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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346585/maternal-vaccination-with-a-mono-component-pertussis-toxoid-vaccine-is-sufficient-to-protect-infants-in-a-baboon-model-of-whooping-cough
#1
Parul Kapil, James F Papin, Roman F Wolf, Lindsey I Zimmerman, Leslie D Wagner, Tod J Merkel
Background: Bordetella pertussis is a human pathogen responsible for serious respiratory illness. The disease is most severe in infants too young to be vaccinated with most hospitalizations and deaths occurring within this age group. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization of pregnant women to protect infants from birth until their first vaccination at six to eight weeks of age. We previously demonstrated that maternal vaccination with licensed acellular pertussis vaccines protected newborn baboons from disease...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343580/advancing-our-understanding-of-protective-maternal-immunity-as-a-guide-for-development-of-vaccines-to-reduce-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infections
#2
Sallie R Permar, Mark R Schleiss, Stanley A Plotkin
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogen worldwide, impacting an estimated 1 million newborns annually. Congenital HCMV (cCMV) infection is a major global contributor to long-term neurologic deficits, including deafness, microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as fetal loss and occasional infant mortality. Accordingly, a maternal vaccine to prevent cCMV continues to be a top public health priority. Nevertheless, we remain without a licensed vaccine. Maternal immunity provides partial protection, as the risk of vertical HCMV transmission from chronically infected mothers is reduced compared to settings in which the mother is newly infected during pregnancy...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334920/factors-influencing-access-of-pregnant-women-and-their-infants-to-their-local-healthcare-system-a-prospective-multi-centre-observational-study
#3
Shabir A Madhi, Luis M Rivera, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Clara Menéndez, Nazira Carrim-Ganey, Mark F Cotton, Darren Katzman, Mariëtha M Luttig, Rosalba Candelario, Sherryl Baker, Mahua Roychoudhury
BACKGROUND: The successful implementation of maternal vaccination relies on results of clinical trials, considering the prenatal and postnatal attendance at selected healthcare institutions. This study evaluated factors influencing maternal/infant access to healthcare facilities to identify potential barriers to participation in future clinical trials on maternal vaccination. METHODS: In this prospective, multi-centre, observational study, pregnant women (N = 3243) were enrolled at ten sites across Panama, the Dominican Republic, South Africa, and Mozambique between 2012 and 2014...
January 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324612/third-trimester-maternal-vaccination-against-pertussis-and-pertussis-antibody-concentrations
#4
Cynthia Abraham, Michael Pichichero, Jesse Eisenberg, Sonali Singh
OBJECTIVE: To compare pertussis antibody concentrations in maternal venous serum (at the time of delivery) and umbilical cord arterial serum among women vaccinated with the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine from either 27-30 6/7 weeks of gestation or from 31-35 6/7 weeks of gestation. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of pregnant women divided into two groups based on when Tdap was administered: 27-30 6/7 weeks of gestation and 31-35 6/7 weeks of gestation...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322575/vaccine-preventable-child-deaths-in-new-south-wales-from-2005-to-2014-how-much-is-preventable
#5
Anastasia Phillips, Frank Beard, Kristine Macartney, Jocelyn Chan, Robin Gilmour, Gemma Saravanos, Peter McIntyre
AIM: To identify and describe potentially vaccine-preventable child deaths in New South Wales (NSW). METHODS: Child deaths in NSW from 2005 to 2014 potentially preventable by vaccination were identified from the NSW Child Death Register (maintained by the NSW Ombudsman) and the Notifiable Conditions Information Management System (NSW Health). Medical and post-mortem records were reviewed. Cases were classified as vaccine-preventable based on the strength of evidence for the relevant infection causing death and likelihood that death was preventable through vaccination...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313458/clinician-perspectives-on-strategies-to-improve-patient-maternal-immunization-acceptability-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology-practice-settings
#6
Paula M Frew, Laura A Randall, Fauzia Malik, Rupali Lamaye, Andrew Wilson, Sean T O'Leary, Daniel Salmon, Meghan Donnelly, Kevin Ault, Matthew Z Dudley, Vincent L Fenimore, Saad B Omer
Pregnancy is an ideal time to communicate with women about vaccines for themselves and their infants, yet maternal immunization rates remain suboptimal. This study aimed to identify clinic, provider, and staff-related attributes and facilitators to be utilized for a comprehensive vaccine intervention in ob-gyn clinical settings. We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 providers, both healthcare providers (e.g., physicians, nurse practitioners, midwives) and practice managers, from urban and suburban ob-gyn practices in Georgia and Colorado about their immunization attitudes, practices, and patient experiences...
January 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313417/beyond-the-verbal-pregnant-women-s-preferences-for-receiving-influenza-and-tdap-vaccine-information-from-their-obstetric-care-providers
#7
Mallory Ellingson, Allison T Chamberlain
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal providers are pregnant women's most trusted sources of health information, and a provider's recommendation is a strong predictor of maternal vaccine receipt. However, other ways women prefer receiving vaccine-related information from prenatal providers, aside from face-to-face conversations, is unclear. This study explores what secondary communication methods are preferred for receiving maternal vaccine-related information. STUDY DESIGN: Obstetric patients at four prenatal clinics around Atlanta, Georgia received a 27-item survey between May 5th, 2016 and June 15th, 2016...
January 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283997/maternal-influenza-vaccine-strategies-in-kenya-which-approach-would-have-the-greatest-impact-on-disease-burden-in-pregnant-women-and-young-infants
#8
Meredith L McMorrow, Gideon O Emukule, David Obor, Bryan Nyawanda, Nancy A Otieno, Caroline Makokha, Joshua A Mott, Joseph S Bresee, Carrie Reed
BACKGROUND: Recent influenza surveillance data from Africa suggest an important burden of influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. In tropical countries where influenza virus transmission may not be confined to a single season alternative strategies for vaccine distribution via antenatal care (ANC) or semiannual campaigns should be considered. METHODS: Using data on monthly influenza disease burden in women of child-bearing age and infants aged 0-5 months in Kenya from 2010-2014, we estimated the number of outcomes (illnesses, medical visits, hospitalizations, and deaths) that occurred and that may have been averted through influenza vaccination of pregnant women using: 1) a year-round immunization strategy through ANC, 2) annual vaccination campaigns, and 3) semiannual vaccination campaigns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211052/maternal-vaccination-immunization-of-sows-during-pregnancy-against-etec-infections
#9
REVIEW
Jose Matías, Melibea Berzosa, Yadira Pastor, Juan M Irache, Carlos Gamazo
The immunology of pregnancy is an evolving consequence of multiple reciprocal interactions between the maternal and the fetal-placental systems. The immune response must warrant the pregnancy outcome (including tolerance to paternal antigens), but at the same time, efficiently respond to pathogenic challenges. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. This review aims to give an overview of the current rationale on the maternal vaccination strategies for the protection of the newborn pig against ETEC...
December 6, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208060/pertussis-epidemiology-prior-to-the-introduction-of-a-maternal-vaccination-program-queensland-australia
#10
L McHugh, K A Viney, R M Andrews, S B Lambert
Pertussis morbidity is highest in infants too young to be fully protected by routine vaccination schedules. Alternate vaccine strategies are required to maximise protection in this age-group. To understand baseline pertussis epidemiology prior to the introduction of the maternal pertussis vaccination program in 2014, we conducted a retrospective case series analyses of 53 901 notifications and temporal trends from 1997 to 2014. Notifications were highest in infants younger than 4 months of age and highest annual notification rates in infants younger than 1 month of age (308/100 000 per year)...
December 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199493/antenatal-vaccination-to-decrease-pertussis-in-infants-safety-effectiveness-timing-and-implementation
#11
Marina Lumbreras Areta, Christiane Sigrid Eberhardt, Claire-Anne Siegrist, Begoña Martinez de Tejada
Pertussis remains a serious global health issue in infants aged less than 6 months. Neonates and young infants have the highest risk of developing pertussis as they are too young to be vaccinated and thus are more likely to develop more severe pertussis-related complications, including death. Protecting this vulnerable age population from pertussis is considered a main priority in many national health programs. Two vaccine strategies exist to protect infants from pertussis: "cocooning" and maternal vaccination during pregnancy...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180031/will-we-have-new-pertussis-vaccines
#12
Camille Locht
Despite wide vaccination coverage with efficacious vaccines, pertussis is still not under control in any country. Two types of vaccines are available for the primary vaccination series, diphtheria/tetanus/whole-cell pertussis and diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis vaccines, in addition to reduced antigen content vaccines recommended for booster vaccination. Using these vaccines, several strategies are being explored to counter the current pertussis problems, including repeated vaccination, cocoon vaccination and maternal immunization...
November 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166874/efficacy-and-safety-of-pertussis-vaccination-for-pregnant-women-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials-and-observational-studies
#13
Marie Furuta, Jacqueline Sin, Edmond S W Ng, Kay Wang
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, pertussis remains a major health problem among children. During the recent outbreaks of pertussis, maternal antenatal immunisation was introduced in several industrial countries. This systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence for the efficacy and safety of the pertussis vaccination that was given to pregnant women to protect infants from pertussis infection. METHODS: We searched literature in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, and OpenGrey between inception of the various databases and 16 May 2016...
November 22, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165576/timing-of-first-respiratory-virus-detections-in-infants-a-community-based-birth-cohort-study
#14
Mohinder Sarna, Robert S Ware, Stephen B Lambert, Theo P Sloots, Michael D Nissen, Keith Grimwood
Background: Determining timing of first virus detection episodes (fVDEs) for different respiratory viruses in infants identifies risk periods and informs preventive interventions, including vaccination. We describe the ages and nature of fVDEs in an infant birth cohort, and explore factors associated with increased odds of symptomatic fVDEs. Methods: The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is a community-based birth cohort describing acute respiratory infections in infants until their second birthday...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163461/factors-affecting-the-fcrn-mediated-transplacental-transfer-of-antibodies-and-implications-for-vaccination-in-pregnancy
#15
REVIEW
Christopher R Wilcox, Beth Holder, Christine E Jones
At birth, neonates are particularly vulnerable to infection and transplacental transfer of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from mother to fetus provides crucial protection in the first weeks of life. Transcytosis of IgG occurs via binding with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in the placental synctiotrophoblast. As maternal vaccination becomes an increasingly important strategy for the protection of young infants, improving our understanding of transplacental transfer and the factors that may affect this will become increasingly important, especially in low-income countries where the burden of morbidity and mortality is highest...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117332/estimates-of-the-burden-of-group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-for-pregnant-women-stillbirths-and-children
#16
Anna C Seale, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Neal J Russell, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Cally J Tann, Jenny Hall, Lola Madrid, Hannah Blencowe, Simon Cousens, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie J Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Joy E Lawn
Background: We aimed to provide the first comprehensive estimates of the burden of group B Streptococcus (GBS), including invasive disease in pregnant and postpartum women, fetal infection/stillbirth, and infants. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is the current mainstay of prevention, reducing early-onset infant disease in high-income contexts. Maternal GBS vaccines are in development. Methods: For 2015 live births, we used a compartmental model to estimate (1) exposure to maternal GBS colonization, (2) cases of infant invasive GBS disease, (3) deaths, and (4) disabilities...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117328/maternal-disease-with-group-b-streptococcus-and-serotype-distribution-worldwide-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#17
Jennifer Hall, Nadine Hack Adams, Linda Bartlett, Anna C Seale, Theresa Lamagni, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Joy E Lawn, Carol J Baker, Clare Cutland, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Michael G Gravett
Background: Infections such as group B Streptococcus (GBS) are an important cause of maternal sepsis, yet limited data on epidemiology exist. This article, the third of 11, estimates the incidence of maternal GBS disease worldwide. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data on invasive GBS disease in women pregnant or within 42 days postpartum...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117324/intrapartum-antibiotic-chemoprophylaxis-policies-for-the-prevention-of-group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-systematic-review
#18
Kirsty Le Doare, Megan O'Driscoll, Kim Turner, Farah Seedat, Neal J Russell, Anna C Seale, Paul T Heath, Joy E Lawn, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Margaret Ip, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Beate Kampmann
Background: Intrapartum antibiotic chemoprophylaxis (IAP) prevents most early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. However, there is no description of how IAP is used around the world. This article is the sixth in a series estimating the burden of GBS disease. Here we aimed to review GBS screening policies and IAP implementation worldwide. Methods: We identified data through (1) systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean [LILACS], World Health Organization library database [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and unpublished data from professional societies and (2) an online survey and searches of policies from medical societies and professionals...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117323/group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-for-pregnant-women-stillbirths-and-children-why-what-and-how-to-undertake-estimates
#19
Joy E Lawn, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Neal J Russell, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Cally J Tann, Jennifer Hall, Lola Madrid, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Anna C Seale
Improving maternal, newborn, and child health is central to Sustainable Development Goal targets for 2030, requiring acceleration especially to prevent 5.6 million deaths around the time of birth. Infections contribute to this burden, but etiological data are limited. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important perinatal pathogen, although previously focus has been primarily on liveborn children, especially early-onset disease. In this first of an 11-article supplement, we discuss the following: (1) Why estimate the worldwide burden of GBS disease? (2) What outcomes of GBS in pregnancy should be included? (3) What data and epidemiological parameters are required? (4) What methods and models can be used to transparently estimate this burden of GBS? (5) What are the challenges with available data? and (6) How can estimates address data gaps to better inform GBS interventions including maternal immunization? We review all available GBS data worldwide, including maternal GBS colonization, risk of neonatal disease (with/without intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis), maternal GBS disease, neonatal/infant GBS disease, and subsequent impairment, plus GBS-associated stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal encephalopathy...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109718/siga-tgf-%C3%AE-1-il-10-and-tnf%C3%AE-in-colostrum-are-associated-with-infant-group-b-streptococcus-colonization
#20
Kirsty Le Doare, Katie Bellis, Amadou Faal, Jessica Birt, Daniel Munblit, Holly Humphries, Stephen Taylor, Fiona Warburton, Paul T Heath, Beate Kampmann, Andrew Gorringe
Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in infants and is associated with transmission from a colonized mother at birth and via infected breastmilk. Although maternal/infant colonization with GBS is common, the majority of infants exposed to GBS remain unaffected. The association between breastmilk immune factors and infant colonization and disease prevention has not been elucidated. Objectives: We have investigated the association between SIgA and cytokines in breastmilk and infant GBS colonization and clearance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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