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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799161/performance-factors-in-a-mountain-ultramarathon
#1
Pascal Balducci, Michel Clémençon, Robin Trama, Yoann Blache, Christophe Hautier
This study aimed to determine mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) performance factors in a large group of endurance mountain runners. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS) was assessed one week prior to the MUM. The level and graded (10%) energy cost of running, stiffness, knee extensors force (KEf), and jump height on a counter movement jump (CMJ) were measured in 24 male ultra runners before (pre) and immediately after (post) the Interlacs Trail (75 km and 3 930/3 700 m d+/d-). Performance time was correlated with MAS (r=- 0...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790928/enhanced-right-chamber-remodeling-in-endurance-ultra-trail-athletes-compared-to-marathon-runners-detected-by-standard-and-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#2
Kristian Ujka, Luca Bastiani, Gennaro D'Angelo, Bruna Catuzzo, Alessandro Tonacci, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Alessandra Vezzoli, Guido Giardini, Lorenza Pratali
Background: Strenuous and endurance exercise training have been associated with morphological and functional heart remodeling. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel technique that allows an accurate quantification of global myocardium deformation. Our aim was to evaluate together left and right cardiac remodeling in different long-distance running athletes: marathon runners (42 km) (M) and endurance mountain runners (>300 Km) (UT). Methods: A total of 92 athletes (70 males, 76%) including 47 M [age 45 ± 7 years; training: 18 (9-53) years(*)days/week], 45 UT [age 42 ± 9, training: 30 (15-66) years(*)days/week] underwent conventional echocardiography and STE (Beyond Diogenes 2...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682407/selective-protein-transport-through-ultra-thin-suspended-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanopores
#3
Dae-Sik Lee, Seokhan Park, Yong Duk Han, Jae Eun Lee, Hu Young Jeong, Hyun C Yoon, Moon Yeon Jung, Sang Ouk Kim, Sung-Yool Choi
The nanoporous free-standing graphene membrane is of great interest in high performance separation technology. In particular, the separation of biological molecules with similar sizes is one of the key challenges in the purification of biomaterials. Here, we report a reliable, cost-effective, and facile method for the fabrication of a graphene-based nanosieve and its application in the separation of similar-size proteins. A suspended reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosieve with ultra-thin, large-area, well-ordered, and dense 15 nm-sized pores was fabricated using block copolymer (BCP) lithography...
July 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566803/greater-muscle-damage-in-athletes-with-actn3-r577x-rs1815739-gene-polymorphism-after-an-ultra-endurance-race-a-pilot-study
#4
T Belli, A H Crisp, R Verlengia
In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of ACTN3 R577X gene polymorphism on muscle damage responses in athletes competing in an ultra-endurance race. Twenty moderate to well-trained ultra-runners who had entered in an official 37.1 km adventure race (22.1 km mountain biking, 10.9 km trekking, 4.1 km water trekking, 30 m rope course, and orienteering) volunteered for the study. Blood samples were collected for genotyping and analysis of muscle protein levels before and after the race. Percentage changes (pre- to post-race) of serum myoglobin [XX = 5,377% vs...
June 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535849/calf-endurance-and-achilles-tendon-structure-in-classical-ballet-dancers
#5
Jennifer A Zellers, Katrina van Ostrand, Karin Grävare Silbernagel
Optimal lower leg function is critical for ballet dancers to meet their occupational requirements. Achilles tendon injury is particularly detrimental to ballet dancers. While standardized measures have been validated and incorporated into clinical practice for use in people with Achilles tendon injury, normative ranges specific to the dancer population have not been described. The purpose of this pilot study was to observe the performance of pre-professional ballet students and professional ballet dancers on a well-established test battery for lower leg functional performance as well as ultra-sonographic evaluation of the structure of their Achilles tendons...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512433/reported-hydration-beliefs-and-behaviors-without-effect-on-plasma-sodium-in-endurance-athletes
#6
Daniela Chlíbková, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle, Josef Bednář
Purpose: Little information is available on the association of hydration beliefs and behaviors in endurance athletes and exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH). The aim of the present study was to determine hydration beliefs and behaviors in endurance athletes. Method: A 100 and 38 recreational athletes [107 mountain bikers (MTBers) and 31 runners] competing in seven different endurance and ultra-endurance races completed pre- and post-race questionnaires, and a subgroup of 113 (82%) participants (82 MTBers and 31 runners) also provided their blood samples...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488921/sex-differences-in-world-record-performance-the-influence-of-sport-discipline-and-competition-duration
#7
Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli, Hans-Christer Holmberg
In the present review, we summarize scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. In addition, we discuss how physiological factors relate to sex dimorphism. While cultural factors played a major role in the rapid improvement of performance of women relative to men up until the 1990's, sex differences between the world's best athletes in most events have remained relatively stable at approximately 8-12%. The exceptions are events in which upper-body power is a major contributor, where this difference is more than 15%, and ultra-endurance swimming, where the gap is now less than 5%...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469746/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-can-it-help-exercise-performance
#8
Chen-Kang Chang, Katarina Borer, Po-Ju Lin
Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463452/the-effects-of-two-different-exercise-programs-on-the-ultrastructural-features-of-the-sciatic-nerve-and-soleus-muscle-after-sciatic-crush
#9
Leandro Viçosa Bonetti, TAíS Malysz, Jocemar Ilha, Silvia Barbosa, Matilde Achaval, Maria Cristina Faccioni-Heuser
Peripheral nerve injuries constitute a significant medical problem and the recovery is critically dependent on post-injury treatment. In this study, following sciatic nerve crush, we investigated the effects of a 4-week endurance training program (ET) and balance and coordination training program (BCT) on the ultrastructural features of the sciatic nerve and soleus muscle. The animals were randomly divided into Sham, non-trained (NT), ET, and BCT groups each of which included three animals. Ultra-thin cross and longitudinal sections (70-85 nm) were digitized and analyzed comparatively...
April 30, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460195/chronic-probiotic-supplementation-with-or-without-glutamine-does-not-influence-the-ehsp72-response-to-a-multi-day-ultra-endurance-exercise-event
#10
Hannah Marshall, Bryna Catherine Rose Chrismas, Craig Anthony Suckling, Justin D Roberts, Josh Foster, Lee Taylor
Probiotic and glutamine supplementation increases tissue Hsp72, but their influence on extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic probiotic supplementation, with or without glutamine, on eHsp72 concentration before and after an ultramarathon. Thirty-two participants were split into 3 independent groups, where they ingested probiotic capsules (PRO; n = 11), probiotic + glutamine powder (PGLn; n = 10), or no supplementation (CON; n = 11), over a 12-week period prior to commencement of the Marathon des Sables (MDS)...
May 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459347/characteristics-and-challenges-of-open-water-swimming-performance-a-review
#11
Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo, Maria Francesca Piacentini
PURPOSE: Although the popularity of open water swimming (OWS) events has significantly increased in the last decades, specific studies regarding performance of elite or age group athletes in these events are scarce. The purpose of this review is to analyse the existing literature on OWS. METHODS: Relevant literature was located via computer-generated citations: during August 2016, online computer searches on PubMed and Scopus databases were conducted to locate published research...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443901/roles-of-conducting-filament-and-non-filament-regions-in-the-ta2o5-and-hfo2-resistive-switching-memory-for-switching-reliability
#12
Tae Hyung Park, Hae Jin Kim, Woo Young Park, Soo Gil Kim, Byung Joon Choi, Cheol Seong Hwang
The endurance of switching cycles, which is a critical measure of device reliability, in an ultra-thin (1.5 nm) Ta2O5 and HfO2 resistive random access (ReRAM) memory cell with a 28 nm lateral dimension was studied using current-voltage (I-V) sweep and closed-loop pulse switching (CLPS) tests. The two devices showed the typical oxygen-deficient conducting-filament (CF)-mediated bipolar resistance switching behaviour, which was induced by the asymmetric electrode configuration: Ta as the oxygen vacancy (VO) source/reservoir and TiN as the inert electrode...
May 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441951/minimal-clinically-important-difference-for-the-6-min-walk-test-literature-review-and-application-to-morquio-a-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Rudolf Schrover, Kathryn Evans, Roberto Giugliani, Ian Noble, Kaustuv Bhattacharya
Morquio A syndrome is an ultra-rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorder associated with progressive, multi-systemic clinical impairments, causing gradual loss of functional capacity and endurance, impaired quality of life, and early mortality. Studies in Morquio A patients have used the 6-min walk test (6MWT) to assess functionality and endurance and to evaluate disease progression or efficacy of treatment. The objective of the present study was to review minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) for the 6MWT reported for disease states that widely use the 6MWT to evaluate clinical benefit and to discuss the results in view of the challenges in estimating MCID for ultra-rare diseases, using the case of elosulfase alfa in Morquio A patients...
April 26, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433435/fabric-phase-sorptive-extraction-as-a-reliable-tool-for-rapid-screening-and-detection-of-freshness-markers-in-oranges
#14
M Aznar, S Úbeda, C Nerin, A Kabir, K G Furton
A simple, fast and sensitive analyte extraction method based on fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) analysis was developed for the analysis of 12 volatile compounds that represent most of the principal chemical families possessing different polarities and volatilities. Five FPSE media coated with different sol-gel sorbent chemistries having different polarities and selectivities were studied: long chain poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), short chain poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), Carbowax 20M (CW20M), short chain poly(dimethyl siloxane) (SC PDMS) and polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol-polyethylene glycol triblock copolymer (PEG-PPG-PEG)...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421004/neurosensory-and-cognitive-modifications-in-europe-s-toughest-randoraid-competition-the-transpyr%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-a-extreme-study
#15
Alessandro Tonacci, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Kristian Ujka, Francesco Sansone, Alice Ferrisi, Guido Giardini, Raffaele Conte, Lorenza Pratali
Introduction: Given the wide proliferation of ultra-long endurance races, it is important to understand the physiological response of the athletes to improve their safety. We evaluated the cognitive and neurosensory effects on ultra-endurance athletes during the Transpyrénéa (866 Km, 65,000 m positive slope), held on the French Pyrenees. Materials and Methods: 40 athletes were enrolled (age 43.8 ± 8.8 years; 36 males). Olfactory and cognitive tests were performed before the race (T0, n = 40), at 166 kms (T1, n = 28), at 418 kms (T2, n = 20), and after the race (T3, 866 kms, n = 13)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415084/p260right-cardiac-chambers-remodeling-in-marathon-and-ultra-trail-athletes-detected-by-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#16
K Ujka, R M Bruno, B Catuzzo, L Bastiani, A Tonacci, G D'angelo, S Mrakic-Sposta, A Vezzoli, G Giardini, L Pratali
Background: Strenuous and chronic exercise training can have detrimental effects on cardiac morphology and function. Our aim was to evaluate the cardiac adaptation between 2 different specialties' endurance athletes: marathon runners (M) and ultra-trailers (UT). Methods: 47 M (age 45±7, men 32; training: 18 (9-53) years*days/week), 41 UT (age 42±9, men 38, training: 30 (15-66) years*days/week) were submitted in rest condition to conventional 2D echocardiography and Speckle-Tracking echo (STE) (Beyond Diogenes 2...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394719/effects-of-strength-explosive-and-plyometric-training-on-energy-cost-of-running-in-ultra-endurance-athletes
#17
Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Enrico Rejc, Stefano Lazzer
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week home-based strength, explosive and plyometric (SEP) training on the cost of running (Cr) in well-trained ultra-marathoners and to assess the main mechanical parameters affecting changes in Cr. Twenty-five male runners (38.2 ± 7.1 years; body mass index: 23.0 ± 1.1 kg·m(-2); V˙O2max: 55.4 ± 4.0 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were divided into an exercise (EG = 13) and control group (CG = 12). Before and after a 12-week SEP training, Cr, spring-mass model parameters at four speeds (8, 10, 12, 14 km·h(-1)) were calculated and maximal muscle power (MMP) of the lower limbs was measured...
August 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387545/abstracts-for-the-4th-annual-congress-on-medicine-science-in-ultra-endurance-sports-may-30-2017-denver-colorado
#18
(no author information available yet)
The 4th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports will be held on May 30, 2017, in Denver, Colorado. While prior meetings have been multiple-day events, the 2017 Congress will be an intense 1-day preconference to the American College of Sports Medicine annual meeting. Details of this Congress, as well as past and future meetings, can be found at the Ultra Sports Science Foundation Web site: http://ultrasportsscience.us.
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347463/level-of-minerals-and-trace-elements-in-the-urine-of-the-participants-of-mountain-ultra-marathon-race
#19
Jasna Jablan, Suzana Inić, Hagen Stosnach, Maja Ortner Hadžiabdić, Lovorka Vujić, Ana-Marija Domijan
The aim of the present study was to explore impact of endurance exercise on urinary level of minerals and trace elements as well as on some oxidative stress and biochemical parameters. Urine samples were collected from participants (n=21) of mountain ultra-marathon race (53km; Medvednica, Zagreb, Croatia), before (baseline value), immediately after, 12h and 24h after the race. In urine samples level of minerals (Ca, P, K and Na) and trace elements (Se, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe and Co) were assessed using the bench top Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer...
May 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322630/energy-macronutrient-and-water-intake-during-a-mountain-ultramarathon-event-the-influence-of-distance
#20
Sonia Martinez, Antoni Aguilo, Lluis Rodas, Leticia Lozano, Carlos Moreno, Pedro Tauler
Adequate dietary strategies are essential for the successful participation in ultra-endurance races. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the energy and water intakes of participants during three different mountain ultra-endurance runs. The study took place at the "Ultra Mallorca Serra de Tramuntana" (Mallorca, Spain), an ultra-endurance mountain event with runners participating either in a 44-km (Marathon, n = 51), a 67-km (Trail, n = 109) or a 112-km (Ultra, n = 53) run competition. Participants in the study answered a questionnaire focused on the nutritional intake within an hour after finishing the competition...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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