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At the crossroads

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427560/stress-adaptive-response-in-ovarian-cancer-drug-resistance-role-of-trap1-in-oxidative-metabolism-driven-inflammation
#1
Maria Rosaria Amoroso, Danilo Swann Matassa, Ilenia Agliarulo, Rosario Avolio, Francesca Maddalena, Valentina Condelli, Matteo Landriscina, Franca Esposito
Metabolic reprogramming is one of the most frequent stress-adaptive response of cancer cells to survive environmental changes and meet increasing nutrient requirements during their growth. These modifications involve cellular bioenergetics and cross talk with surrounding microenvironment, in a dynamic network that connect different molecular processes, such as energy production, inflammatory response, and drug resistance. Even though the Warburg effect has long been considered the main metabolic feature of cancer cells, recent reports identify mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as a driving force for tumor growth in an increasing number of cellular contexts...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424771/ptk7-faces-the-wnt-in-development-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Hanna Berger, Andreas Wodarz, Annette Borchers
PTK7 (protein tyrosine kinase 7) is an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane receptor regulating various processes in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. On a cellular level PTK7 affects the establishment of cell polarity, the regulation of cell movement and migration as well as cell invasion. The PTK7 receptor has been shown to interact with ligands, co-receptors, and intracellular transducers of Wnt signaling pathways, pointing to a function in the fine-tuning of the Wnt signaling network. Here we will review recent findings implicating PTK7 at the crossroads of Wnt signaling pathways in development and disease...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410299/antigen-discovery-and-therapeutic-targeting-in-hematologic-malignancies
#3
David A Braun, Catherine J Wu
Historically, immune-based therapies have played a leading role in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, with the efficacy of stem cell transplantation largely attributable to donor immunity against malignant cells. As new and more targeted immunotherapies have developed, their role in the treatment of hematologic malignancies is evolving and expanding. Herein, we discuss approaches for antigen discovery and review known and novel tumor antigens in hematologic malignancies. We further explore the role of established and investigational immunotherapies in hematologic malignancies, with a focus on personalization of treatment modalities such as cancer vaccines and adoptive cell therapy...
March 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399645/prohibitin-at-the-crossroads-of-obesity-linked-diabetes-and-cancer
#4
Suresh Mishra, Bl Grégoire Nyomba
The promoter of a gene that is selectively expressed in just a few cell types provides unique opportunities to study: (1) the pleiotropic function of a protein in two different cell types including the cell compartment specific function, and (2) the crosstalk between two cell/tissue types at the systemic level. This is not possible with a ubiquitous or a highly specific gene promoter. The adipocyte protein-2 ( aP2) is one such gene. It is primarily expressed in adipocytes, but also selectively in monocytic macrophages and dendritic cells, among various immune cell types...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393441/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-at-the-crossroad-of-intestinal-health-and-disease-a-putative-role-in-type-1-diabetes
#5
M I Lassenius, C L Fogarty, M Blaut, K Haimila, L Riittinen, A Paju, J Kirveskari, J Järvelä, A J Ahola, D Gordin, M-A Härma, A Kumar, S R Hamarneh, R A Hodin, T Sorsa, T Tervahartiala, S Hörkkö, P J Pussinen, C Forsblom, M Jauhiainen, M-R Taskinen, P-H Groop, M Lehto
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 diabetes have shown an increase in circulating cytokines, altered lipoprotein metabolism and signs of vascular dysfunction in response to high-fat meals. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) regulates lipid transport and inflammatory responses in the gastrointestinal tract. We therefore hypothesized that changes in IAP activity could have profound effects on gut metabolic homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Faecal samples of 41 nondiabetic controls and 46 patients with type 1 diabetes were analysed for IAP activity, calprotectin, immunoglobulins and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386696/cd1-a-singed-cat-of-the-three-antigen-presentation-systems
#6
REVIEW
Radoslaw Kaczmarek, Mariola Pasciak, Katarzyna Szymczak-Kulus, Marcin Czerwinski
Contrary to general view that the MHC Class I and II are the kapellmeisters of recognition and response to antigens, there is another big player in that part of immunity, represented by CD1 glycoproteins. In contrast to MHC Class I or II, which present peptides, CD1 molecules present lipids. Humans express five CD1 proteins (CD1a-e), four of which (CD1a-d) are trafficked to the cell surface, where they may display lipid antigens to T-cell receptors. This interaction may lead to both non-cognate and cognate T cell help to B cells, the latter eliciting anti-lipid antibody response...
April 6, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377464/stard3-mediates-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-endosome-cholesterol-transport-at-membrane-contact-sites
#7
Léa P Wilhelm, Corinne Wendling, Benoît Védie, Toshihide Kobayashi, Marie-Pierre Chenard, Catherine Tomasetto, Guillaume Drin, Fabien Alpy
StAR-related lipid transfer domain-3 (STARD3) is a sterol-binding protein that creates endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-endosome contact sites. How this protein, at the crossroad between sterol uptake and synthesis pathways, impacts the intracellular distribution of this lipid was ill-defined. Here, by using in situ cholesterol labeling and quantification, we demonstrated that STARD3 induces cholesterol accumulation in endosomes at the expense of the plasma membrane. STARD3-mediated cholesterol routing depends both on its lipid transfer activity and its ability to create ER-endosome contacts...
April 4, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356925/i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-%C3%AE-at-the-crossroad-between-oncogenic-and-tumor-suppressive-signals
#8
Alessandro Morotti, Sabrina Crivellaro, Cristina Panuzzo, Giovanna Carrà, Angelo Guerrasio, Giuseppe Saglio
Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is an essential component of tumorigenesis and resistance to cancer treatments. NFKB inhibitor α (IκB-α) acts as a negative regulator of the classical NF-κB pathway through its ability to maintain the presence of NF-κB in the cytoplasm. However, IκB-α is also able to form a complex with tumor protein p53, promoting its inactivation. Recently, we demonstrated that IκB-α is able to mediate p53 nuclear exclusion and inactivation in chronic myeloid leukemia, indicating that IκB-α can modulate either oncogenic or tumor-suppressive functions, with important implications for cancer treatment...
February 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353285/lrrk2-and-the-lrrktosome-at-the-crossroads-of-programmed-cell-death-clues-from-rip-kinase-relatives
#9
Hardy J Rideout, Diane B Re
Since its cloning and identification in 2004, considerable gains have been made in the understanding of the basic functionality of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), including its kinase and GTPase activities, its protein interactors and subcellular localization, and its expression in the CNS and peripheral tissues. However, the mechanism(s) by which expression of mutant forms of LRRK2 lead to the death of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral midbrain remains largely uncharacterized. Because of its complex domain structure, LRRK2 exhibits similarities with multiple protein families including ROCO proteins, as well as the RIP kinases...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340510/the-diverse-family-of-mmpl-transporters-in-mycobacteria-from-regulation-to-antimicrobial-developments
#10
REVIEW
Albertus Viljoen, Violaine Dubois, Fabienne Girard-Misguich, Mickael Blaise, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterial genomes contain large sets of loci encoding membrane proteins that belong to a family of multidrug resistance pumps designated Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) permeases. Mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) transporters represent a subclass of RND transporters known to participate in the export of lipid components across the cell envelope. These surface-exposed lipids with unusual structures play key roles in the physiology of mycobacteria and/or can act as virulence factors and immunomodulators...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338617/egfr-family-members-regulation-of-autophagy-is-at-a-crossroads-of-cell-survival-and-death-in-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth Henson, Yongqiang Chen, Spencer Gibson
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways are altered in many cancers contributing to increased cell survival. These alterations are caused mainly through increased expression or mutation of EGFR family members EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4. These receptors have been successfully targeted for cancer therapy. Specifically, a monoclonal antibody against ErbB2, trastuzumab, and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor against EGFR, gefitinib, have improved the survival of breast and lung cancer patients...
March 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323054/cbfs-at-the-crossroads-of-plant-hormone-signaling-in-cold-stress-response
#12
Javier Barrero-Gil, Julio Salinas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299616/promise-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-heart-failure-diabetes-and-beyond
#13
REVIEW
Pieter Martens, Chantal Mathieu, Frederik H Verbrugge
This review provides mechanistic insight in the pleiotropic effects of sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors with particular interest to the pathophysiology of heart failure. The SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has recently demonstrated an unprecedented 38% reduction in cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes. Despite modest effects on long-term glycemic control, highly significant reductions in heart failure admissions and end-stage kidney disease were observed. SGLT-2 inhibitors are the latest approved class of glucose-lowering agents...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283473/loss-of-lung-wwox-expression-causes-neutrophilic-inflammation
#14
Sunit Singla, Jiwang Chen, Shruthi Sethuraman, Justin R Sysol, Amulya Gampa, Shuangping Zhao, Roberto F Machado
The tumor suppressor, WWOX, exhibits regulatory interactions with an array of transcription factors and signaling molecules that are positioned at the well-known crossroads between inflammation and cancer. WWOX is also subject to downregulation by genotoxic environmental exposures, making it of potential interest to the study of lung pathobiology. Knockdown of lung WWOX expression in mice was observed to cause neutrophil influx, and accompanied by a corresponding vascular leak and inflammatory cytokine production...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275011/ataxin-3-consolidates-the-mdc1-dependent-dna-double-strand-break-response-by-counteracting-the-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf4
#15
Annika Pfeiffer, Martijn S Luijsterburg, Klara Acs, Wouter W Wiegant, Angela Helfricht, Laura K Herzog, Melania Minoia, Claudia Böttcher, Florian A Salomons, Haico van Attikum, Nico P Dantuma
The SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 functions at the crossroads of the SUMO and ubiquitin systems. Here, we report that the deubiquitylation enzyme (DUB) ataxin-3 counteracts RNF4 activity during the DNA double-strand break (DSB) response. We find that ataxin-3 negatively regulates ubiquitylation of the checkpoint mediator MDC1, a known RNF4 substrate. Loss of ataxin-3 markedly decreases the chromatin dwell time of MDC1 at DSBs, which can be fully reversed by co-depletion of RNF4. Ataxin-3 is recruited to DSBs in a SUMOylation-dependent fashion, and in vitro it directly interacts with and is stimulated by recombinant SUMO, defining a SUMO-dependent mechanism for DUB activity toward MDC1...
April 13, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273475/integrative-physiology-at-the-crossroads-of-nutrition-microbiota-animal-physiology-and-human-health
#16
REVIEW
François Leulier, Lesley T MacNeil, Won-Jae Lee, John F Rawls, Patrice D Cani, Martin Schwarzer, Liping Zhao, Stephen J Simpson
Nutrition is paramount in shaping all aspects of animal biology. In addition, the influence of the intestinal microbiota on physiology is now widely recognized. Given that diet also shapes the intestinal microbiota, this raises the question of how the nutritional environment and microbial assemblages together influence animal physiology. This research field constitutes a new frontier in the field of organismal biology that needs to be addressed. Here we review recent studies using animal models and humans and propose an integrative framework within which to define the study of the diet-physiology-microbiota systems and ultimately link it to human health...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272331/ornithine-aminotransferase-an-important-glutamate-metabolizing-enzyme-at-the-crossroads-of-multiple-metabolic-pathways
#17
REVIEW
Antonin Ginguay, Luc Cynober, Emmanuel Curis, Ioannis Nicolis
Ornithine δ-aminotransferase (OAT, E.C. 2.6.1.13) catalyzes the transfer of the δ-amino group from ornithine (Orn) to α-ketoglutarate (aKG), yielding glutamate-5-semialdehyde and glutamate (Glu), and vice versa. In mammals, OAT is a mitochondrial enzyme, mainly located in the liver, intestine, brain, and kidney. In general, OAT serves to form glutamate from ornithine, with the notable exception of the intestine, where citrulline (Cit) or arginine (Arg) are end products. Its main function is to control the production of signaling molecules and mediators, such as Glu itself, Cit, GABA, and aliphatic polyamines...
March 7, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267140/internal-medicine-at-the-crossroads
#18
Marian Klinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264326/molecular-phylogeny-of-the-tribe-torini-karaman-1971-actinopterygii-cypriniformes-from-the-middle-east-and-north-africa
#19
Kai Borkenhagen
Freshwater fishes of the cyprinid tribe Torini are widespread in Africa the Middle East and Indomalaya. The relationships of Middle-Eastern Torini are analysed based on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b, ND4) of the majority of relevant species. I present a larely well resolved phylogeny, which confirms the validity of the morphologically defined genera Arabibarbus, Carasobarbus, Mesopotamichthys and Pterocapoeta. The Torini originated in Indomalaya and colonised Africa via the Middle East. Morocco was colonised two times independently, first from sub-Saharan Africa and secondly along the southern margin of the Mediterranean Sea...
February 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261576/personalized-medicine-in-allergic-asthma-at-the-crossroads-of-allergen-immunotherapy-and-biologicals
#20
REVIEW
Benedikt Fritzsching
Major allergic disease can be viewed as clinical syndromes rather than discrete disease entities. Emerging evidence indicates that allergic asthma includes several disease phenotypes. Immunological deviation toward high T helper cell type 2 cytokine levels has been demonstrated for a subgroup of pediatric asthma patients, and now, several novel monoclonal antibodies have been approved for treatment of this subgroup as a stratified approach of "personalized" medicine in allergy. Introduction of component-based IgE testing before allergen immunotherapy (AIT), i...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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