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"Neuroimaging"AND "spinal cord injury"

Jesús Vaquero, Mercedes Zurita, Miguel A Rico, Celia Bonilla, Concepción Aguayo, Cecilia Fernández, Noemí Tapiador, Marta Sevilla, Carlos Morejón, Jesús Montilla, Francisco Martínez, Esperanza Marín, Salvador Bustamante, David Vázquez, Joaquín Carballido, Alicia Rodríguez, Paula Martínez, Coral García, Mercedes Ovejero, Marta V Fernández
BACKGROUND AIMS: Cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) offers new hope for patients suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Ten patients with established incomplete SCI received four subarachnoid administrations of 30 × 10(6) autologous bone marrow MSCs, supported in autologous plasma, at months 1, 4, 7 and 10 of the study, and were followed until the month 12. Urodynamic, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies were performed at months 6 and 12, and compared with basal studies...
January 6, 2017: Cytotherapy
Eelco F M Wijdicks
It is a truism that care of the patient with an acutely severe neurologic illness starts with a full neurologic examination. Neurologic examination is followed by tests (neuroimaging and laboratory) resulting in a diagnosis (presumptive or definitive) and treatment (definitive or preemptive) and followed by admission for supportive care and more treatment. The sequence of decisions depends on the diagnosis, but treatment may be needed to diagnose a neurologic disorder. To find out what underlies the acute presentation of certain neurologic conditions requires (1) interpretation of neurologic findings, (2) interpretation of neuroimaging, (3) linking laboratory abnormalities to certain clinical neurologic findings, and (4) evaluation of improvement or refractoriness after treatment...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Benjamin De Leener, Simon Lévy, Sara M Dupont, Vladimir S Fonov, Nikola Stikov, D Louis Collins, Virginie Callot, Julien Cohen-Adad
For the past 25 years, the field of neuroimaging has witnessed the development of several software packages for processing multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to study the brain. These software packages are now routinely used by researchers and clinicians, and have contributed to important breakthroughs for the understanding of brain anatomy and function. However, no software package exists to process mpMRI data of the spinal cord. Despite the numerous clinical needs for such advanced mpMRI protocols (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, etc...
January 15, 2017: NeuroImage
Marcel Wolf, Marc-André Weber
The article summarizes classification schemes of spinal trauma and rules to decide on proper imaging modality after a spinal trauma. High-risk factors that recommend imaging are, for instance, age 65 years or older, a dangerous trauma mechanism, and paresthesia in the extremities. More recent classification schemes include evaluation of the posterior ligamentous complex, for which MR imaging is the best modality, and to give therapeutic recommendations for conservative or surgical management. MR imaging is the imaging method of choice when spinal cord injury, cord compression, or ligamentous injury is suspected...
August 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Jesús Vaquero, Mercedes Zurita, Miguel A Rico, Celia Bonilla, Concepcion Aguayo, Jesús Montilla, Salvador Bustamante, Joaquin Carballido, Esperanza Marin, Francisco Martinez, Avelino Parajon, Cecilia Fernandez, Laura De Reina
BACKGROUND AIMS: Cell transplantation in patients suffering spinal cord injury (SCI) is in its initial stages, but currently there is confusion about the results because of the disparity in the techniques used, the route of administration, and the criteria for selecting patients. METHODS: We conducted a clinical trial involving 12 patients with complete and chronic paraplegia (average time of chronicity, 13.86 years; SD, 9.36). The characteristics of SCI in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated for a personalized local administration of expanded autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) supported in autologous plasma, with the number of MSCs ranging from 100 × 10(6) to 230 × 10(6)...
August 2016: Cytotherapy
Kunal R Bansal, Ajay S Chandanwale
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury in children frequently occurs without fracture or dislocation. SCIWORA is a syndrome occurring when the spinal cord sustains neural damage during a traumatic event without positive radiographic findings. The incidence of SCIWORA was found to be 8% to 32% in various studies with very few cases documented in children below the age of 1 year. We report such a case of spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in an 8 months old female child. CASE REPORT: An 8 months old female child was brought to the emergency room after a history of fall from the bed four days back...
January 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
R Nardone, Y Höller, F Brigo, V N Frey, P Lochner, S Leis, S Golaszewski, E Trinka
STUDY DESIGN: Topical review of the literature. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review article was to assess indications and usefulness of various neurophysiological techniques in diagnosis and management of cervical spondylogenic myelopathy (CSM). METHODS: The MEDLINE, accessed by Pubmed and EMBASE electronic databases, was searched using the medical subject headings: 'compressive myelopathy', 'cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)', 'cervical spondylogenic myelopathy', 'motor evoked potentials (MEPs)', 'transcranial magnetic stimulation', 'somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs)', 'electromyography (EMG)', 'nerve conduction studies (NCS)' and 'cutaneous silent period (CSP)'...
October 2016: Spinal Cord
Akinwunmi Oni-Orisan, Mayank Kaushal, Wenjun Li, Jack Leschke, B Douglas Ward, Aditya Vedantam, Benjamin Kalinosky, Matthew D Budde, Brian D Schmit, Shi-Jiang Li, Vaishnavi Muqeet, Shekar N Kurpad
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated alterations during task-induced brain activation in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The interruption to structural integrity of the spinal cord and the resultant disrupted flow of bidirectional communication between the brain and the spinal cord might contribute to the observed dynamic reorganization (neural plasticity). However, the effect of SCI on brain resting-state connectivity patterns remains unclear. We undertook a prospective resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) study to explore changes to cortical activation patterns following SCI...
2016: PloS One
C K Boese, D Müller, R Bröer, P Eysel, B Krischek, H C Lehmann, P Lechler
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to analyse the clinical and neuroimaging features of a consecutive series of adult patients with spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) receiving early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to apply the recently proposed MRI classification system. METHODS: Grade of neurologic impairment at admission and discharge was reported according to the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS). A detailed analysis and categorisation of the extra- and intramedullary MRI findings was performed, and the relationship between imaging type and neurological outcome was described...
October 2016: Spinal Cord
J L Tremoleda, O Thau-Zuchman, M Davies, J Foster, I Khan, W Trigg, J Sosabowski, S J Mather, A Michael-Titus
INTRODUCTION: The development of clinically meaningful biomarkers for CNS traumatic injury is a major area in neurotrauma modelling. Neuroimaging is evolving as a major approach to characterize pathophysiology, improve diagnosis and test new therapies. Imaging the microglial response by targeting the up- regulation of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) following CNS injury, is a main diagnostic approach for investigating the neuroinflammatory (NI) response after CNS injury in vivo...
October 2015: Shock
Matthias Sczesny-Kaiser, Oliver Höffken, Mirko Aach, Oliver Cruciger, Dennis Grasmücke, Renate Meindl, Thomas A Schildhauer, Peter Schwenkreis, Martin Tegenthoff
BACKGROUND: Reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex accompanied by increased excitability and enlarged body representations is a consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic-assisted bodyweight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) was hypothesized to induce reorganization and improve walking function. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether BWSTT with hybrid assistive limb® (HAL®) exoskeleton affects cortical excitability in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in SCI patients, as measured by paired-pulse somatosensory evoked potentials (ppSEP) stimulated above the level of injury...
2015: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
David S Kushner
Research scientists and clinicians should be aware that missed diagnoses of mild-moderate traumatic brain injuries in post-acute patients having spinal cord injuries may approach 60-74% with certain risk factors, potentially causing clinical consequences for patients, and confounding the results of clinical research studies. Factors leading to a missed diagnosis may include acute trauma-related life-threatening issues, sedation/intubation, subtle neuropathology on neuroimaging, failure to collect Glasgow Coma Scale scores or duration of posttraumatic amnesia, or lack of validity of this information, and overlap in neuro-cognitive symptoms with emotional responses to spinal cord injuries...
June 2015: Neural Regeneration Research
Shahabeddin Vahdat, Ovidiu Lungu, Julien Cohen-Adad, Veronique Marchand-Pauvert, Habib Benali, Julien Doyon
The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning...
June 2015: PLoS Biology
Eveline Huber, Armin Curt, Patrick Freund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will highlight the latest findings from neuroimaging studies that track structural and functional changes within the central nervous system at both the brain and spinal cord levels following acute human spinal cord injury (SCI). The putative, underlying biological mechanisms of structural change (e.g. degradation of neural tissue) rostral to the lesion site will be discussed in relation to animal models of SCI and their potential value in clinical studies of human SCI...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Michael Villiger, Patrick Grabher, Marie-Claude Hepp-Reymond, Daniel Kiper, Armin Curt, Marc Bolliger, Sabina Hotz-Boendermaker, Spyros Kollias, Kynan Eng, Patrick Freund
Rehabilitative training has shown to improve significantly motor outcomes and functional walking capacity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, whether performance improvements during rehabilitation relate to brain plasticity or whether it is based on functional adaptation of movement strategies remain uncertain. This study assessed training improvement-induced structural brain plasticity in chronic iSCI patients using longitudinal MRI. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to analyze longitudinal brain volume changes associated with intensive virtual reality (VR)-augmented lower limb training in nine traumatic iSCI patients...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Stephen J Page, David A Cunningham, Ela Plow, Brittani Blazak
The goal of postacute neurorehabilitation is to maximize patient function, ideally by using surviving brain and central nervous system tissue when possible. However, the structures incorporated into neurorehabilitative approaches often differ from this target, which may explain why the efficacy of conventional clinical treatments targeting neurologic impairment varies widely. Noninvasive brain stimulation (eg, transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS], transcranial direct current stimulation [tDCS]) offers the possibility of directly targeting brain structures to facilitate or inhibit their activity to steer neural plasticity in recovery and measure neuronal output and interactions for evaluating progress...
April 2015: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Christoph Kolja Boese, Johannes Oppermann, Jan Siewe, Peer Eysel, Max Joseph Scheyerer, Philipp Lechler
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury in children is associated with severe morbidity and immense socioeconomic burden. In spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormalities (SCIWORA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect intramedullary or extramedullary pathologies or show absence of neuroimaging abnormalities. However, the prognostic and therapeutic consequences of specific MRI patterns are unclear. A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed to examine patient characteristics and imaging patterns of pediatric SCIWORA and to evaluate the prognostic value of a MRI-based classification system...
April 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ling Zhu, Guangyao Wu, Xin Zhou, Jielan Li, Zhi Wen, Fuchun Lin
BACKGROUND: Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study...
2015: PloS One
Dawid Szwedowski, Jerzy Walecki
The acronym SCIWORA (Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality) was first developed and introduced by Pang and Wilberger who used it to define "clinical symptoms of traumatic myelopathy with no radiographic or computed tomographic features of spinal fracture or instability". SCIWORA is a clinical-radiological condition that mostly affects children. SCIWORA lesions are found mainly in the cervical spine but can also be seen, although much less frequently, in the thoracic or lumbar spine. Based on reports from different authors, SCIWORA is responsible for 6 to 19% and 9% to 14% of spinal injuries in children and adults, respectively...
2014: Polish Journal of Radiology
Célia Duarte Cruz, Ana Coelho, Tiago Antunes-Lopes, Francisco Cruz
During the acute phase of SCI, the extension and residual neurological deficits that will persist after the waning of the spinal shock period are difficult to estimate on clinical grounds. Therefore, objective biomarkers able to estimate the extension of the lesion and the degree of neurological recovery are of great importance. Research has been focused on the detection of structural neuronal and glial proteins that leak from damaged cells, inflammatory proteins recruited to remove necrotic debris and more accurate neuroimaging methods that are able to discriminate the extension and functional consequences of the SCI...
March 2015: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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