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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341773/collective-optomechanical-effects-in-cavity-quantum-electrodynamics
#1
Erika Cortese, Pavlos G Lagoudakis, Simone De Liberato
We investigate a cavity quantum electrodynamic effect, where the alignment of two-dimensional freely rotating optical dipoles is driven by their collective coupling to the cavity field. By exploiting the formal equivalence of a set of rotating dipoles with a polymer we calculate the partition function of the coupled light-matter system and demonstrate that it exhibits a second order phase transition between a bunched state of isotropic orientations and a stretched one with all the dipoles aligned. Such a transition manifests itself as an intensity-dependent shift of the polariton mode resonance...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335369/the-rate-of-telomere-loss-is-related-to-maximum-lifespan-in-birds
#2
Gianna M Tricola, Mirre J P Simons, Els Atema, Raoul K Boughton, J L Brown, Donald C Dearborn, G Divoky, John A Eimes, Charles E Huntington, Alexander S Kitaysky, Frans A Juola, David B Lank, Hannah P Litwa, Ellis G A Mulder, Ian C T Nisbet, Kazuo Okanoya, Rebecca J Safran, Stephan J Schoech, Elizabeth A Schreiber, Paul M Thompson, Simon Verhulst, Nathaniel T Wheelwright, David W Winkler, Rebecca Young, Carol M Vleck, Mark F Haussmann
Telomeres are highly conserved regions of DNA that protect the ends of linear chromosomes. The loss of telomeres can signal an irreversible change to a cell's state, including cellular senescence. Senescent cells no longer divide and can damage nearby healthy cells, thus potentially placing them at the crossroads of cancer and ageing. While the epidemiology, cellular and molecular biology of telomeres are well studied, a newer field exploring telomere biology in the context of ecology and evolution is just emerging...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335364/experimental-manipulation-of-telomere-length-does-it-reveal-a-corner-stone-role-for-telomerase-in-the-natural-variability-of-individual-fitness
#3
REVIEW
F Criscuolo, S Smith, S Zahn, B J Heidinger, M F Haussmann
Telomeres, the non-coding ends of linear chromosomes, are thought to be an important mechanism of individual variability in performance. Research suggests that longer telomeres are indicative of better health and increased fitness; however, many of these data are correlational and whether these effects are causal are poorly understood. Experimental tests are emerging in medical and laboratory-based studies, but these types of experiments are rare in natural populations, which precludes conclusions at an evolutionary level...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329113/therapeutic-hiv-1-vaccine-time-for-immunomodulation-and-combinatorial-strategies
#4
Nabila Seddiki, Yves Lévy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to recall some of the key immunological elements that are at the crossroad and need to be combined for developing a potent therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccines and cytokines have been commonly used to enhance and/or recall preexisting HIV-1 specific cell-mediated immune responses aiming to suppress virus replication. While the vaccine is important to stimulate HIV-1 specific T-cell responses, the cytokine may support the expansion of the stimulated virus-specific T cells...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326832/at-the-atrioventricular-crossroads-dual-pathway-electrophysiology-in-the-atrioventricular-node-and-its-underlying-heterogeneities
#5
Sharon A George, N Rokhaya Faye, Alejandro Murillo-Berlioz, K Benjamin Lee, Gregory D Trachiotis, Igor R Efimov
The atrioventricular node (AVN) is a complex structure that performs a variety of functions in the heart. The AVN is primarily an electrical gatekeeper between the atria and ventricles and introduces a delay between atrial and ventricular excitation, allowing for efficient ventricular filling. The AVN is composed of several compartments that safely transmit electrical excitation from the atria to the ventricles via the fast or slow pathways. There are many electrophysiological differences between these pathways, including conduction time and electrical refractoriness, that increase the predisposition of the atrioventricular junction to arrhythmias such as atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia...
December 2017: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311159/pd2-paf1-at-the-crossroads-of-the-cancer-network
#6
REVIEW
Saswati Karmakar, Parama Dey, Arokia P Vaz, Sukesh R Bhaumik, Moorthy P Ponnusamy, Surinder K Batra
Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2)/RNA polymerase II-associated factor 1 (PAF1) is the core subunit of the human PAF1 complex (PAF1C) that regulates the promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II as well as transcription elongation and mRNA processing and coordinates events in mRNA stability and quality control. As an integral part of its transcription-regulatory function, PD2/PAF1 plays a role in posttranslational histone covalent modifications as well as regulates expression of critical genes of the cell-cycle machinery...
January 8, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305692/cd99-at-the-crossroads-of-physiology-and-pathology
#7
REVIEW
Michela Pasello, Maria Cristina Manara, Katia Scotlandi
CD99 is a cell surface protein with unique features and only partly defined mechanisms of action. This molecule is involved in crucial biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, death, differentiation and diapedesis, and it influences processes associated with inflammation, immune responses and cancer. CD99 is frequently overexpressed in many types of tumors, particularly pediatric tumors including Ewing sarcoma and specific subtypes of leukemia. Engagement of CD99 induces the death of malignant cells through non-conventional mechanisms...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304996/-what-did-maxwell-s-equations-really-have-to-do-with-edison-s-invention-addressing-the-complexity-of-developing-clinical-interventions-for-skeletal-muscle-disease
#8
Jonathan Dando
To reach the healthcare market and have a medical intervention reimbursed in any format carries high risk and very low success rates. Even when all regulatory hurdles have been surpassed, there is no guarantee that the product will be purchased; a different body makes that decision using criteria typically unknown to early-stage innovators and intervention developers. In the context of skeletal muscle diseases, the field is at a crossroads; accurate diagnoses are difficult to obtain, patient management and monitoring are equally difficult, cures are evasive, and disease progression is not well enough understood in the human to identify clear targets (irrespective of whether the specific muscle disease is rare or frequent because the progression is slow and the tissue large)...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295498/bmp-signalling-at-the-crossroad-of-liver-fibrosis-and-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Blanca Herrera, Annalisa Addante, Aránzazu Sánchez
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) belong to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) family. Initially identified due to their ability to induce bone formation, they are now known to have multiple functions in a variety of tissues, being critical not only during development for tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis but also during adult tissue homeostasis. This review focus on the liver as a target tissue for BMPs actions, devoting most efforts to summarize our knowledge on their recently recognized and/or emerging roles on regulation of the liver regenerative response to various insults, either acute or chronic and their effects on development and progression of liver fibrosis in different pathological conditions...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291239/seizure-forecasting-from-idea-to-reality-outcomes-of-the-my-seizure-gauge-epilepsy-innovation-institute-workshop
#10
Sonya B Dumanis, Jaqueline A French, Christophe Bernard, Gregory A Worrell, Brandy E Fureman
The Epilepsy Innovation Institute (Ei2) is a new research program of the Epilepsy Foundation designed to be an innovation incubator for epilepsy. Ei2 research areas are selected based on community surveys that ask people impacted by epilepsy what they would like researchers to focus on. In their 2016 survey, unpredictability was selected as a top issue regardless of seizure frequency or severity. In response to this need, Ei2 launched the My Seizure Gauge challenge, with the end goal of creating a personalized seizure advisory system device...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288287/a-contemporary-paradigm-integrating-spirituality-in-advance-care-planning
#11
Katie Lutz, Stefan R Rowniak, Prabjot Sandhu
In the 25 years since advance care planning first drew the attention of the national healthcare and legal systems, gains in the rate of advance care directive completion have been negligible despite the effort of researchers, ethicists, and lawmakers. With the benefit of sophisticated healthcare technology, patients are living longer. Despite the benefits of increased longevity, it is widely acknowledged that enough has not been done to adequately address end-of-life care decisions at the crossroads between medical futility and quality of life...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282224/loss-of-rasgrp1-in-humans-impairs-t-cell-expansion-leading-to-epstein-barr-virus-susceptibility
#12
Sarah Winter, Emmanuel Martin, David Boutboul, Christelle Lenoir, Sabah Boudjemaa, Arnaud Petit, Capucine Picard, Alain Fischer, Guy Leverger, Sylvain Latour
Inherited CTPS1, CD27, and CD70 deficiencies in humans have revealed key factors of T-lymphocyte expansion, a critical prerequisite for an efficient immunity to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. RASGRP1 is a T-lymphocyte-specific nucleotide exchange factor known to activate the pathway of MAP kinases (MAPK). A deleterious homozygous mutation in RASGRP1 leading to the loss RASGRP1 expression was identified in two siblings who both developed a persistent EBV infection leading to Hodgkin lymphoma. RASGRP1-deficient T cells exhibited defective MAPK activation and impaired proliferation that was restored by expression of wild-type RASGRP1...
December 27, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278673/immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma-on-the-sidelines-or-in-the-game
#13
David A Reardon, Kai Wucherpfennig, E Antonio Chiocca
The successful eradication of multiple tumor types, often in a durable manner, has recently validated the bona fide potential of an effectively mobilized immune response as a cancer therapy. Critical questions at present, therefore, include deciphering why some patients respond while others do not, as well as why certain cancers respond while others like glioblastoma do not. Glioblastoma remains a major unmet need in medical oncology and is considered incurable with less than 10% of patients surviving five years from diagnosis...
November 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275999/mk2-tnf-signaling-comes-full-circle
#14
REVIEW
Manoj B Menon, Matthias Gaestel
MK2 (p38MAPK-activated protein kinase 2) is essential for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biosynthesis, mainly operating by post-transcriptional regulation. Deletion of the gene encoding MK2 strongly reduced serum TNF and protected against endotoxic shock, demonstrating the positive role of p38MAPK/MK2 in TNF signaling at the level of ligand expression. Recent evidence indicates that MK2 directly phosphorylates the TNF receptor interactor RIPK1 and suppresses its activity, thereby limiting TNF-mediated apoptosis and necroptosis - pointing to a more complex, double-edged role of MK2 in TNF signaling...
December 21, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261726/statin-use-is-associated-with-improved-survival-in-ovarian-cancer-a-retrospective-population-based-study
#15
Alexandra Couttenier, Olivia Lacroix, Evelien Vaes, Chris R Cardwell, Harlinde De Schutter, Annie Robert
BACKGROUND: Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that statins could exhibit anticancer properties in ovarian cancer. Similar effects have also been reported in observational studies but their results remain inconsistent and could be impaired by methodological limitations. This study aimed to investigate whether statin use is associated with improved survival in ovarian cancer patients at the Belgian population-level. METHODS: All patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 were identified from the Belgian Cancer Registry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241877/adult-onset-still-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Javier Narváez
Adult onset Still's disease is a rare systemic condition at the crossroads between auto-inflammatory syndromes and autoimmune diseases, with considerable heterogeneity in terms of clinical presentation, evolution and severity. This article reviews the main advances and lesser known aspects of this entity related to its clinical spectrum (atypical cutaneous lesions, unusual manifestations, macrophage activation syndrome, disease phenotypes), the emerging controversy around its association with delayed malignancy, the search for new biomarkers for its diagnosis, evaluation of prognosis (clinical factors, prognostic indexes and biomarkers to identify patients at risk of severe organ failure or life-threatening complications), and the determinants in the choice of biological treatment...
December 11, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240722/g-protein-coupled-receptors-at-the-crossroad-between-physiologic-and-pathologic-angiogenesis-old-paradigms-and-emerging-concepts
#17
REVIEW
Ernestina M De Francesco, Federica Sotgia, Robert B Clarke, Michael P Lisanti, Marcello Maggiolini
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in transmitting signals across the extra- and intra-cellular compartments, thus allowing environmental stimuli to elicit critical biological responses. As GPCRs can be activated by an extensive range of factors including hormones, neurotransmitters, phospholipids and other stimuli, their involvement in a plethora of physiological functions is not surprising. Aberrant GPCR signaling has been regarded as a major contributor to diverse pathologic conditions, such as inflammatory, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237060/news-from-the-pub-plant-u-box-type-e3-ubiquitin-ligases
#18
Marco Trujillo
Plant U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligases (PUBs) are well known for their functions in a variety of stress responses, including immune responses and the adaptation to abiotic stresses. First linked to pollen self-incompatibility, their repertoire of roles has grown to encompass also the regulation of developmental processes. Notably, new studies provide clues to their mode of action, underline the existence of conserved PUB-kinase modules, and suggest new links to G-protein signalling, placing PUBs at the crossroads of major signalling hubs...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230082/recent-advances-in-adam17-research-a-promising-target-for-cancer-and-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Marcia L Moss, Dmitry Minond
Since its discovery, ADAM17, also known as TNFα converting enzyme or TACE, is now known to process over 80 different substrates. Many of these substrates are mediators of cancer and inflammation. The field of ADAM metalloproteinases is at a crossroad with many of the new potential therapeutic agents for ADAM17 advancing into the clinic. Researchers have now developed potential drugs for ADAM17 that are selective and do not have the side effects which were seen in earlier chemical entities that targeted this enzyme...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226112/formation-of-the-legionella-replicative-compartment-at-the-crossroads-of-retrograde-trafficking
#20
REVIEW
Kevin Bärlocher, Amanda Welin, Hubert Hilbi
Retrograde trafficking from the endosomal system through the Golgi apparatus back to the endoplasmic reticulum is an essential pathway in eukaryotic cells, serving to maintain organelle identity and to recycle empty cargo receptors delivered by the secretory pathway. Intracellular replication of several bacterial pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, is restricted by the retrograde trafficking pathway. L. pneumophila employs the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS) to form the replication-permissive Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV), which is decorated with multiple components of the retrograde trafficking machinery as well as retrograde cargo receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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