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At the crossroads

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131228/3d-printing-in-chemical-engineering-and-catalytic-technology-structured-catalysts-mixers-and-reactors
#1
REVIEW
Cesar Parra-Cabrera, Clement Achille, Simon Kuhn, Rob Ameloot
Computer-aided fabrication technologies combined with simulation and data processing approaches are changing our way of manufacturing and designing functional objects. Also in the field of catalytic technology and chemical engineering the impact of additive manufacturing, also referred to as 3D printing, is steadily increasing thanks to a rapidly decreasing equipment threshold. Although still in an early stage, the rapid and seamless transition between digital data and physical objects enabled by these fabrication tools will benefit both research and manufacture of reactors and structured catalysts...
November 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129797/microglia-and-alcohol-meet-at-the-crossroads-microglia-as-critical-modulators-of-alcohol-neurotoxicity
#2
REVIEW
Joana F Henriques, Camila C Portugal, Teresa Canedo, João B Relvas, Teresa Summavielle, Renato Socodato
Alcohol use disorders affect millions of people worldwide causing huge social and economic burden on modern society. Excessive alcohol consumption or intoxication provokes severe damage to the body inducing immune suppression, liver damage and neurological disorder. In the central nervous system (CNS), alcohol exposure can lead to neuronal loss, cognitive decline, motor dysfunction, inflammation and impairment of neuroimmune responses. Glial cells, from which microglia represent roughly 10-15%, are primary modulators of the neuroimmune responses and inflammation in the CNS...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129010/social-simulation-models-at-the-ethical-crossroads
#3
Pawel Sobkowicz
Computational models of group opinion dynamics are one of the most active fields of sociophysics. In recent years, advances in model complexity and, in particular, the possibility to connect these models with detailed data describing individual behaviors, preferences and activities, have opened the way for the simulations to describe quantitatively selected, real world social systems. The simulations could be then used to study 'what-if' scenarios for opinion change campaigns, political, ideological or commercial...
November 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128221/short-communication-genetic-association-of-variations-in-the-osteopontin-gene-spp1-with-lactation-persistency-in-dairy-cattle
#4
Nathalie Bissonnette
Improving lactation persistency (LP) in dairy cattle has a beneficial effect on animal health and fertility and herd productivity. A complex trait, LP not only reflects the cow's ability to maintain milk secretion activity after the lactation peak but is also a function of the postcalving development of the mammary gland and, later on, of tissue remodeling as lactation declines. This decline is a consequence of an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell removal. In a previous study, single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the osteopontin (OPN) gene, SPP1...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125339/patient-safety-at-the-crossroads
#5
John Tingle
John Tingle, Associate Professor (Teaching and Scholarship), Nottingham Trent University, discusses some important clinical negligence and patient safety themes arising from a number of recent reports.
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125070/circulating-mitochondrial-dna-at-the-crossroads-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-inflammation-during-aging-and-muscle-wasting-disorders
#6
Anna Picca, Angela Maria Serena Lezza, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Vito Pesce, Riccardo Calvani, Maurizio Bossola, Ester Manes-Gravina, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
Mitochondrial structural and functional integrity is maintained through the coordination of several processes (e.g., biogenesis, dynamics, mitophagy), collectively referred to as mitochondrial quality control. Dysfunctional mitochondrial quality control and inflammation are hallmarks of aging and are involved in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting disorders, including sarcopenia and cachexia. One of the consequences of failing mitochondrial quality control is the release of mitochondria-derived damage-associated molecular patterns...
November 10, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107746/how-many-deficits-in-the-same-dyslexic-brains-a-behavioural-and-fmri-assessment-of-comorbidity-in-adult-dyslexics
#7
Laura Danelli, Manuela Berlingeri, Gabriella Bottini, Nunzio A Borghese, Mirko Lucchese, Maurizio Sberna, Cathy J Price, Eraldo Paulesu
Dyslexia can have different manifestations: this has motivated different theories on its nature, on its underlying brain bases and enduring controversies on how to best treat it. The relative weight of the different manifestations has never been evaluated using both behavioural and fMRI measures, a challenge taken here to assess the major systems called into play in dyslexia by different theories. We found that adult well-compensated dyslexics were systematically impaired only in reading and in visuo-phonological tasks, while deficits for other systems (e...
September 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106996/chronic-rhinosinusitis-endotypes-biomarkers-and-treatment-response
#8
Jose Gurrola, Larry Borish
It is increasingly recognized that chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) comprises a spectrum of different diseases with distinct clinical presentations and pathogenic mechanisms. Defining the distinct phenotypes and endotypes of CRS impacts prognosis and most importantly is necessary as the basis for making therapeutic decisions. The need for individualized defining of pathogenic mechanisms prior to initiating therapy extends to virtually all therapeutic considerations. This is clearly crucial with antibiotics where, barring an influence from their off-target anti-inflammatory pharmacological effects, an understanding of the role of individual biome predicts likelihood of therapeutic benefit...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102484/repeated-implantation-failure-at-the-crossroad-between-statistics-clinics-and-over-diagnosis
#9
Edgardo Somigliana, Paola Vigano, Andrea Busnelli, Alessio Paffoni, Walter Vegetti, Paolo Vercellini
The most common definition of repeated implantation failure (RIF) is the failure to obtain a clinical pregnancy after three completed IVF cycles. This definition, however, may lead to misuse of the diagnosis. To disentangle this, we set up a mathematical model based on the following main assumptions: rate of success of IVF constant and set at 30%; and RIF postulated to be a dichotomous condition (yes or no) with a prevalence of 10%. On this basis, the expected cumulative chance of pregnancy after three and six cycles was 59% and 79%, respectively...
October 12, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101469/triadic-treatment-decision-making-in-advanced-cancer-a-pilot-study-of-the-roles-and-perceptions-of-patients-caregivers-and-oncologists
#10
Thomas W LeBlanc, Nick Bloom, Steven P Wolf, Sarah G Lowman, Kathryn I Pollak, Karen E Steinhauser, Dan Ariely, James A Tulsky
PURPOSE: The research on cancer treatment decision-making focuses on dyads; the full "triad" of patients, oncologists, and caregivers remains largely unstudied. We investigated how all members of this triad perceive and experience decisions related to treatment for advanced cancer. METHODS: At an academic cancer center, we enrolled adult patients with advanced gastrointestinal or hematological malignancies, their caregivers, and their oncologists. Triad members completed a semi-structured qualitative interview and a survey measuring decisional conflict and perceived influence of the other triad members on treatment decisions...
November 4, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101208/nf-kappab-at-the-crossroads-of-normal-mammary-gland-biology-and-the-pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-brca1-mutated-breast-cancer
#11
M A Christine Pratt, Andrea Sau, Miguel A Cabrita
Recent studies have shown that progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing cells respond to progesterone in part through the induction of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) in which acts in a paracrine manner to induce expansion of a RANK-expressing luminal progenitor cell population. The RANK+ population in human breast tissue from carriers of BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1mut/+) as well as the luminal progenitor population in Brca1-deficient mouse mammary glands is abnormally amplified. Remarkably, mouse Brca1+/- and human BRCA1mut/+ progenitor cells are able to form colonies in vitro in the absence of progesterone demonstrating a hormone-independent proliferative capacity...
November 3, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101184/too-much-traffic-at-the-crossroads-of-diabetes-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#12
Zsolt Bagi
N/A.
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084252/regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-by-the-p105-abin2-tpl2-complex-and-relap43-during-rabies-virus-infection
#13
Benoit Besson, Florian Sonthonnax, Magalie Duchateau, Youcef Ben Khalifa, Florence Larrous, Hyeju Eun, Véronique Hourdel, Mariette Matondo, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Regis Grailhe, Hervé Bourhy
At the crossroad between the NF-κB and the MAPK pathways, the ternary complex composed of p105, ABIN2 and TPL2 is essential for the host cell response to pathogens. The matrix protein (M) of field isolates of rabies virus was previously shown to disturb the signaling induced by RelAp43, a NF-κB protein close to RelA/p65. Here, we investigated how the M protein disturbs the NF-κB pathway in a RelAp43-dependant manner and the potential involvement of the ternary complex in this mechanism. Using a tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry approach, we show that RelAp43 interacts with the p105-ABIN2-TPL2 complex and we observe a strong perturbation of this complex in presence of M protein...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080019/creb-at-the-crossroads-of-activity-dependent-regulation-of-nervous-system-development-and-function
#14
Yesser H Belgacem, Laura N Borodinsky
The central nervous system is a highly plastic network of cells that constantly adjusts its functions to environmental stimuli throughout life. Transcription-dependent mechanisms modify neuronal properties to respond to external stimuli regulating numerous developmental functions, such as cell survival and differentiation, and physiological functions such as learning, memory, and circadian rhythmicity. The discovery and cloning of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein (CREB) constituted a big step toward deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075688/at-the-crossroad-of-photochemistry-and-radiation-chemistry-formation-of-hydroxyl-radicals-in-diluted-aqueous-solutions-exposed-to-ultraviolet-radiation
#15
Kateřina Tomanová, Martin Precek, Viliam Múčka, Luděk Vyšín, Libor Juha, Václav Čuba
Formation yields of ˙OH radicals were precisely determined in aqueous solutions of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid and ferrous sulfate (i.e., Fricke dosimeter) exposed to 253.7 nm radiation delivered from a continuous source. Quantum yield of ˙OH radicals was determined as ∼0.08, i.e., roughly one out of twelve photons, efficiently absorbed in UV-illuminated solutions, produced one ˙OH radical. Energetically, a water molecule should undergo a correlated action of at least two 4.9 eV photons delivering enough energy for direct H-OH dissociation (5...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072233/effects-of-parental-attitudes-on-the-use-of-addictive-substances-in-high-school-students
#16
C Öztekin, T Şengezer, A Özkara
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse is a major public health problem including social and economic aspects. Although multidimensional data about substance abuse are limited in our country, the fact that Turkey is located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia with a young population creating a promising market brings out the necessity of maintaining high awareness on substance abuse. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use are important health problems of adolescence period and families play a major role on adaptation to the changes in growth and development period...
September 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053592/platelets-and-multi-organ-failure-in-sepsis
#17
REVIEW
Elisabetta Greco, Enrico Lupia, Ornella Bosco, Barbara Vizio, Giuseppe Montrucchio
Platelets have received increasing attention for their role in the pathophysiology of infectious disease, inflammation, and immunity. In sepsis, a low platelet count is a well-known biomarker for disease severity and more recently authors have focused their attention on the active role of platelets in the pathogenesis of multi-organ failure. Septic shock is characterised by a dysregulated inflammatory response, which can impair the microcirculation and lead to organ injury. Being at the crossroads between the immune system, clotting cascade, and endothelial cells, platelets seem to be an appealing central mediator and possible therapeutic target in sepsis...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049144/the-etiology-of-neuronal-development-in-craniosynostosis-a-working-hypothesis
#18
Eric D Brooks, Joel S Beckett, Jenny Yang, Andrew T Timberlake, Alexander H Sun, Carolyn Chuang, John A Persing
Craniosynostosis is one of the most common craniofacial conditions treated by neurologic and plastic surgeons. In addition to disfigurement, children with craniosynostosis experience significant cognitive dysfunction later in life. Surgery is performed in infancy to correct skull deformity; however, the field is at a crossroads regarding the best approach for correction. Since the cause of brain dysfunction in these patients has remained uncertain, the role and type of surgery might have in attenuating the later-observed cognitive deficits through impact on the brain has been unclear...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047192/palladium-catalyzed-cross-coupling-of-nitroarenes
#19
Yang Yang
Pd at the crossroads: The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of nitroarenes has eluded chemists for decades. Recently, the first palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura and Buchwald-Hartwig cross-couplings of nitroarenes were reported. Mechanistically, this process involves the challenging oxidative addition of LPd(0) into the Ar-NO2 bond. This process features a broad substrate scope with respect to both the nitroarene and the nucleophilic coupling partners.
October 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043466/innovation-at-the-intersection-of-alcohol-and-hiv-research
#20
EDITORIAL
Alastair van Heerden, Mark Tomlinson, Sarah Skeen, Charles Parry, Kendal Bryant, Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
Working in an interdisciplinary manner at the crossroads of alcohol and HIV research is a challenge. This paper presents six novel approaches that could be applied to activities at the intersection of alcohol and HIV. These approaches are (i) address the fact that the availability of new technology is unevenly distributed around the world, (ii) use technology to move beyond both paper and digital surveys, (iii) introduce a focus on advocacy and partnerships with large technology companies, (iv) harness technological innovation to utilise digital counselling, (v) explore the use of virtual reality in both research and delivering interventions, and (vi) consider alternative funding models to those currently in existence to improve efficiencies and innovations...
November 2017: AIDS and Behavior
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