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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182741/etiology-of-severe-pneumonia-in-ecuadorian-children
#1
Sivani Jonnalagadda, Oswaldo Rodríguez, Bertha Estrella, Lora L Sabin, Fernando Sempértegui, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador. METHODS: This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148790/immunization-with-low-doses-of-recombinant-post-fusion-or-pre-fusion-rsv-f-primes-for-vaccine-enhanced-disease-in-the-cotton-rat-model-independent-of-the-presence-of-a-th1-biasing-gla-se-or-th2-biasing-alum-adjuvant
#2
Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Corinne Cayatte, Angie Snell Bennett, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Patrick McTamney, Krystal Nacel, Leigh Hostetler, Lily Cheng, Kuishu Ren, Terrence O'Day, Gregory A Prince, Michael P McCarthy
: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of children previously immunized with a non-live, formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV vaccine was associated with serious enhanced respiratory disease (ERD). Consequently, detailed studies of potential ERD are a critical step in the development of non-live RSV vaccines targeting RSV-naïve children and infants. The fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV in either its post- or pre-fusion conformation is a target for neutralizing antibodies and therefore an attractive antigen candidate for a pediatric RSV subunit vaccine...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134924/a-novel-pre-fusion-conformation-specific-neutralizing-epitope-on-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein
#3
Jarrod J Mousa, Nurgun Kose, Pranathi Matta, Pavlo Gilchuk, James E Crowe
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a major human pathogen, infecting the majority of infants before age two and causing re-infection throughout life. Despite decades of RSV research, there is no licensed RSV vaccine. Most candidate vaccines studied to date have incorporated the RSV fusion (F) surface glycoprotein, because the sequence of F is highly conserved among strains of RSV. To better define the human B cell response to RSV F, we isolated from a single donor 13 new neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize the RSV F protein in the pre-fusion conformation...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129031/virus-like-particle-vaccines-containing-f-or-f-and-g-proteins-confer-protection-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-without-pulmonary-inflammation-in-cotton-rats
#4
Hye Suk Hwang, Ki-Hye Kim, Youri Lee, Young-Tae Lee, Eun-Ju Ko, SooJin Park, Jong Seok Lee, Byung-Cheol Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Martin L Moore, Sang-Moo Kang
Vaccine-enhanced disease has been a major obstacle in developing a safe vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study demonstrates the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines containing RSV F (F VLP), G (G VLP), or F and G proteins (FG VLP) in cotton rats. RSV specific antibodies were effectively induced by vaccination of cotton rats with F VLP or FG VLP vaccines. After challenge, lung RSV clearance was observed with RSV F, G, FG VLP, and formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccines...
January 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111638/rapid-profiling-of-rsv-antibody-repertoires-from-the-memory-b-cells-of-naturally-infected-adult-donors
#5
Morgan S A Gilman, Carlos A Castellanos, Man Chen, Joan O Ngwuta, Eileen Goodwin, Syed M Moin, Vicente Mas, José A Melero, Peter F Wright, Barney S Graham, Jason S McLellan, Laura M Walker
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in young children and the elderly. There are currently no licensed RSV vaccines, and passive prophylaxis with the monoclonal antibody palivizumab is restricted to high-risk infants in part due to its modest efficacy. Although it is widely agreed that an effective RSV vaccine will require the induction of a potent neutralizing antibody response against the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein, little is known about the specificities and functional activities of RSV F-specific antibodies induced by natural infection...
December 16, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092107/rsv-associated-hospitalizations-in-children-in-karachi-pakistan-implications-for-vaccine-prevention-strategies
#6
Asad Ali, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rabbia Waris, Fatima Jafri, Fatima Aziz, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Anita Zaidi
Major progress is being made in vaccines against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), with multiple vaccine candidates currently in the clinical phase of development. Making an investment case for public sector financing of RSV vaccine will require estimation of burden, cost-effectiveness and impact. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, age distribution and clinical spectrum of RSV associated hospitalizations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University hospital in Karachi, a city of 20 million in south Pakistan, from August 2009 to June 2012...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058797/estimating-the-burden-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-on-respiratory-hospital-admissions-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-in-england-2007-2012
#7
Rachel Melanie Reeves, Pia Hardelid, Ruth Gilbert, Fiona Warburton, Joanna Ellis, Richard G Pebody
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospital admission in young children. With several RSV vaccines candidates undergoing clinical trials, recent estimates of RSV burden are required to provide a baseline for vaccine impact studies. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of RSV-associated hospital admissions in children aged <5 years in England over a 5-year period from 2007 using ecological time series modelling of national hospital administrative data...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049853/genetic-stability-of-genome-scale-deoptimized-rna-virus-vaccine-candidates-under-selective-pressure
#8
Cyril Le Nouën, Thomas McCarty, Michael Brown, Melissa Laird Smith, Roberto Lleras, Michael A Dolan, Masfique Mehedi, Lijuan Yang, Cindy Luongo, Bo Liang, Shirin Munir, Joshua M DiNapoli, Steffen Mueller, Eckard Wimmer, Peter L Collins, Ursula J Buchholz
Recoding viral genomes by numerous synonymous but suboptimal substitutions provides live attenuated vaccine candidates. These vaccine candidates should have a low risk of deattenuation because of the many changes involved. However, their genetic stability under selective pressure is largely unknown. We evaluated phenotypic reversion of deoptimized human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidates in the context of strong selective pressure. Codon pair deoptimized (CPD) versions of RSV were attenuated and temperature-sensitive...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000669/a-live-rsv-vaccine-with-engineered-thermostability-is-immunogenic-in-cotton-rats-despite-high-attenuation
#9
Christopher C Stobart, Christina A Rostad, Zunlong Ke, Rebecca S Dillard, Cheri M Hampton, Joshua D Strauss, Hong Yi, Anne L Hotard, Jia Meng, Raymond J Pickles, Kaori Sakamoto, Sujin Lee, Michael G Currier, Syed M Moin, Barney S Graham, Marina S Boukhvalova, Brian E Gilbert, Jorge C G Blanco, Pedro A Piedra, Elizabeth R Wright, Martin L Moore
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant hospitalization and there remains no pediatric vaccine. RSV live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) have a history of safe testing in infants; however, achieving an effective balance of attenuation and immunogenicity has proven challenging. Here we seek to engineer an RSV LAV with enhanced immunogenicity. Genetic mapping identifies strain line 19 fusion (F) protein residues that correlate with pre-fusion antigen maintenance by ELISA and thermal stability of infectivity in live RSV...
December 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989627/development-of-bioluminescence-imaging-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-in-virus-infected-live-mice-and-its-use-for-evaluation-of-therapeutics-and-vaccines
#10
Sandra Fuentes, Diego Arenas, Martin M Moore, Hana Golding, Surender Khurana
Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of pneumonia among infants with no human vaccine or efficient curative treatments. Efforts are underway to develop new RSV vaccines and therapeutics. There is a dire need for animal models for preclinical evaluation and selection of products against RSV. Herein, we developed a whole body bioluminescence imaging to follow replication of RSV A2 virus strain expressing firefly luciferase (RSVA2-line19-FFL) in live BALB/c mice that can be used as an extremely sensitive readout for studying effects of antiviral and vaccines in living mice...
December 15, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989626/novel-immunological-insights-in-accelerating-rsv-vaccine-development
#11
EDITORIAL
Christopher Chiu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918420/synthetic-biodegradable-microparticle-and-nanoparticle-vaccines-against-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#12
REVIEW
Patricia A Jorquera, Ralph A Tripp
Synthetic biodegradable microparticle and nanoparticle platform technology provides the opportunity to design particles varying in composition, size, shape and surface properties for application in vaccine development. The use of particle vaccine formulations allows improvement of antigen stability and immunogenicity while allowing targeted delivery and slow release. This technology has been design to develop novel vaccines against the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants...
December 2, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914740/predicting-the-relative-impacts-of-maternal-and-neonatal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-target-product-profiles-a-consensus-modelling-approach
#13
Wirichada Pan-Ngum, Timothy Kinyanjui, Moses Kiti, Sylvia Taylor, Jean-François Toussaint, Sompob Saralamba, Thierry Van Effelterre, D James Nokes, Lisa J White
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major viral cause of infant and childhood lower respiratory tract disease worldwide. Defining the optimal target product profile (TPP) is complicated due to a wide range of possible vaccine properties, modalities and an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of natural immunity. We report consensus population level impact projections based on two mathematical models applied to a low income setting. METHOD: Two structurally distinct age-specific deterministic compartmental models reflecting uncertainty associated with the natural history of infection and the mechanism by which immunity is acquired and lost were constructed...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903593/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-detection-and-new-options-for-prevention-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Cameron Griffiths, Steven J Drews, David J Marchant
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a significant cause of hospitalization of children in North America and one of the leading causes of death of infants less than 1 year of age worldwide, second only to malaria. Despite its global impact on human health, there are relatively few therapeutic options available to prevent or treat RSV infection. Paradoxically, there is a very large volume of information that is constantly being refined on RSV replication, the mechanisms of RSV-induced pathology, and community transmission...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895172/pulmonary-dendritic-cell-subsets-shape-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-specific-cd8-t-cell-immunodominance-hierarchy-in-neonates
#15
Allison M W Malloy, Tracy J Ruckwardt, Kaitlyn M Morabito, Annie W Lau-Kilby, Barney S Graham
Young infants are generally more susceptible to viral infections and experience more severe disease than do adults. CD8(+) T cells are important for viral clearance, and although often ineffective in neonates they can be protective when adequately stimulated. Using a murine CB6F1/J hybrid model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, we previously demonstrated that the CD8(+) T cell immunodominance hierarchy to two RSV-derived epitopes, K(d)M282-90 and D(b)M187-195, was determined by the age at infection...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889256/controlled-human-infection-with-rsv-the-opportunities-of-experimental-challenge
#16
Maximillian S Habibi, Christopher Chiu
Despite the recent explosion in RSV vaccine development, there remain substantial hurdles to overcome before licensing of effective vaccines will allow widespread use, particularly in high-risk populations. Incomplete understanding of mechanisms and correlates of protection against RSV mean that, for the time being, successful RSV vaccines must directly demonstrate efficacy, which necessitates large and costly clinical trials in naturally infected patients. To mitigate the risks inherent in progressing to these late-stage trials, experimental human RSV infection studies have recently been re-established, representing the interface between pre-clinical models and observational studies of patients...
January 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856770/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#17
Jennifer E Schuster, Sean O'Leary, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) consists of medical and public health experts who develop recommendations on vaccine use in the United States. The ACIP meets 3 times per year, and members and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) staff present findings and discuss vaccine research, vaccine effectiveness (VE) and safety, clinical trial results, and labeling/package insert information. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine shortages are also discussed. Nonvoting representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society are present...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851799/absence-of-association-between-cord-specific-antibody-levels-and-severe-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-disease-in-early-infants-a-case-control-study-from-coastal-kenya
#18
Joyce Uchi Nyiro, Charles Jumba Sande, Martin Mutunga, Patience Kerubo Kiyuka, Patrick Kioo Munywoki, John Anthony G Scott, David James Nokes
BACKGROUND: The target group for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease prevention is infants under 6 months of age. Vaccine boosting of antibody titres in pregnant mothers could protect these young infants from severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated disease. Quantifying protective levels of RSV-specific maternal antibody at birth would inform vaccine development. METHODS: A case control study nested in a birth cohort (2002-07) was conducted in Kilifi, Kenya; where 30 hospitalised cases of RSV-associated severe disease were matched to 60 controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799521/vaccination-strategies-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#19
Dan Yamin, Forrest K Jones, John P DeVincenzo, Shai Gertler, Oren Kobiler, Jeffrey P Townsend, Alison P Galvani
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of US infant hospitalization. Additionally, RSV is responsible for 10,000 deaths annually among the elderly across the United States, and accounts for nearly as many hospitalizations as influenza. Currently, several RSV vaccine candidates are under development to target different age groups. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of age-specific vaccination strategies in averting RSV incidence, we developed a transmission model that integrates data on daily infectious viral load and changes of behavior associated with RSV symptoms...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771388/intranasal-treatment-with-a-novel-immunomodulator-mediates-innate-immune-protection-against-lethal-pneumonia-virus-of-mice
#20
Elisa C Martinez, Ravendra Garg, Pratima Shrivastava, Susantha Gomis, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. There are no licensed RSV vaccines available, and the few treatment options for high-risk individuals are either extremely costly or cause severe side effects and toxicity. Immunomodulation mediated by a novel formulation consisting of the toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly(I:C), an innate defense regulator peptide and a polyphosphazene (P-I-P) was evaluated in the context of lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM)...
October 19, 2016: Antiviral Research
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