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At the crossroads

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928488/ubiquitylation-at-the-crossroads-of-development-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Michael Rape
Human development requires intricate cell specification and communication pathways that allow an embryo to generate and appropriately connect more than 200 different cell types. Key to the successful completion of this differentiation programme is the quantitative and reversible regulation of core signalling networks, and post-translational modification with ubiquitin provides embryos with an essential tool to accomplish this task. Instigated by E3 ligases and reversed by deubiquitylases, ubiquitylation controls many processes that are fundamental for development, such as cell division, fate specification and migration...
September 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924227/implication-of-the-glutamate-cystine-antiporter-xct-in-schizophrenia-cases-linked-to-impaired-gsh-synthesis
#2
M Fournier, A Monin, C Ferrari, P S Baumann, P Conus, K Do
xCT is the specific chain of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, which is widely reported to support anti-oxidant defenses in vivo. xCT is therefore at the crossroads between two processes that are involved in schizophrenia: oxidative stress and glutamatergic neurotransmission. But data from human studies implicating xCT in the illness and clarifying the upstream mechanisms of xCT imbalance are still scarce. Low glutathione (GSH) levels and genetic risk in GCLC (Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Catalytic subunit), the gene of limiting synthesizing enzyme for GSH, are both associated with schizophrenia...
September 18, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916228/cellular-therapy-injections-in-today-s-orthopedic-market-a-social-media-analysis
#3
Prem N Ramkumar, Sergio M Navarro, Heather S Haeberle, Morad Chughtai, Christopher Demetriades, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Michael A Mont, Thomas W Bauer, George F Muschler
BACKGROUND: The current state of cellular therapy for musculoskeletal conditions is at a crossroads. Marketing efforts are often outpacing clinical evidence and regulatory control. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: This study was an effort to describe the marketing of cellular therapy in musculoskeletal medicine by evaluating the content in popular social media channels. Specifically, media posts were evaluated for the following: (1) perspective, (2) tone, (3) content and (4) visibility...
September 12, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914586/presenilins-at-the-crossroad-of-a-functional-interplay-between-park2-parkin-and-pink1-to-control-mitophagy-implication-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
Frédéric Checler, Thomas Goiran, Cristine Alves da Costa
Autophagic and mitophagic defects are consistently observed in Alzheimer's disease-affected brains. However, the mechanistic defects underlying these anatomical lesions remained unexplained. We have delineated a molecular cascade by which PSEN1 and PSEN2 (presenilins 1 and 2) control PINK1 transcription and function by an AICD-mediated FOXO3a-dependent mechanism. Further, we establish that PARK2 (parkin) acts upstream to PINK1 and regulates its function by a PSEN-dependent mechanism. Our study thus demonstrates a functional interplay between PSEN and PINK1 and establishes a feedback process by which PARK2 and PINK1 could control mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic processes in various neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases...
September 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899173/the-presence-of-the-analyst-in-lacanian-treatment
#5
Joachim Cauwe, Stijn Vanheule, Mattias Desmet
Transference implies the actualization of the analyst in the analytic encounter. Lacan developed this idea through the syntagm presence of the analyst. In the course of his seminars, however, two completely different presences emerge, with major implications for how the treatment is directed. In the light of Lacan's idea that the transference is constituted in Real, Symbolic, and Imaginary dimensions, it can be seen how in his early work the analyst's presence is a phenomenon at the crossroads between signifiers and images...
August 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894496/indigenous-identity-and-traditional-medicine-pharmacy-at-the-crossroads
#6
Reanne Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893420/the-hallmarks-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Daniel L Galvan, Nathanael H Green, Farhad R Danesh
Recent advances have led to a greater appreciation of how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to diverse acute and chronic pathologies. Indeed, mitochondria have received increasing attention as a therapeutic target in a variety of diseases because they serve as key regulatory hubs uniquely situated at crossroads between multiple cellular processes. This review provides an overview of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease, with special emphasis on its role in the development of diabetic nephropathy...
September 8, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873274/epigenetics-at-the-crossroads-between-genes-environment-and-resilience-in-anxiety-disorders
#8
REVIEW
M A Schiele, K Domschke
The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is multifactorial, involving complex interactions between biological factors, environmental influences, and psychological mechanisms. Recent advances have highlighted the role of epigenetics in bridging the gap between multiple contributing risk factors towards an increased understanding of the pathomechanisms underlying anxiety. In this review, we present an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding putative risk mechanisms in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, placing a particular focus on the role of protective factors serving to buffer a risk factor constellation and the role epigenetic processes functioning as a potent turnstile changing passage direction towards disorder risk or resilience...
September 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868130/bacterial-lipids-powerful-modifiers-of-the-innate-immune-response
#9
REVIEW
Courtney E Chandler, Robert K Ernst
The innate immune system serves as a first line of defense against microbial pathogens. The host innate immune response can be triggered by recognition of conserved non-self-microbial signature molecules by specific host receptor proteins called Toll-like receptors. For bacteria, many of these molecular triggers reside on or are embedded in the bacterial membrane, the interface exposed to the host environment. Lipids are the most abundant component of membranes, and bacteria possess a unique set of lipids that can initiate or modify the host innate immune response...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865303/defects-at-the-crossroads-of-gabaergic-signaling-in-generalized-genetic-epilepsies
#10
REVIEW
Jing-Qiong Kang
Seizure disorders are very common and affect 3% of the general population. The recurrent unprovoked seizures that are also called epilepsies are highly diverse as to both underlying genetic basis and clinic presentations. Recent genetic advances and sequencing technologies indicate that many epilepsies previously thought to be without known causes, or idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs), are virtually genetic epilepsy as they are caused by genetic variations. IGEs are estimated to account for ∼15-20% of all epilepsies...
August 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859567/the-hypothalamus-at-the-crossroads-of-psychopathology-and-neurosurgery
#11
Daniel A N Barbosa, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Felipe Monte Santo, Ana Carolina de Oliveira Faria, Alessandra A Gorgulho, Antonio A F De Salles
The neurosurgical endeavor to treat psychiatric patients may have been part of human history since its beginning. The modern era of psychosurgery can be traced to the heroic attempts of Gottlieb Burckhardt and Egas Moniz to alleviate mental symptoms through the ablation of restricted areas of the frontal lobes in patients with disabling psychiatric illnesses. Thanks to the adaptation of the stereotactic frame to human patients, the ablation of large volumes of brain tissue has been practically abandoned in favor of controlled interventions with discrete targets...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841448/pre-crash-scenarios-at-road-junctions-a-clustering-method-for-car-crash-data
#12
Philippe Nitsche, Pete Thomas, Rainer Stuetz, Ruth Welsh
Given the recent advancements in autonomous driving functions, one of the main challenges is safe and efficient operation in complex traffic situations such as road junctions. There is a need for comprehensive testing, either in virtual simulation environments or on real-world test tracks. This paper presents a novel data analysis method including the preparation, analysis and visualization of car crash data, to identify the critical pre-crash scenarios at T- and four-legged junctions as a basis for testing the safety of automated driving systems...
October 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838620/emerging-roles-for-the-lysosome-in-lipid-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Ashley M Thelen, Roberto Zoncu
Precise regulation of lipid biosynthesis, transport, and storage is key to the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Cells rely on a sophisticated but poorly understood network of vesicular and nonvesicular transport mechanisms to ensure efficient delivery of lipids to target organelles. The lysosome stands at the crossroads of this network due to its ability to process and sort exogenous and endogenous lipids. The lipid-sorting function of the lysosome is intimately connected to its recently discovered role as a metabolic command-and-control center, which relays multiple nutrient cues to the master growth regulator, mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1 kinase...
August 21, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815712/psychoanalytic-education-at-the-crossroads-reformation-change-and-the-future-of-psychoanalytic-training-by-otto-friedmann-kernberg
#14
Lee Jaffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802165/the-world-according-to-garp-transcription-factors
#15
REVIEW
Alaeddine Safi, Anna Medici, Wojciech Szponarski, Sandrine Ruffel, Benoît Lacombe, Gabriel Krouk
Plant specific GARP transcription factor family (made of ARR-B and G2-like) contains genes with very diverse in planta functions: nutrient sensing, root and shoot development, floral transition, chloroplast development, circadian clock oscillation maintenance, hormonal transport and signaling. In this work we review: first, their structural but distant relationships with MYB transcription factors, second, their role in planta, third, the diversity of their Cis-regulatory elements, fourth, their potential protein partners...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802039/circadian-reprogramming-in-the-liver-identifies-metabolic-pathways-of-aging
#16
Shogo Sato, Guiomar Solanas, Francisca Oliveira Peixoto, Leonardo Bee, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Selma Masri, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
The process of aging and circadian rhythms are intimately intertwined, but how peripheral clocks involved in metabolic homeostasis contribute to aging remains unknown. Importantly, caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in several organisms and rewires circadian metabolism. Using young versus old mice, fed ad libitum or under CR, we reveal reprogramming of the circadian transcriptome in the liver. These age-dependent changes occur in a highly tissue-specific manner, as demonstrated by comparing circadian gene expression in the liver versus epidermal and skeletal muscle stem cells...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798693/phosphorylation-modulates-ameloblastin-self-assembly-and-ca-2-binding
#17
Øystein Stakkestad, Ståle P Lyngstadaas, Bernd Thiede, Jiri Vondrasek, Bjørn S Skålhegg, Janne E Reseland
Ameloblastin (AMBN), an important component of the self-assembled enamel extra cellular matrix, contains several in silico predicted phosphorylation sites. However, to what extent these sites actually are phosphorylated and the possible effects of such post-translational modifications are still largely unknown. Here we report on in vitro experiments aimed at investigating what sites in AMBN are phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2) and protein kinase A (PKA) and the impact such phosphorylation has on self-assembly and calcium binding...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782645/marfan-syndrome-a-connective-tissue-disease-at-the-crossroads-of-mechanotransduction-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-and-cell-stemness
#18
REVIEW
Francesco Ramirez, Cristina Caescu, Elisabeth Wondimu, Josephine Galatioto
Mutations in fibrillin-1 cause Marfan syndrome (MFS), the most common heritable disorder of connective tissue. Fibrillin-1 assemblies (microfibrils and elastic fibers) represent a unique dual-function component of the architectural matrix. The first role is structural for they endow tissues with tensile strength and elasticity, transmit forces across them and demarcate functionally discrete areas within them. The second role is instructive in that these macroaggregates modulate a large variety of sub-cellular processes by interacting with mechanosensors, and integrin and syndecan receptors, and by modulating the bioavailability of local TGFβ signals...
August 4, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781758/diagnostic-approach-to-pleural-diseases-new-tricks-for-an-old-trade
#19
REVIEW
Fabien Maldonado, Robert J Lentz, Richard W Light
The burden of pleural diseases has substantially increased in the past decade because of a rise in the incidence of pleural space infections and pleural malignancies in a patient population that is older and more immunocompromised and has more comorbidities. This complexity increasingly requires minimally invasive diagnostic options and tailored management. Implications for patients are such that the limitations of current diagnostic methods need to be addressed by multidisciplinary teams of investigators from the fields of imaging, biology, and engineering...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777567/inorganic-nanotubes-and-fullerene-like-nanoparticles-at-the-crossroads-between-solid-state-chemistry-and-nanotechnology
#20
Bojana Višić, Leela Srinivas Panchakarla, Reshef Tenne
Inorganic nanotubes (NTs) and fullerene-like nanoparticles (NPs) of WS2 were discovered some 25 years ago and are produced now on a commercial scale for various applications. This Perspective provides a brief description of recent progress in this scientific discipline. The conceptual evolution leading to the discovery of these NTs and NPs is briefly discussed. Subsequently, recent progress in the synthesis of such NPs from a variety of inorganic compounds with layered (2D) structure is described. In particular, we discuss the synthesis of NTs from chalcogenide- and oxide-based ternary misfit layered compounds, as well as their structure and different growth mechanisms...
August 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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