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At the crossroads

Meital Charni, Ronit Aloni-Grinstein, Alina Molchadsky, Varda Rotter
Regeneration and tumorigenesis share common molecular pathways, nevertheless the outcome of regeneration is life, whereas tumorigenesis leads to death. Although the process of regeneration is strictly controlled, malignant transformation is unrestrained. In this review, we discuss the involvement of TP53, the major tumor-suppressor gene, in the regeneration process. We point to the role of p53 as coordinator assuring that regeneration will not shift to carcinogenesis. The fluctuation in p53 activity during the regeneration process permits a tight control...
October 21, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
M G Basáñez, M Walker, H C Turner, L E Coffeng, S J de Vlas, W A Stolk
Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is one of the few neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) whose control strategies have been informed by mathematical modelling. With the change in focus from elimination of the disease burden to elimination of Onchocerca volvulus, much remains to be done to refine, calibrate and validate existing models. Under the impetus of the NTD Modelling Consortium, the teams that developed EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM have joined forces to compare and improve these frameworks to better assist ongoing elimination efforts...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
C Borghi, R Urso, A F Cicero
AIM: The aim of this study is to discuss the reliable scientific evidence of an interactive link between hypertension and hypercholesterolemia considering the metabolic pathways and the pathogenetic mechanisms connecting the two risk factors. DATA SYNTHESIS: Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are highly prevalent in the general population and their coexistence in the same subjects additively increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Probably, hypercholesterolemia is also a risk factor for the development of hypertension...
August 6, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Joan Garvan
BACKGROUND: Changes to gendered norms have been the single most significant development in the second part of the twentieth century; practices within families have mirrored these changes. Many, however, are falling by the wayside after the birth of an infant, with high rates of marital breakdown, high rates of anxiety and depression, and significant issues related to identity. OBJECTIVES/AIMS: The aim of this research was to gauge how a sample of Australian women were travelling through the Transition to Parenthood, particularly in terms of their relationships; sharing the care and housework; their life course; and their sense of self...
October 14, 2016: Contemporary Nurse
Beatrice Bassetti, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Giulio Pompilio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Circulation Research
Luciano Galdieri, Himavanth Gatla, Ivana Vancurova, Ales Vancura
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor and master regulator of metabolism. AMPK functions as a fuel gauge monitoring systemic and cellular energy status. Activation of AMPK occurs when the intracellular AMP/ATP ratio increases and leads to a metabolic switch from anabolism to catabolism. AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which catalyzes carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the first and rate-limiting reaction in de-novo synthesis of fatty acids. AMPK thus regulates homeostasis of acetyl-CoA, a key metabolite at the crossroads of metabolism, signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sergio Romagnani
The interleukin (IL)-4-induced gene1 (IL4I1), which encodes the L-amino acid oxidase enzyme, plays an important immunoregulatory role. Indeed, this enzyme which is produced by B cells-including neoplastic B cells-dendritic cells and macrophages has been shown to inhibit proliferation, cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production by tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells, thus favoring tumor escape. Moreover, the same gene has been found to be constitutively expressed by CD4(+) T helper 17 (Th17) cells, where it down-regulates cell proliferation through a reduction of CD3 chains expression in the T-cell receptor complex, thus impairing IL-2 production, and by maintaining in the same cells a high expression of Tob1, which inhibits cell cycle entry, through a still unknown mechanism...
October 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Judicaelle Andeme Edzang, Zhongrui Chen, Hassib Audi, Gabriel Canard, Olivier Siri
A green and very efficient synthesis of N-substituted benzoquinonediimines or C-substituted benzo-bis(imidazole) derivatives is described under similar conditions. The different reaction pathway is only controlled by the nature of the primary amines, which tunes the reactivity of the intermediates.
October 10, 2016: Organic Letters
Manuel Alcalde-Rico, Sara Hernando-Amado, Paula Blanco, José L Martínez
Multidrug efflux pumps can be involved in bacterial resistance to antibiotics at different levels. Some efflux pumps are constitutively expressed at low levels and contribute to intrinsic resistance. In addition, their overexpression may allow higher levels of resistance. This overexpression can be transient, in the presence of an effector (phenotypic resistance), or constitutive when mutants in the regulatory elements of the expression of efflux pumps are selected (acquired resistance). Efflux pumps are present in all cells, from human to bacteria and are highly conserved, which indicates that they are ancient elements in the evolution of different organisms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shawna Benston
Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs), including gene-editing technology, are being discovered and refined at an exponential pace. One gene-editing innovation that demands our swift attention is CRISPR/Cas9, a system of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and a protein called Cas9. As CRISPR and other RGTs continue being developed, we must remain vigilant concerning the potential implications of genetic-engineering technology on our interpersonal and legal relationships. In the face of increasingly numerous and refined RGTs, we must maintain the rights of everyone: potential parents, prospective children, and individuals (both living and prospective) with disabilities...
March 2016: Laws
Annum Jaffer, Peter J Hotez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gabrielle Lê-Bury, Chantal Deschamps, Audrey Dumas, Florence Niedergang
Macrophages are phagocytic cells that play a major role at the crossroads between innate and specific immunity. They can be infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and because of their resistance to its cytopathic effects they can be considered to be persistent viral reservoirs. In addition, HIV-infected macrophages exhibit defective functions that contribute to the development of opportunistic diseases. The exact mechanism by which HIV-1 impairs the phagocytic response of macrophages was unknown...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
José-Luis Barnay, Andre Cabie, Sylvie Abel, Emilie Javelle, Odile Troisgros, Patrick René-Corail
Arboviruses cause very recurrent epidemics, the oldest Dengue, known especially outside the flu-like syndrome with high fever mainly impacting vulnerable populations, may be responsible for severe hemorrhagic fevers, but also a few cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome. In 2014, the French Antilles occurred an outbreak of Chikungunya, following that of the Reunion's outbreak. During this period have been described, the articular and musculo-squellettic lesions, responsible for loss of autonomy in populations already carriers of chronic inflammatory joint damage or mechanical, but also a heavy impact on the autonomy of elderly and frail people...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Francesca Santilli, Andrea Boccatonda, Giovanni Davì
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Anton Grech
Mental Health Services in Malta are presently at crossroads, because they are in the stage of increasing and strengthening the community services and considering closing the main psychiatric inpatient facility and replacing it with a new hospital. For proper planning of such changes, and ideal approach is that of basing these plans on results of population based epidemiological findings on rate of mental illness and required care. Such studies are strongly recommended, and this approach has already been used in Malta a couple of years ago prior to establishing inpatient care for Eating Disorders...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Prashant Garg, Aravind Roy, Savitri Sharma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After publication of the results of the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ESCRS) study, there is a lot of enthusiasm for using intracameral antibiotics for the prevention of postcataract endophthalmitis. However, despite level 1 evidence, the practice has not been adopted universally. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the articles published in the last 18 months on this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: The published literature highlights that the incidence rate of endophthalmitis declined after 2007...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Joshua Schimmer, Steven Breazzano
The gene therapy field continues to pick up steam with recent successes in a number of different therapeutic indications that highlight the potential for the platform. As the field continues to make progress, a growing data set of long-term safety and efficacy data will continue to define gene therapy's role, determining ultimately how widely it may be used beyond rare, serious diseases with high unmet needs. New technologies often take unanticipated twists and turns as patient exposure accumulates, and gene therapy may be no exception...
September 2016: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, Ole Olsen
The founder of the Carlsberg brewery, J.C Jacobsen, recognized the value of private-public partnership and established the Carlsberg Foundation in 1876 with the single aim of applying research and innovation to brew the best beer. One hundred and forty years on, Jacobsen's vision still prevails, and in this interview three scientists from the Carlsberg Research Laboratory (Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, and Ole Olsen) share their experience about finding a career at the crossroads between industry and basic research...
October 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Rodrigo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nawi Ng, Dwidjo Susilo, John Prawira, Michael J Bangs, Rachel M Amiya
BACKGROUND: As the global shift toward non-communicable diseases overlaps with the unfinished agenda of confronting infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, epidemiological links across both burdens must be recognized. This study examined the non-communicable disease-infectious disease overlap in the specific comorbidity rates for key diseases in an occupational cohort in Papua, Indonesia. METHODS: Diagnosed cases of ischaemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes (types 1 and 2), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cancer, HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria were extracted from 22,550 patient records (21,513 men, 1037 women) stored in identical electronic health information systems from two clinic sites in Papua, Indonesia...
2016: BMC Public Health
Marinko Lazzarich
The fact that many famous denizens of Rijeka belong to different nationalities confirms this city's historic multicultural image. The life story of Erik Vio (1910-1966), renowned surgeon of international reputation, reflects the fate of many displaced residents of Rijeka who left to live in exile. After graduating in Rome, Vio worked as a medical doctor in Hong Kong for almost three decades. The question is weather a surgeon from Rijeka chose to live in Hong Kong because it reminded him of his hometown? The author finds the root of this thesis in Vio's novel The Pathways of Freedom (˝Irwege der Freiheit˝, Köln 1978), a particular medical-philosophic diagnosis of the contemporary civilization's spiritual state...
August 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
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