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At the crossroads

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219473/needham-at-the-crossroads-history-politics-and-international-science-in-wartime-china-1942-1946
#1
Thomas Mougey
In 1946, the British biochemist Joseph Needham returned from a four-year stay in China. Needham scholars have considered this visit as a revelatory period that paved the way for his famous book series Science and Civilization in China (SCC). Surprisingly, however, Needham's actual time in China has remained largely unstudied over the last seventy years. As director of the Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, Needham travelled throughout Free China to promote cooperation between British and Chinese scientists to contain the Japanese invasion during the Second World War...
February 21, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214467/paxillin-a-crossroad-in-pathological-cell-migration
#2
REVIEW
Ana María López-Colomé, Irene Lee-Rivera, Regina Benavides-Hidalgo, Edith López
Paxilllin is a multifunctional and multidomain focal adhesion adapter protein which serves an important scaffolding role at focal adhesions by recruiting structural and signaling molecules involved in cell movement and migration, when phosphorylated on specific Tyr and Ser residues. Upon integrin engagement with extracellular matrix, paxillin is phosphorylated at Tyr31, Tyr118, Ser188, and Ser190, activating numerous signaling cascades which promote cell migration, indicating that the regulation of adhesion dynamics is under the control of a complex display of signaling mechanisms...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213089/monoglyceride-lipase-as-a-drug-target-at-the-crossroads-of-arachidonic-acid-metabolism-and-endocannabinoid-signaling
#3
REVIEW
Gernot F Grabner, Robert Zimmermann, Rudolf Schicho, Ulrike Taschler
Monoglyerides (MGs) are short-lived, intermediary lipids deriving from the degradation of phospho- and neutral lipids, and monoglyceride lipase (MGL), also designated as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), is the major enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of MGs into glycerol and fatty acids. This distinct function enables MGL to regulate a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes since both MGs and fatty acids can act as signaling lipids or precursors thereof. The most prominent MG species acting as signaling lipid is 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) which is the most abundant endogenous agonist of cannabinoid receptors in the body...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208577/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-of-ppar%C3%AE-a-protein-at-the-crossroads-of-physiological-and-pathological-processes
#4
Maria Petrosino, Laura Lori, Alessandra Pasquo, Clorinda Lori, Valerio Consalvi, Velia Minicozzi, Silvia Morante, Antonio Laghezza, Alessandra Giorgi, Davide Capelli, Roberta Chiaraluce
Genome polymorphisms are responsible for phenotypic differences between humans and for individual susceptibility to genetic diseases and therapeutic responses. Non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) lead to protein variants with a change in the amino acid sequence that may affect the structure and/or function of the protein and may be utilized as efficient structural and functional markers of association to complex diseases. This study is focused on nsSNP variants of the ligand binding domain of PPARγ a nuclear receptor in the superfamily of ligand inducible transcription factors that play an important role in regulating lipid metabolism and in several processes ranging from cellular differentiation and development to carcinogenesis...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203146/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-at-the-crossroads-of-brain-development-and-aging
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Wrigley, Donia Arafa, Daniela Tropea
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a polypeptide hormone structurally similar to insulin. It is central to the somatotropic axis, acting downstream of growth hormone (GH). It activates both the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and PI3K signaling pathways, acting in almost every tissue in the body to promote tissue growth and maturation through upregulation of anabolic processes. Overall GH and IGF1 signaling falls with age, suggesting that it is this reduced IGF1 activity that leads to age-related changes in organisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202332/cdc20-at-the-crossroads-between-chromosome-segregation-and-mitotic-exit
#6
REVIEW
Maria Kapanidou, Natalie L Curtis, Victor M Bolanos-Garcia
Cell-division cycle protein 20 homologue (Cdc20) has important functions in chromosome segregation and mitotic exit. Cdc20 is the target of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and a key cofactor of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ligase, thus regulating APC/C ubiquitin activity on specific substrates for their subsequent degradation by the proteasome. Here we discuss the roles of Cdc20 in SAC signalling and mitotic exit, describe how the integration of traditional approaches with emerging technologies has revealed new details of Cdc20 functions, comment about the potential of Cdc20 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human malignancies, and discuss recent advances and controversies in the mechanistic understanding of the control of chromosome segregation during cell division...
February 12, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191486/rigulation-of-sting-expression-at-the-crossroads-of-viral-rna-and-dna-sensing-pathways
#7
Yiliu Liu, Rongtuan Lin, David Olagnier
The innate immune sensing of pathogens is important for host to mount defensive responses. STING has emerged in recent years as a critical signaling adaptor in the immune response to cytosolic DNA and RNA derived from pathogens. Liu et al. (2016) demonstrate that the RIG-I-dependent RNA sensing signaling induces STING expression via a TNF-α and IFN-α synergy. The up-regulation of STING is vital for 5'pppRNA restriction of HSV, a DNA virus that infects humans and causes herpes, in vitro and in vivo. This study provides new insights into the cross talk between DNA and RNA pathogen-sensing systems via the control of STING...
January 1, 2017: Inflammation and Cell Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185716/mitochondrial-complex-ii-at-the-crossroads
#8
REVIEW
Ayenachew Bezawork-Geleta, Jakub Rohlena, Lanfeng Dong, Karel Pacak, Jiri Neuzil
Mitochondrial complex II (CII), also called succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), is a central purveyor of the reprogramming of metabolic and respiratory adaptation in response to various intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli and abnormalities. In this review we discuss recent findings regarding SDH biogenesis, which requires four known assembly factors, and modulation of its enzymatic activity by acetylation, succinylation, phosphorylation, and proteolysis. We further focus on the emerging role of both genetic and epigenetic aberrations leading to SDH dysfunction associated with various clinical manifestations...
February 6, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183437/cardiac-3d-printing-and-its-future-directions
#9
REVIEW
Marija Vukicevic, Bobak Mosadegh, James K Min, Stephen H Little
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is at the crossroads of printer and materials engineering, noninvasive diagnostic imaging, computer-aided design, and structural heart intervention. Cardiovascular applications of this technology development include the use of patient-specific 3D models for medical teaching, exploration of valve and vessel function, surgical and catheter-based procedural planning, and early work in designing and refining the latest innovations in percutaneous structural devices. In this review, we discuss the methods and materials being used for 3D printing today...
February 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181143/the-complex-interplay-among-hepatocytes-and-immune-cells-at-the-crossroad-between-inflammation-and-cholesterol-metabolism-in-hyperglycemia
#10
Maurizio Bifulco, Simona Pisanti, Elena Ciaglia
An intriguing piece of evidence for the inflammatory story of type 2 diabetes has come to the light. A recent study by Okin and colleagues adds new clues to the interplay between cholesterol metabolism and immunity and how it impacts glucose homeostasis in inflammatory conditions. But some questions are a still unsolved conundrum. Here we suggest to better dissect the regulatory mechanism of Mevalonate pathway and to underpin a new causative link between immunometabolic dysregulation and diabetes.
February 8, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180059/jnk-at-the-crossroad-of-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-cell-stress-response
#11
REVIEW
Giovanni Solinas, Barbara Becattini
BACKGROUND: The cJun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK) plays a central role in the cell stress response, with outcomes ranging from cell death to cell proliferation and survival, depending on the specific context. JNK is also one of the most investigated signal transducers in obesity and insulin resistance, and studies have identified new molecular mechanisms linking obesity and insulin resistance. Emerging evidence indicates that whereas JNK1 and JNK2 isoforms promote the development of obesity and insulin resistance, JNK3 activity protects from excessive adiposity...
February 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179906/canonical-and-non-canonical-activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-at-the-crossroad-between-immune-tolerance-and-intestinal-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Carolina Pellegrini, Luca Antonioli, Gloria Lopez-Castejon, Corrado Blandizzi, Matteo Fornai
Several lines of evidence point out the relevance of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome as a pivotal player in regulating the integrity of intestinal homeostasis and shaping innate immune responses during bowel inflammation. Intensive research efforts are being made to achieve an integrated view about the protective/detrimental role of canonical and non-canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the maintenance of intestinal microenvironment integrity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169070/the-ophthalmologist-at-the-crossroads-the-new-technologies-and-the-frontier-of-knowledge
#13
J A Fernández-Vigo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166889/concurrent-audio-visual-feedback-for-supporting-drivers-at-intersections-a-study-using-two-linked-driving-simulators
#14
M Houtenbos, J C F de Winter, A R Hale, P A Wieringa, M P Hagenzieker
A large portion of road traffic crashes occur at intersections for the reason that drivers lack necessary visual information. This research examined the effects of an audio-visual display that provides real-time sonification and visualization of the speed and direction of another car approaching the crossroads on an intersecting road. The location of red blinking lights (left vs. right on the speedometer) and the lateral input direction of beeps (left vs. right ear in headphones) corresponded to the direction from where the other car approached, and the blink and beep rates were a function of the approaching car's speed...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158573/shared-decision-making-using-personal-health-record-technology-a-scoping-review-at-the-crossroads
#15
Selena Davis, Abdul Roudsari, Rebecca Raworth, Karen L Courtney, Lee MacKay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148921/subdivisions-of-haplogroups-u-and-c-encompass-mitochondrial-dna-lineages-of-eneolithic-early-bronze-age-kurgan-populations-of-western-north-pontic-steppe
#16
Alexey G Nikitin, Svetlana Ivanova, Dmytro Kiosak, Jessica Badgerow, Jeff Pashnick
Prehistoric Europe experienced a marked cultural and economic shift around 4000 years ago, when the established Neolithic agriculture-based economy was replaced by herding-pastoralist industry. In recent years new data about the genetic structure of human communities living during this transition period began to emerge. At the same time, the genetic identities of the Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age (EBA) inhabitants from a prehistoric cultural crossroad in western North Pontic steppe region remain understudied...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145005/is-acsl6-at-the-crossroads-of-skeletal-muscle-lipid-synthesis
#17
David L Williamson, Todd C Rideout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130274/commensal-bacteria-at-the-crossroad-between-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-chronic-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis
#18
Kazuyuki Kasahara, Takeshi Tanoue, Tomoya Yamashita, Keiko Yodoi, Takuya Matsumoto, Takuo Emoto, Taiji Mizoguchi, Tomohiro Hayashi, Naoki Kitano, Naoto Sasaki, Koji Atarashi, Kenya Honda, Ken-Ichi Hirata
The gut microbiota were shown to play critical roles in the development of atherosclerosis, but the detailed mechanism is limited. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of gut microbiota on atherogenesis via lipid metabolism and systemic inflammation. Germ-free (GF) or conventionally raised (Conv) Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed chow diet and sacrificed at twenty weeks of age. We found lack of gut microbiota in ApoE(-/-) mice caused a significant increase in the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels compared to ConvR ApoE(-/-) mice...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126991/one-clinician-s-journey-a-retreat-from-the-front-line
#19
B Murchie
Whether the clinician has recently qualified or graduation day is a distant memory, it is important for him/her to be aware of the alternative options available outside of the general practice setting as these are not always fully explained. It is essential that one enjoys their career choice when even a brief consideration is given to the length of time that one will spend at work and thinking about work, including the additional hours spent in the workplace for countless other reasons. The author worked as a general dental practitioner for several years at different practices...
January 27, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122286/does-the-forensic-physician-have-a-role-beyond-injury-documentation-and-specimen-collection-in-australia-a-personal-view
#20
John A M Gall
Clinical forensic medicine (CFM), as a single discipline, encompasses a number of areas of medico-legal practice including injury interpretation, management of sexual and physical assault cases (both adult and child; alleged victim and offender), mental health issues, traffic medicine, custodial medicine and toxicology. The cases are usually alive but in some jurisdictions the forensic practitioner also engages in death investigation with some undertaking autopsies. During the last 20-30 years, the discipline has fragmented with areas being hived off to other medical specialist disciplines and, importantly, to nurses...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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