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At the crossroads

Melanie Li, Swetlana Sirko
Building on the seminal work by Geoffrey Harris in the 1970s, the neuroendocrinology field, having undergone spectacular growth, has endeavored to understand the mechanisms of hormonal connectivity between the brain and the rest of the body. Given the fundamental role of the brain in the orchestration of endocrine processes through interactions among neurohormones, it is thus not surprising that the structural and/or functional alterations following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to endocrine changes affecting the whole organism...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
William Bortcosh, Ashkon Shaahinfar, Sakina Sojar, Jean E Klig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnostic capability, efficiency and versatility of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) have enabled its use in paediatric emergency medicine (PEM) and paediatric critical care (PICU). This review highlights the current applications of POCUS for the critically ill child across PEM and PICU to identify areas of progress and standardized practice and to elucidate areas for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: POCUS technology continues to evolve and advance bedside clinical care for critically ill children, with ongoing research extending its use for an array of clinical scenarios, including respiratory distress, trauma and dehydration...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jukka Hakkola, Camilla Bernasconi, Sandra Coecke, Lysiane Richert, Tommy B Andersson, Olavi Pelkonen
Pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate expression of many xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes including several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Many xenobiotics induce CYP enzymes through these intracellular receptors and consequently affect toxicokinetics and possible metabolic activation of the receptor ligands and other xenobiotics utilizing similar metabolic pathways...
March 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Malou Guérant, Marie-Aude Vaz, Michel Peoc'h, Yvan Gaillard, Baptiste Boyer
Rubber bullets weapons can have tragic consequences when used at short range and on vulnerable body areas. A man in his forties was found deceased at his house, covered in blood. A "non-lethal" firearm was found near the bed: the «SAPL GC27». This is a single shot handgun with mini Gomm Cogne ammunition: 12 rubber spherical pellets, 7.4 mm in diameter. The findings were consistent with an intra buccal shot, and an ingestion-inhalation of blood and projectiles. Cause of the death was linked to both the hemorrhage due to mouth and aero digestive crossroad trauma, responsible of a mechanical asphyxia, and blood absorption in lungs...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Niels Martin, Jose L Pascual, Dennis Crowe, Christine Toevs, Maurizio F Cereda, Mark Mikkelsen, Lewis J Kaplan
The US has witnessed a vast increase in animals in therapeutic roles. These roles include Service as defined by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) as well as other animal types that are not covered under the ADA provisions. Such animal roles are designated as Therapy animals and Emotional Support animals (ESA). Understanding the legal and regulatory requirements that govern how each animal type accesses healthcare facilities is essential in planning for their presence. Since only Service animals are required to be given access to facilities, individual institutions must plan for how to accommodate their presence throughout different phases of care...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Patrick K Malonza, David M Mulwa, Joash O Nyamache, Georgina Jones
The Shimba Hills ecosystem along the south coast of Kenya is a key East African biodiversity hotspot. Historically, it is biogeographically assignable to the East African coastal biome. We examined the current Shimba Hills herpetofauna and their zoogeographical affinities to the coastal forests and nearby Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspots. The key studied sites included the Shimba Hills National Reserve, forest reserves, Kaya forests, and adjacent private land. Data on herpetofaunal richness were obtained from recent field surveys, literature, and specimens held at the National Museums of Kenya, Herpetology Section Collection, Nairobi...
March 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Shashikant L Sholapurkar
The survival of cardiotocography (CTG) as a tool for intrapartum fetal monitoring seems threatened somewhat unjustifiably and unwittingly despite the absence of better alternatives. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are center-stage (most important) in the interpretation of CTG with maximum impact on three-tier classification. The pattern-discrimination of FHR decelerations is inexorably linked to their nomenclature. Unscientific or flawed nomenclature of decelerations can explain the dysfunctional CTG interpretation leading to errors in detection of acidemic fetuses...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
James A Morone, David Blumenthal
There is a formidable historical arc to health care policy: Every modern US president has sought to expand coverage. Democrats eagerly placed the issue on the agenda. Republicans vociferously opposed Democratic proposals but countered with creative ways to expand coverage on their own terms. Democrats eventually absorbed elements of the latest Republican plan-which Republicans, in turn, attacked, and the cycle began anew. The dynamic interaction between the parties slowly, often haphazardly, expanded health insurance as each sought to extend coverage in its own way...
March 2018: Health Affairs
Joan M V Pons, Paula Adam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Joseph A Bellanti, Russell A Settipane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Callista Roy
BACKGROUND: Today, we face a situation some call the "profession at the crossroads." The problem is the development of the profession being threatened by an imbalance among philosophical, conceptual/theoretical, and empirical inquiry. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this project are to (a) examine the development and contributions of theory, (b) outline the challenges we face in knowledge development, and (c) provide a structure for disciplinary knowledge that provides a unifying focus and renovates theories' place in nursing science that can direct the future of developing knowledge for practice...
March 2018: Nursing Research
Y T Luo, J Cheng, X Feng, S J He, Y W Wang, Q Huang
With cancer stem cells (CSCs) became the research hotspot, emerging studies attempt to reveal the functions of these special subsets in tumorigenesis. Although various approaches have been used in CSCs researches, only a few could really reflect or simulate the microenvironment in vivo. At present, CSCs theories are still difficult to apply for clinical remedy because CSCs subpopulations are always hard to identify and trace. Thus an ideal approach for clinicians and researchers is urgently needed. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), as the method of noninvasive-liquid biopsy, could be detected in the peripheral blood (PB) from many tumors and even could be treated as procurators for CSCs deeper researches from patient-derived sample...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Yohann Boutté
Lipids are essential components of biological membranes that present a wide diversity in eukaryotic cells. Recent impressive advances in lipid biochemistry and biophysics have enabled a refocus of our view of lipids as functional units for cellular activity. However, the gap between molecular and cellular processes remains to be bridged. Here, 2 papers meet the burden of proof that choline transporters participate in local lipid composition modifications at the trans-Golgi network, an intracellular compartment that serves as the main sorting station in the cell...
February 26, 2018: PLoS Biology
Padmanaban S Suresh, Rie Tsutsumi, Thejaswini Venkatesh
YBX1 (Y box binding protein 1) is an RNA-/DNA-binding multifunctional protein harboring the classical cold shock protein (CSD) domain, an A/P domain, and a long C-terminal domain with alternating positively and negatively charged amino acids. It is a well-established oncogenic transcriptional factor, and regulates apoptosis, translation, cell proliferation, mRNA splicing, repair, differentiation, and stress response. The non-coding transcriptome has added yet another layer of complexity to the YBX1-mediated master regulation of cellular functions...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Syed Ishtiaq Anjum, Abdul Haleem Shah, Muhammad Aurongzeb, Junaid Kori, M Kamran Azim, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Li Bin
Gut microbiota has been recognized to play a beneficial role in honey bees ( Apis mellifera ). Present study was designed to characterize the gut bacterial flora of honey bees in north-west Pakistan. Total 150 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from guts of 45 worker bees were characterized using biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis. The gut isolates were classified into three bacterial phyla of Firmicutes (60%), Proteobacteria (26%) and Actinobacteria (14%)...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Rebecca Ashkenazy, Mary Elizabeth Peterson
There are powerful demographic, political, and environmental trends shaping women's health. Increases in life expectancy, literacy, and empowerment are fueling expansions in education and advocacy. Research and development focuses on women's health and fertility across an expanded age spectrum. There is also a cultural emphasis on antiaging and aesthetics. In parallel, the digital revolution is changing how health care is accessed by and delivered to women. A women's journey through menopause is at the crossroads of these transformations...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Women's Health
Ana Rita Lima, Liliana Santos, Marcelo Correia, Paula Soares, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Miguel Melo, Valdemar Máximo
Mitochondrial dynamics are known to have an important role in so-called age-related diseases, including cancer. Mitochondria is an organelle involved in many key cellular functions and responds to physiologic or stress stimuli by adapting its structure and function. Perhaps the most important structural changes involve mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion), which occur in normal cells as well as in cells under dysregulation, such as cancer cells. Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a member of the dynamin family of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), is the key component of mitochondrial fission machinery...
February 21, 2018: Genes
Alexander N Tikhonov
This chapter presents an overview of structural properties of the cytochrome (Cyt) b6 f complex and its functioning in chloroplasts. The Cyt b6 f complex stands at the crossroad of photosynthetic electron transport pathways, providing connectivity between Photosystem (PSI) and Photosysten II (PSII) and pumping protons across the membrane into the thylakoid lumen. After a brief review of the chloroplast electron transport chain, the consideration is focused on the structural organization of the Cyt b6 f complex and its interaction with plastoquinol (PQH2 , reduced form of plastoquinone), a mediator of electron transfer from PSII to the Cyt b6 f complex...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Marco De Vitis, Francesco Berardinelli, Antonella Sgura
Eukaryotic cells undergo continuous telomere shortening as a consequence of multiple rounds of replications. During tumorigenesis, cells have to acquire telomere DNA maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) in order to counteract telomere shortening, to preserve telomeres from DNA damage repair systems and to avoid telomere-mediated senescence and/or apoptosis. For this reason, telomere maintenance is an essential step in cancer progression. Most human tumors maintain their telomeres expressing telomerase, whereas a lower but significant proportion activates the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway...
February 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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