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At the crossroads

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526131/metabolic-alterations-at-the-crossroad-of-aging-and-oncogenesis
#1
L Raffaghello, V Longo
Aging represents the major risk factor for cancer. Cancer and aging are characterized by a similar dysregulated metabolism consisting in upregulation of glycolysis and downmodulation of oxidative phosphorylation. In this respect, metabolic interventions can be viewed as promising strategies to promote longevity and to prevent or delay age-related disorders including cancer. In this review, we discuss the most promising metabolic approaches including chronic calorie restriction, periodic fasting/fasting-mimicking diets, and pharmacological interventions mimicking calorie restriction...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525307/exploiting-genetic-information-to-trace-plant-virus-dispersal-in-landscapes
#2
Coralie Picard, Sylvie Dallot, Kirstyn Brunker, Karine Berthier, Phillipe Roumagnac, Samuel Soubeyrand, Emmanuel Jacquot, Gaël Thébaud
During the past decade, knowledge of pathogen life history has greatly benefited from the advent and development of molecular epidemiology. This branch of epidemiology uses information on pathogen variation at the molecular level to gain insights into a pathogen's niche and evolution and to characterize pathogen dispersal within and between host populations. Here, we review molecular epidemiology approaches that have been developed to trace plant virus dispersal in landscapes. In particular, we highlight how virus molecular epidemiology, nourished with powerful sequencing technologies, can provide novel insights at the crossroads between the blooming fields of landscape genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary epidemiology...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521124/tau-at-the-crossroads-between-neurotoxicity-and-neuroprotection
#3
Sarah L DeVos, Bradley T Hyman
In contrast to the idea that tau phosphorylation is toxic, Ittner et al. (2016) recently showed that specific tau phosphorylation is neuroprotective, phenocopying tau ablation (DeVos et al., 2017), thus highlighting the complex tau biology that underlies neurotoxicity and neuroprotection.
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510506/signaling-at-the-crossroads-matrix-derived-proteoglycan-and-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling
#4
Madalina-Viviana Nastase, Andrea Janicova, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
SIGNIFICANCE: Proteoglycans (PGs), besides their structural contribution, have emerged as dynamic components that mediate a multitude of cellular events. The various roles of PGs are attributed to their structure, spatial localization, and ability to act as ligands and receptors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small mediators, which are generated in physiological and pathological conditions. Besides their reactivity and ability to induce oxidative stress, a growing body of data suggests that ROS signaling is more relevant than direct radical damage in development of human pathologies...
May 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507507/pink1-parkin-dependent-mitochondrial-surveillance-from-pleiotropy-to-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Francois Mouton-Liger, Maxime Jacoupy, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Olga Corti
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disease caused by the preferential, progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta. PD is characterized by a multifaceted pathological process involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and metabolism deregulation. The molecular mechanisms governing the complex interplay between the different facets of this process are still unknown. PARK2/Parkin and PARK6/PINK1, two genes responsible for familial forms of PD, act as a ubiquitous core signaling pathway, coupling mitochondrial stress to mitochondrial surveillance, by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, the removal of damaged mitochondrial components by mitochondria-derived vesicles, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498001/abce1-a-special-factor-that-orchestrates-translation-at-the-crossroad-between-recycling-and-initiation
#6
Eder Mancera-Martínez, Jailson Brito Querido, Leos Shivaya Valasek, Angelita Simonetti, Yaser Hashem
For many years initiation and termination of mRNA translation have been studied separately. However, a direct link between these two isolated stages has been suggested by the fact that some initiation factors also control termination and can even promote ribosome recycling; i.e. the last stage where post-terminating 80 S ribosomes are split to start a new round of initiation. Notably, it is now firmly established that, among other factors, ribosomal recycling critically requires the NTPase ABCE1. However, several earlier reports have proposed that ABCE1 also somehow participates in the initiation complex assembly...
May 12, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493975/molecular-characterization-expression-of-chicken-tbk1-gene-and-its-effect-on-irf3-signaling-pathway
#7
Yan Wang, Yue Yin, Xi Lan, Fei Ye, Kai Tian, Xiaoling Zhao, Huadong Yin, Diyan Li, Hengyong Xu, Yiping Liu, Qing Zhu
TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK)-binding kinase1 (TBK1) is a serine-threonine kinase at the crossroads of multiple interferon (IFN)-inducing signaling pathways in innate immunity. The importance of TBK1 in antiviral immunity is well established in mammal models, but in chicken, the molecular characterization and potential function of TBK1 remain unclear. In the present study, the open-reading frame (ORF) of chicken TBK1 (chTBK1) was cloned and characterized. The sequencing results revealed that the chTBK1 ORF consists of 2190 base pairs (bp) encoding a deduced protein of 729 amino acid residues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488582/pras40-signaling-in-tumor
#8
REVIEW
Dan Lv, Lianying Guo, Ting Zhang, Lin Huang
The proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40) is a substrate of Akt and a component of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Locating at the crossroad of the PI3K/Akt pathway and the mTOR pathway, PRAS40 is phosphorylated by growth factors or other stimuli, and regulates the activation of these signaling pathways in turn. PRAS40 plays an important role in metabolic disorders and multiple cancers, and the phosphorylation of PRAS40 is often associated with the tumor progression of melanoma, prostate cancer, etc...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487633/cochlear-homocysteine-metabolism-at-the-crossroad-of-nutrition-and-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#9
REVIEW
Teresa Partearroyo, Néstor Vallecillo, María A Pajares, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Isabel Varela-Nieto
Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common causes of disability, affecting 360 million people according to the World Health Organization (WHO). HL is most frequently of sensorineural origin, being caused by the irreversible loss of hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons. The etiology of sensorineural HL (SNHL) is multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors such as noise, ototoxic substances and aging playing a role. The nutritional status is central in aging disability, but the interplay between nutrition and SNHL has only recently gained attention...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473293/moesin-and-merlin-regulate-urokinase-receptor-dependent-endothelial-cell-migration-adhesion-and-angiogenesis
#10
Bernard Degryse, Mishan Britto, Chun Xu Shan, Robert G Wallace, Keith D Rochfort, Philip M Cummins, Gerardene Meade, Ronan P Murphy
The glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchored urokinase receptor (uPAR) has no intracellular domain, but nevertheless initiates signalling through proximal interactions with other membrane receptors including integrins. The relationships between uPAR and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, moesin and merlin have never been explored. Moesin and merlin are versatile membrane-actin links and regulators of receptors signalling, respectively. We show that uPAR controls moesin and merlin, which propagate uPAR-initiated signals and modulate integrin functions, thereby regulating uPAR activity...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473254/pdk1-at-the-crossroad-of-cancer-signaling-pathways
#11
REVIEW
Paolo Armando Gagliardi, Alberto Puliafito, Luca Primo
Rational target therapy of cancer would benefit from the identification of new targets that can be easily inhibited by small molecules. An increasing amount of evidence hints at 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1 or PDPK1) as an intriguing and underexplored target for cancer therapy. Several reports show that PDK1 expression is dysregulated in multiple cancer types. Furthermore PDK1 is implicated in signaling pathways frequently altered in cancer, such as PI3K/Akt, Ras/MAPK and Myc. PDK1 targeting has been proven to be effective in experimental models harboring alterations of these pathways...
May 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468863/hey-factors-at-the-crossroad-of-tumorigenesis-and-clinical-therapeutic-modulation-of-hey-for-anticancer-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Zihao Liu, Andrew J Sanders, Gehao Liang, Erwei Song, Wen G Jiang, Chang Gong
Hairy and Enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif (Hey) transcription factors are important regulators of stem cell embryogenesis. Clinical relevance shows that they are also highly expressed in malignant carcinoma. Recent studies have highlighted functions for the Hey factors in tumor metastasis, the maintenance of cancer cell self-renewal, as well as proliferation and the promotion of tumor angiogenesis. Pathways that regulate Hey gene expression, such as Notch and TGFβ signaling, are frequently aberrant in numerous cancers...
May 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457591/from-mucolipidosis-type-iv-to-ebola-trpml-and-two-pore-channels-at-the-crossroads-of-endo-lysosomal-trafficking-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Christian Grimm, Elisabeth Butz, Cheng-Chang Chen, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel
What do lysosomal storage disorders such as mucolipidosis type IV have in common with Ebola, cancer cell migration, or LDL-cholesterol trafficking? LDL-cholesterol, certain bacterial toxins and viruses, growth factors, receptors, integrins, macromolecules destined for degradation or secretion are all sorted and transported via the endolysosomal system (ES). There are several pathways known in the ES, e.g. the degradation, the recycling, or the retrograde trafficking pathway. The ES comprises early and late endosomes, lysosomes and recycling endosomes as well as autophagosomes and lysosome related organelles...
April 23, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456633/optineurin-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-multifunctional-adaptor-protein-at-the-crossroads-of-different-neuroprotective-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Markovinovic, Raffaello Cimbro, Tereza Ljutic, Jasna Kriz, Boris Rogelj, Ivana Munitic
When optineurin mutations showed up on the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) landscape in 2010, they differed from most other ALS-causing genes. They seemed to act by loss- rather than gain-of-function, and it was unclear how a polyubiquitin-binding adaptor protein, which was proposed to regulate a variety of cellular functions including cell signaling and vesicle trafficking, could mediate neuroprotection. This review discusses the considerable progress that has been made since then. A large number of mutations in optineurin and optineurin-interacting proteins TANK-binding kinase (TBK1) and p62/SQSTM-1 have been found in the ALS patients, suggesting a common neuroprotective pathway...
April 26, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446673/pacmanvirus-a-new-giant-icosahedral-virus-at-the-crossroads-between-asfarviridae-and-faustoviruses
#15
Julien Andreani, Jacques Yaacoub Bou Khalil, Madhumati Sevvana, Samia Benamar, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Idir Bitam, Philippe Colson, Thomas Klose, Michael G Rossmann, Didier Raoult, Bernard La Scola
African swine fever virus, a double stranded DNA virus infecting pigs, is the only known member of the Asfarviridae family. Nevertheless, during our isolation and sequencing of the complete genome of Faustovirus followed by the description of Kaumoebavirus, carried out over the past two years, we observed the emergence of previously unknown related viruses within this group of viruses. Here, we describe the isolation of Pacmanvirus, a fourth member in this group, capable of infecting Acanthamoeba castellanii...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444222/feronia-receptor-kinase-at-the-crossroad-of-hormone-signaling-and-stress-responses
#16
Hongdong Liao, Renjie Tang, Xin Zhang, Sheng Luan, Feng Yu
Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are involved in nearly all aspects of plant life including growth, development and stress response. Recent studies show that FERONIA (FER), a CrRLK1L subfamily member, is a versatile regulator of cell expansion and serves as a signaling node mediating crosstalks among multiple phytohormones. As a receptor for the RALF (Rapid Alkalinization Factor) peptide ligand, FER triggers a downstream signaling cascade that leads to a rapid cytoplasmic calcium increase and inhibition of cell elongation in plants...
April 19, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439271/cross-talk-between-inhibitory-immunoreceptor-tyrosine-based-activation-motif-signaling-and-toll-like-receptor-pathways-in-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells
#17
REVIEW
Ivan Hirsch, Vaclav Janovec, Ruzena Stranska, Nathalie Bendriss-Vermare
The innate immune cells sense microbial infection and self-ligands by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and regulatory receptors (RRs), associated with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Rapid activation and concerted action of PRRs signaling and feedback inhibitory mechanisms must be engaged to ensure the host defense functions and to prevent cytotoxicity associated with excessive activation. ITAM-associated RRs can generate stimulatory or, paradoxically, inhibitory signals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427560/stress-adaptive-response-in-ovarian-cancer-drug-resistance-role-of-trap1-in-oxidative-metabolism-driven-inflammation
#18
Maria Rosaria Amoroso, Danilo Swann Matassa, Ilenia Agliarulo, Rosario Avolio, Francesca Maddalena, Valentina Condelli, Matteo Landriscina, Franca Esposito
Metabolic reprogramming is one of the most frequent stress-adaptive response of cancer cells to survive environmental changes and meet increasing nutrient requirements during their growth. These modifications involve cellular bioenergetics and cross talk with surrounding microenvironment, in a dynamic network that connect different molecular processes, such as energy production, inflammatory response, and drug resistance. Even though the Warburg effect has long been considered the main metabolic feature of cancer cells, recent reports identify mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as a driving force for tumor growth in an increasing number of cellular contexts...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424771/ptk7-faces-the-wnt-in-development-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Hanna Berger, Andreas Wodarz, Annette Borchers
PTK7 (protein tyrosine kinase 7) is an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane receptor regulating various processes in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. On a cellular level PTK7 affects the establishment of cell polarity, the regulation of cell movement and migration as well as cell invasion. The PTK7 receptor has been shown to interact with ligands, co-receptors, and intracellular transducers of Wnt signaling pathways, pointing to a function in the fine-tuning of the Wnt signaling network. Here we will review recent findings implicating PTK7 at the crossroads of Wnt signaling pathways in development and disease...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410299/antigen-discovery-and-therapeutic-targeting-in-hematologic-malignancies
#20
David A Braun, Catherine J Wu
Historically, immune-based therapies have played a leading role in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, with the efficacy of stem cell transplantation largely attributable to donor immunity against malignant cells. As new and more targeted immunotherapies have developed, their role in the treatment of hematologic malignancies is evolving and expanding. Herein, we discuss approaches for antigen discovery and review known and novel tumor antigens in hematologic malignancies. We further explore the role of established and investigational immunotherapies in hematologic malignancies, with a focus on personalization of treatment modalities such as cancer vaccines and adoptive cell therapy...
March 2017: Cancer Journal
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