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Injury prevention, cycling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674008/applying-systems-ergonomics-methods-in-sport-a-systematic-review
#1
Adam Hulme, Jason Thompson, Katherine L Plant, Gemma J M Read, Scott Mclean, Amanda Clacy, Paul M Salmon
INTRODUCTION: As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management...
April 16, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665059/tannic-acid-modulates-fibroblast-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-response-to-pro-fibrotic-stimuli
#2
Dhamotharan Pattarayan, Ayyanar Sivanantham, Ramalingam Bethunaickan, Rajaguru Palanichamy, Subbiah Rajasekaran
In response to tissue injury, fibroblasts migrate into the wound, where they undergo proliferation and differentiation. The persistence of these differentiated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) is associated with excessive scarring in various organs. We aimed to investigate the effects of Tannic acid (TA) on fibroblast proliferation and differentiation, and found that TA inhibited fibroblast differentiation as assessed by reduced expression of α-smooth muscle actin, N-cadherin, and type-1-collagen. TA also prevented the TGF-β1-induced alteration in the expression of two classes of genes involved in the remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, namely matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp-2 and -9) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (Timp-1 and -3)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660153/subchondral-bone-microdamage-accumulation-in-distal-metacarpus-of-thoroughbred-racehorses
#3
R C Whitton, B A Ayodele, P L Hitchens, E J Mackie
BACKGROUND: Microdamage accumulation leads to subchondral bone injury and/or fracture in racehorses. An understanding of this process is essential for developing strategies for injury prevention. OBJECTIVES: To quantify subchondral bone microdamage in the third metacarpal bone of Thoroughbred racehorses at different stages of the training cycle. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Bone blocks from the palmar aspect of the medial condyles of third metacarpal bones from 46 racing Thoroughbred horses undergoing post mortem were examined with micro computed tomography (microCT) to detect calcified microcracks, and light microscopy to quantify bulk stained microcracks...
April 16, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656532/of-lamp-posts-keys-and-fabled-drunkards-a-perspectival-tale-of-4-guidelines
#4
Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine is the application of research findings to inform individual clinical decisions. There is a tension-both philosophical and practical-between the average result from a population study and the circumstances and needs of an individual patient. This personal account of "evidence-based" trauma care illustrates and explores this tension. THE CASE: The author, a keen athlete, describes her experience of a high-impact cycle accident that led to limb fractures (which were diagnosed and treated according to evidence-based guidelines) and also an occult injury to the cervical spine (which was not diagnosed at the time)...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627229/the-use-of-cell-cycle-arrest-biomarkers-in-the-early-detection-of-acute-kidney-injury-is-this-the-new-renal-troponin
#5
Luis M Ortega, Michael Hueng
Acute kidney injury (AKI) has a high prevalence in critical care patients. Early detection might prevent patients from developing chronic kidney disease and requirement for renal replacement therapy. If we compare AKI with acute coronary syndrome, in which an increase in cardiac troponin may trigger early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention, we could extrapolate a similar technique in patients with early AKI without changes in urinary frequency or serum creatinine. The objective is to identify biomarker-positive, creatinine-negative patients that would allow therapeutic interventions to be initiated before finding changes in serum creatinine, preventing kidney damage...
April 4, 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622478/bicycle-helmets-are-protective-against-facial-injuries-including-facial-fractures-a-meta-analysis
#6
D G Fitzpatrick, M Goh, D C Howlett, M Williams
Cycling is a popular activity. However there are risks associated with cycling, including facial injury. Helmets are often worn to prevent head injury. Evidence for their protection against facial injury is limited. This meta-analysis investigated the effect of bicycle helmets on the incidence of facial injury. The PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Studies included were observational and involved adult participants. Paediatric studies, studies on helmet legislation, and those combining facial injuries with other injury types were excluded...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614939/sports-injuries-in-victoria-2012-13-to-2014-15-evidence-from-emergency-department-records
#7
D Tharanga Fernando, Janneke Berecki-Gisolf, Caroline F Finch
OBJECTIVES: To report the incidence of presentations to emergency departments (EDs) in Victoria for sport- and active recreation-related injuries; to establish which sports have the highest rates of injury per participant; to assess the effects of age and sport type on the rate of serious sport injury (resulting in admission to hospital). DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analysis of 171 541 ED presentations to 38 Victorian hospitals, 2012-13 to 2014-15...
April 2, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607498/1-l-mt-an-ido-inhibitor-prevented-colitis-associated-cancer-by-inducing-cdc20-inhibition-mediated-mitotic-death-of-colon-cancer-cells
#8
Xiuting Liu, Wei Zhou, Xin Zhang, Yang Ding, Qianming Du, Rong Hu
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), known as IDO, catabolizes tryptophan through kynurenine pathway, whose activity is correlated with impaired clinical outcome of colorectal cancer. Here we showed that 1-L-MT, a canonical IDO inhibitor, suppressed proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells through inducing mitotic death. Our results showed that inhibition of IDO decreased the transcription of CDC20, which resulted in G2/M cycle arrest of HCT-116 and HT-29. Furthermore, 1-L-MT induced mitochondria injuries and caused apoptotic cancer cells...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604362/lacking-ketohexokinase-a-exacerbates-renal-injury-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#9
Tomohito Doke, Takuji Ishimoto, Takahiro Hayasaki, Satsuki Ikeda, Masako Hasebe, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Tomoyoshi Soga, Noritoshi Kato, Tomoki Kosugi, Naotake Tsuboi, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson, Kenji Kadomatsu, Shoichi Maruyama
OBJECTIVE: Ketohexokinase (KHK), a primary enzyme in fructose metabolism, has two isoforms, namely, KHK-A and KHK-C. Previously, we reported that renal injury was reduced in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice which lacked both isoforms. Although both isoforms express in kidney, it has not been elucidated whether each isoform plays distinct roles in the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The aim of the study is to elucidate the role of KHK-A for DKD progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced by five consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in C57BL/6 J wild-type mice, mice lacking KHK-A alone (KHK-A KO), and mice lacking both KHK-A and KHK-C (KHK-A/C KO)...
March 28, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601806/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-prevent-white-matter-injury-in-neonates
#10
J William Gaynor, Susan C Nicolson, Diane M Spray, Nancy B Burnham, Jesse L Chittams, Therese Sammarco, Kevin W Walsh, Thomas L Spray, Daniel J Licht
BACKGROUND: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a mechanism to protect tissues from injury during ischemia and reperfusion. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of RIPC in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: The outcome was white matter injury (WMI), assessed by the change in volume of WMI from preoperative to postoperative brain MRI. Subjects were randomized to RIPC or SHAM. RIPC was induced prior to cardiopulmonary bypass by four 5 minute cycles of blood pressure cuff inflation to produce ischemia of the lower extremity...
March 27, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589078/effects-of-a-cognitive-dual-task-on-variability-and-local-dynamic-stability-in-sustained-repetitive-arm-movements-using-principal-component-analysis-a-pilot-study
#11
Alessia Longo, Peter Federolf, Thomas Haid, Ruud Meulenbroek
In many daily jobs, repetitive arm movements are performed for extended periods of time under continuous cognitive demands. Even highly monotonous tasks exhibit an inherent motor variability and subtle fluctuations in movement stability. Variability and stability are different aspects of system dynamics, whose magnitude may be further affected by a cognitive load. Thus, the aim of the study was to explore and compare the effects of a cognitive dual task on the variability and local dynamic stability in a repetitive bimanual task...
March 27, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574341/postural-reconfiguration-and-cycle-to-cycle-variability-in-patients-with-work-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-compared-to-healthy-controls-and-in-relation-to-pain-emerging-during-a-repetitive-movement-task
#12
Alessia Longo, Ruud Meulenbroek, Thomas Haid, Peter Federolf
BACKGROUND: Movement variability in sustained repetitive tasks is an important factor in the context of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. While a popular hypothesis suggests that movement variability can prevent overuse injuries, pain evolving during task execution may also cause variability. The aim of the current study was to investigate, first, differences in movement behavior between volunteers with and without work-related pain and, second, the influence of emerging pain on movement variability...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571018/stem-cell-therapy-in-asherman-syndrome-and-thin-endometrium-stem-cell-based-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Ramyar Azizi, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Mohammad Nouri, Faroogh Marofi, Sohrab Negargar, Mehdi Yousefi
The endometrium is one of the essential components of the uterus. The endometrium of human is a complex and dynamic tissue, which undergoes periods of growth and turn over during any menstrual cycle. Stem cells are initially undifferentiated cells that display a wide range of differentiation potential with no distinct morphological features. Stem cell therapy method recently has become a novel procedure for treatment of tissue injury and fibrosis in response to damage. Currently, there is massive interest in stem cells as a novel treatment method for regenerative medicine and more specifically for the regeneration of human endometrium disorder like Asherman syndrome (AS) and thin endometrium...
March 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567630/anthracycline-induced-cardiotoxicity-a-multicenter-randomised-trial-comparing-two-strategies-for-guiding-prevention-with-enalapril-the-international-cardiooncology-society-one-trial
#14
Daniela Cardinale, Fabio Ciceri, Roberto Latini, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Maria Teresa Sandri, Maurizio Civelli, GianFranco Cucchi, Elisabetta Menatti, Maurizio Mangiavacchi, Raffaele Cavina, Enrico Barbieri, Stefania Gori, Alessandro Colombo, Giuseppe Curigliano, Michela Salvatici, Antonio Rizzo, Francesco Ghisoni, Alessandra Bianchi, Cristina Falci, Michele Aquilina, Andrea Rocca, Anna Monopoli, Carlo Milandri, Giuseppe Rossetti, Marco Bregni, Marco Sicuro, Alessandra Malossi, Daniele Nassiacos, Claudio Verusio, Monica Giordano, Lidia Staszewsky, Simona Barlera, Enrico B Nicolis, Michela Magnoli, Serge Masson, Carlo M Cipolla
BACKGROUND: Troponin changes over time have been suggested to allow for an early diagnosis of cardiac injury ensuing cancer chemotherapy; cancer patients with troponin elevation may benefit of therapy with enalapril. It is unknown whether a preventive treatment with enalapril may further increase the benefit. METHODS: The International CardioOncology Society-one trial (ICOS-ONE) was a controlled, open-label trial conducted in 21 Italian hospitals. Patients were randomly assigned to two strategies: enalapril in all patients started before chemotherapy (CT; 'prevention' arm), and enalapril started only in patients with an increase in troponin during or after CT ('troponin-triggered' arm)...
May 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545434/management-of-tumour-lysis-syndrome-during-first-line-palliative-chemotherapy-for-high-volume-colorectal-cancer
#15
Helena S Gouveia, Sílvia O Lopes, Ana Luísa Faria
Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a rare oncological emergency in solid tumours. Because it is associated with bad short-term prognosis, early recognition and treatment are mandatory. This case refers to a middle-aged woman who presented with stage IV colon cancer, with massive hepatic involvement. After three cycles of first-line FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin), she developed acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia that did not respond to standard measures. High suspicion of TLS prompted further corroborating investigations and early intensive care unit admission...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538260/impact-of-mitochondrial-permeability-on-endothelial-cell-immunogenicity-in-transplantation
#16
Danh T Tran, Scott Esckilsen, Jennifer Mulligan, Shikhar Mehrotra, Carl Atkinson, Satish N Nadig
BACKGROUND: Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) are central to an allograft's immunogenicity. Cold ischemia and reperfusion injury associated with static cold storage and warm reperfusion activates ECs and increases the immunogenicity of the allograft. Following reperfusion, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in the allograft, which correlates to alloimmune rejection. Current understanding of this relationship, however, centers on the whole allograft instead of ECs...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531961/ten-year-incidence-of-sport-and-recreation-injuries-resulting-in-major-trauma-or-death-in-victoria-australia-2005-2015
#17
Christina L Ekegren, Ben Beck, Pamela M Simpson, Belinda J Gabbe
Background: Sports injuries that result in major trauma or death are associated with significant health care burden and societal costs. An understanding of changes in injury trends, and their drivers, is needed to implement policy aimed at risk reduction and injury prevention. To date, population-level reporting has not been available regarding trends in serious sport and recreation injuries anywhere in Australia over such an extended period, nor have any studies of this length captured comprehensive, long-term data on all sports-related major trauma internationally...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525499/a-quality-improvement-project-incorporating-preoperative-warming-to-prevent-perioperative-hypothermia-in-major-burns
#18
A D Rogers, M Saggaf, N Ziolkowski
BACKGROUND: Patients with extensive burn injuries are susceptible to a host of accompanying adverse effects should they develop perioperative hypothermia, which occurs in up to ¼ of all major burn cases. This quality improvement project aimed to reduce the incidence of perioperative hypothermia to below 10% of cases in patients with major burn (Total Body Surface Area [TBSA] >15%), within a one year period. METHODS: A baseline diagnostic phase was undertaken to provide a greater understanding of the incidence, natural history and risk factors of perioperative hypothermia...
March 7, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523787/paracrine-cellular-senescence-exacerbates-biliary-injury-and-impairs-regeneration
#19
Sofia Ferreira-Gonzalez, Wei-Yu Lu, Alexander Raven, Benjamin Dwyer, Tak Yung Man, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Philip J Starkey Lewis, Lara Campana, Tim J Kendall, Thomas G Bird, Nuria Tarrats, Juan-Carlos Acosta, Luke Boulter, Stuart J Forbes
Cellular senescence is a mechanism that provides an irreversible barrier to cell cycle progression to prevent undesired proliferation. However, under pathological circumstances, senescence can adversely affect organ function, viability and regeneration. We have developed a mouse model of biliary senescence, based on the conditional deletion of Mdm2 in bile ducts under the control of the Krt19 promoter, that exhibits features of biliary disease. Here we report that senescent cholangiocytes induce profound alterations in the cellular and signalling microenvironment, with recruitment of myofibroblasts and macrophages causing collagen deposition, TGFβ production and induction of senescence in surrounding cholangiocytes and hepatocytes...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523305/ammonia-a-novel-target-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
Karen Louise Thomsen, Francesco De Chiara, Krista Rombouts, Hendrik Vilstrup, Fausto Andreola, Rajeshwar P Mookerjee, Rajiv Jalan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from steatosis, through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis. The development of fibrosis is the most important factor contributing to NASH-associated morbidity and mortality. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are responsible for extracellular matrix deposition in conditions of frank hepatocellular injury and are key cells involved in the development of fibrosis. In experimental models and patients with NASH, urea cycle enzyme gene and protein expression is reduced resulting in functional reduction in the in vivo capacity for ureagenesis and subsequent hyperammonemia at a pre-cirrhotic stage...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
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