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"Neuroimaging"AND "spinal cord injury"

Woo Suk Tae, Byung Joo Ham, Sung Bom Pyun, Shin Hyuk Kang, Byung Jo Kim
Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relatively new neuroimaging modality...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Shai Shrot, Clark T Johnson, W Christopher Golden, Ahmet A Baschat, Janine E Bullard, Aylin Tekes, Andrea Poretti, Emily Dunn, Thierry A G M Huisman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Persistent hyperextension of the fetal craniocervical junction or neck is one of several fetal positions commonly observed on prenatal imaging. Underlying fetal structural etiologies such as fetal neck masses and iniencephaly can be detected as causes of hyperextension. Caesarean delivery is considered in cases of vaginal delivery or obstructed labor for fear of cervical spinal cord injury. In this case series, we describe the prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and their potential role in obstetric management and discuss postnatal outcomes in fetuses demonstrating prenatal imaging findings of persistent extreme hyperextension of the neck...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Pasquale Donnarumma, Vincenzo Bozzini, Gaetano Rizzi, Arturo Berardi, Gaetano Merlicco
Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Objective: To report our 10-year experience of closed reduction using Crutchfield traction followed by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion within 12 h from injury for C-type subaxial cervical fractures (according to the AOSpine classification system). Methods: Clinical records and neuroimaging were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical details were provided. Results: A total of 22 patients were included in the study...
October 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
Alberto Isla Guerrero, Beatriz Mansilla Fernández, Borja Hernández Garcia, Álvaro Gómez de la Riva, María Luisa Gandía González, Elena Isla Paredes
OBJECTIVE: Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory rheumatic disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton. The rigid spine may secondarily develop osteoporosis, further increasing the risk of spinal fracture. In this study, we reviewed fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis that had been clinically diagnosed to better define the mechanism of injury, associated neurological deficit, predisposing factors, and management strategies. METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2014, 6 patients with ankylosing spondylitis and neurological complications after injuries were treated...
January 12, 2018: Neurocirugía
Raffaele Nardone, Yvonne Höller, Luca Sebastianelli, Viviana Versace, Leopold Saltuari, Francesco Brigo, Piergiorgio Lochner, Eugen Trinka
Neuroimaging studies suggest that spinal cord injury (SCI) may lead to significant anatomical alterations in the human sensorimotor system. In particular, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of cortical volume has revealed a significant gray and white matter atrophy bilaterally in the primary sensory cortex (S1). By contrast, some structural studies failed to detect changes in gray matter volume (GMV) in the primary motor cortex (M1) following SCI, whereas others have reported a substantial decrease of GMV also in M1...
November 23, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Jesús Vaquero, Rasha Hassan, Cecilia Fernández, Gregorio Rodríguez-Boto, Mercedes Zurita
BACKGROUND: Cell transplantation with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) seems to be a therapeutic promise for patients with established spinal cord injury, achieving improvement in their quality of life, but there is no experience with the application of this type of cell therapy in patients suffering posttraumatic syringomyelia. OBJECTIVE: To study the possible utility of cell therapy with autologous MSCs in posttraumatic syringomyelia...
November 2017: World Neurosurgery
Seema Sikka, Angela Vrooman, Librada Callender, David Salisbury, Monica Bennett, Rita Hamilton, Simon Driver
OBJECTIVE: Explore how traumatic brain injury (TBI) is screened among spinal cord injury (SCI) patients across the continuum of care. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review Setting: Emergency department, trauma, inpatient rehabilitation Participants: 325 patients with SCI from inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) between March 1, 2011 and December 31, 2014 were screened. 49 eligible subjects had traumatic SCI and received care in adjoining acute care (AC) hospital...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Patrick Grabher, Claudia Blaiotta, John Ashburner, Patrick Freund
BACKGROUND: Brainstem networks are pivotal in sensory and motor function and in recovery following experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: To quantify neurodegeneration and its relation to clinical impairment in major brainstem pathways and nuclei in traumatic SCI. METHODS: Quantitative MRI data of 30 chronic traumatic SCI patients (15 with tetraplegia and 15 with paraplegia) and 23 controls were acquired. Patients underwent a full neurological examination...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
Li Min Chen
Human functional MRI studies in acute and various chronic pain conditions have revolutionized how we view pain, and have led to a new theory that complex multi-dimensional pain experience (sensory-discriminative, affective/motivational, and cognitive) is represented by concurrent activity in widely-distributed brain regions (termed a network or pain matrix). Despite these breakthrough discoveries, the specific functions proposed for these regions remain elusive, because detailed electrophysiological characterizations of these regions in the primate brain are lacking...
May 2, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Eveline Huber, Patrice Lachappelle, Reto Sutter, Armin Curt, Patrick Freund
T2 -weighted scans provided data on the extent and dynamics of neuronal tissue damage and midsagittal tissue bridges at the epicenter of traumatic cervical spinal cord lesions in 24 subacute tetraplegic patients. At 1 month postinjury, smaller lesion area and midsagittal tissue bridges identified those patients with lower extremity evoked potentials and better clinical recovery. Wider midsagittal tissue bridges and smaller lesions at 1 month post-injury were associated with neurological and functional recovery at 1-year follow-up...
May 2017: Annals of Neurology
Kathirkamanathan Shanmuganathan, Jaichen Zhuo, Hegang H Chen, Bizhan Aarabi, Jason Adams, Catriona Miller, Jay Menakar, Rao P Gullapalli, Stuart E Mirvis
There are no reliable neuroimaging biomarkers to predict long-term outcome after spinal cord injury. This prospective longitudinal study evaluates diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in predicting long-term outcome after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). We investigate the admission DTI parameters measured in 30 patients with CSCI, with 16 of them followed up to one year, and 15 volunteers serving as controls. All magnetic resonance imaging examinations were performed within 24 h of injury. The DTI parameters were measured in patients and controls, avoiding areas of hemorrhage in patients and at corresponding upper/middle/lower regions of the spinal cord in controls...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jesús Vaquero, Mercedes Zurita, Miguel A Rico, Celia Bonilla, Concepción Aguayo, Cecilia Fernández, Noemí Tapiador, Marta Sevilla, Carlos Morejón, Jesús Montilla, Francisco Martínez, Esperanza Marín, Salvador Bustamante, David Vázquez, Joaquín Carballido, Alicia Rodríguez, Paula Martínez, Coral García, Mercedes Ovejero, Marta V Fernández
BACKGROUND AIMS: Cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) offers new hope for patients suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Ten patients with established incomplete SCI received four subarachnoid administrations of 30 × 106 autologous bone marrow MSCs, supported in autologous plasma, at months 1, 4, 7 and 10 of the study, and were followed until the month 12. Urodynamic, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies were performed at months 6 and 12, and compared with basal studies...
March 2017: Cytotherapy
Eelco F M Wijdicks
It is a truism that care of the patient with an acutely severe neurologic illness starts with a full neurologic examination. Neurologic examination is followed by tests (neuroimaging and laboratory) resulting in a diagnosis (presumptive or definitive) and treatment (definitive or preemptive) and followed by admission for supportive care and more treatment. The sequence of decisions depends on the diagnosis, but treatment may be needed to diagnose a neurologic disorder. To find out what underlies the acute presentation of certain neurologic conditions requires (1) interpretation of neurologic findings, (2) interpretation of neuroimaging, (3) linking laboratory abnormalities to certain clinical neurologic findings, and (4) evaluation of improvement or refractoriness after treatment...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Benjamin De Leener, Simon Lévy, Sara M Dupont, Vladimir S Fonov, Nikola Stikov, D Louis Collins, Virginie Callot, Julien Cohen-Adad
For the past 25 years, the field of neuroimaging has witnessed the development of several software packages for processing multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to study the brain. These software packages are now routinely used by researchers and clinicians, and have contributed to important breakthroughs for the understanding of brain anatomy and function. However, no software package exists to process mpMRI data of the spinal cord. Despite the numerous clinical needs for such advanced mpMRI protocols (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, etc...
January 15, 2017: NeuroImage
Marcel Wolf, Marc-André Weber
The article summarizes classification schemes of spinal trauma and rules to decide on proper imaging modality after a spinal trauma. High-risk factors that recommend imaging are, for instance, age 65 years or older, a dangerous trauma mechanism, and paresthesia in the extremities. More recent classification schemes include evaluation of the posterior ligamentous complex, for which MR imaging is the best modality, and to give therapeutic recommendations for conservative or surgical management. MR imaging is the imaging method of choice when spinal cord injury, cord compression, or ligamentous injury is suspected...
August 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Jesús Vaquero, Mercedes Zurita, Miguel A Rico, Celia Bonilla, Concepcion Aguayo, Jesús Montilla, Salvador Bustamante, Joaquin Carballido, Esperanza Marin, Francisco Martinez, Avelino Parajon, Cecilia Fernandez, Laura De Reina
BACKGROUND AIMS: Cell transplantation in patients suffering spinal cord injury (SCI) is in its initial stages, but currently there is confusion about the results because of the disparity in the techniques used, the route of administration, and the criteria for selecting patients. METHODS: We conducted a clinical trial involving 12 patients with complete and chronic paraplegia (average time of chronicity, 13.86 years; SD, 9.36). The characteristics of SCI in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated for a personalized local administration of expanded autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) supported in autologous plasma, with the number of MSCs ranging from 100 × 10(6) to 230 × 10(6)...
August 2016: Cytotherapy
Kunal R Bansal, Ajay S Chandanwale
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury in children frequently occurs without fracture or dislocation. SCIWORA is a syndrome occurring when the spinal cord sustains neural damage during a traumatic event without positive radiographic findings. The incidence of SCIWORA was found to be 8% to 32% in various studies with very few cases documented in children below the age of 1 year. We report such a case of spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in an 8 months old female child. CASE REPORT: An 8 months old female child was brought to the emergency room after a history of fall from the bed four days back...
January 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
R Nardone, Y Höller, F Brigo, V N Frey, P Lochner, S Leis, S Golaszewski, E Trinka
STUDY DESIGN: Topical review of the literature. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review article was to assess indications and usefulness of various neurophysiological techniques in diagnosis and management of cervical spondylogenic myelopathy (CSM). METHODS: The MEDLINE, accessed by Pubmed and EMBASE electronic databases, was searched using the medical subject headings: 'compressive myelopathy', 'cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)', 'cervical spondylogenic myelopathy', 'motor evoked potentials (MEPs)', 'transcranial magnetic stimulation', 'somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs)', 'electromyography (EMG)', 'nerve conduction studies (NCS)' and 'cutaneous silent period (CSP)'...
October 2016: Spinal Cord
Akinwunmi Oni-Orisan, Mayank Kaushal, Wenjun Li, Jack Leschke, B Douglas Ward, Aditya Vedantam, Benjamin Kalinosky, Matthew D Budde, Brian D Schmit, Shi-Jiang Li, Vaishnavi Muqeet, Shekar N Kurpad
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated alterations during task-induced brain activation in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The interruption to structural integrity of the spinal cord and the resultant disrupted flow of bidirectional communication between the brain and the spinal cord might contribute to the observed dynamic reorganization (neural plasticity). However, the effect of SCI on brain resting-state connectivity patterns remains unclear. We undertook a prospective resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) study to explore changes to cortical activation patterns following SCI...
2016: PloS One
C K Boese, D Müller, R Bröer, P Eysel, B Krischek, H C Lehmann, P Lechler
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to analyse the clinical and neuroimaging features of a consecutive series of adult patients with spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) receiving early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to apply the recently proposed MRI classification system. METHODS: Grade of neurologic impairment at admission and discharge was reported according to the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS). A detailed analysis and categorisation of the extra- and intramedullary MRI findings was performed, and the relationship between imaging type and neurological outcome was described...
October 2016: Spinal Cord
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