-human-endostatin-on-the-proliferation-of-hypertrophic-scar-fibroblasts-in-a-rabbit-ear-model
#19
Yong-Fang Gong, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Fei Liu, Zhen-Zhen Wang, Xue-Fei Deng, Yi Jiao, Xiao-Jing Li, Xue-Ying Huang
Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a pathological scar that particularly occurs after traumatic injuries, surgical procedures and burning. Abnormal activation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) intensifies fibrosis during wound healing. Our previous studies demonstrated that recombinant human endostatin (rhEndostatin) prevented synovial thickening in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats via inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis in synovial fibroblasts. However, the effect of this protein on HSF proliferation is not known...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680979/effects-of-estradiol-on-measurements-of-conduit-artery-endothelial-function-after-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-premenopausal-women
#20
Mary Clare Luca, Andrew Liuni, Paula Harvey, Susanna Mak, John D Parker
In premenopausal women, ovarian steroids are felt to play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess whether menstrual cycle variations in estrogen can modify the response to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in humans. In an investigator-blinded crossover study, 10 healthy premenopausal women with regular menstrual cycles were studied. They had flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) measured by ultrasound in the radial artery before and after IR (15 min of brachial artery ischemia, 15 min of reperfusion) during both the early and late follicular phases of the menstrual cycle...
July 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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