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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903503/identifying-gaps-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-epidemiology-in-the-united-states-prior-to-the-introduction-of-vaccines
#1
Lindsay Kim, Brian Rha, Jon S Abramson, Larry J Anderson, Carrie L Byington, Grace L Chen, John DeVincenzo, Kathryn M Edwards, Janet A Englund, Ann R Falsey, Marie R Griffin, Ruth A Karron, Karen G Martin, H Cody Meissner, Flor M Munoz, Andrew T Pavia, Pedro A Piedra, William Schaffner, Eric A F Simões, Rosalyn Singleton, H Keipp Talbot, Edward E Walsh, Jane R Zucker, Susan I Gerber
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract illness frequently. No effective antivirals or vaccines for RSV are approved for use in the United States; however, there are at least 50 vaccines and monoclonal antibody products in development, with those targeting older adults and pregnant women (to protect young infants) in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. Unanswered questions regarding RSV epidemiology need to be identified and addressed prior to RSV vaccine introduction to guide the measurement of impact and future recommendations...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903080/transplacental-transfer-of-maternal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-antibody-and-protection-against-rsv-disease-in-infants-in-rural-nepal
#2
Helen Y Chu, James Tielsch, Joanne Katz, Amalia S Magaret, Subarna Khatry, Stephen C LeClerq, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Mark C Steinhoff, Janet A Englund
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral cause of pneumonia in children. RSV-specific antibody (ab) protects infants from disease, and may be increased by a potential strategy of maternal RSV vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of RSV antibody on RSV infection risk in infants in a resource-limited setting. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study in Nepal, women were enrolled during pregnancy and maternal and infant cord blood were collected at birth...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894111/induction-of-high-titred-non-neutralising-antibodies-by-self-adjuvanting-peptide-epitopes-derived-from-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein
#3
Noushin Jaberolansar, Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Imogen M Bermingham, Istvan Toth, Paul R Young, Mariusz Skwarczynski
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. The significant morbidity and mortality rates associated with RSV infection make an effective RSV vaccine development a priority. Two neutralising antibody binding sites, Ø and II, located on the pre-fusion RSV F glycoprotein are prime candidates for epitope-focused vaccine design. We report on a vaccine strategy that utilises a lipid core peptide (LCP) delivery system with self-adjuvanting properties in conjunction with either the antigenic site Ø or II (B cell epitopes) along with PADRE as a T helper cell epitope...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881156/nucleic-acid-based-vaccines-targeting-respiratory-syncytial-virus-delivering-the-goods
#4
Trevor R F Smith, Katherine Schultheis, Kate E Broderick
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a massive medical burden on a global scale. Infants, children and the elderly represent the vulnerable populations. Currently there is no approved vaccine to protect against the disease. Vaccine development has been hindered by several factors including vaccine enhanced disease (VED) associated with formalin-inactivated RSV vaccines, inability of target populations to raise protective immune responses after vaccination or natural viral infection, and a lack of consensus concerning the most appropriate virus-associated target antigen...
September 7, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865676/determining-the-outcomes-of-interventions-to-prevent-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-in-children-what-to-measure
#5
REVIEW
Ruth A Karron, Heather J Zar
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of viral acute lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) in young children, and a major cause of hospital admissions and health-care utilisation globally. Substantial efforts have been made to develop RSV vaccines and vaccine-like monoclonal antibodies to prevent acute RSV LRTI. Prevention of acute disease could improve long-term lung health, with potential effects on wheezing, asthma, and chronic lung disease. This Personal View describes assessments that should be initiated during clinical trials and continued after licensure to fully evaluate the effect of RSV preventive interventions...
August 30, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856681/reduced-activation-and-proliferation-of-human-lymphocytes-exposed-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-compared-to-cells-exposed-to-influenza-virus
#6
Elisa H Fleming, Eliana E Ochoa, Joan E Nichols, M Kerry O'Banion, Alan R Salkind, Norbert J Roberts
Both respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus (IAV) may infect human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC) during the immune response to viral challenge as the cells are recruited to the respiratory tract. The current studies demonstrated differences in PBMC responses to the two viruses very early after exposure, including reduced fos protein and CD69 expression and IL-2 production by RSV-exposed T lymphocytes. Exposure to RSV resulted in reduced lymphocyte proliferation despite evidence of a virus-specific T lymphocyte frequency equivalent to that for influenza virus...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854003/soluble-f-proteins-exacerbate-pulmonary-histopathology-after-vaccination-upon-respiratory-syncytial-virus-challenge-but-not-when-presented-on-virus-like-particles
#7
Youri Lee, Young-Tae Lee, Eun-Ju Ko, Ki-Hye Kim, Hye Suk Hwang, Soojin Park, Young-Man Kwon, Sang Moo Kang
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein is suggested to be a protective vaccine target although its efficacy and safety concerns remain not well understood. We investigated immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of F proteins in a soluble form or on virus-like particle (F-VLP). F VLP preferentially elicited IgG2a antibody and T helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses whereas F protein induced IgG1 isotype and Th2 responses. Despite lung viral clearance after prime or prime-boost and then RSV challenge, F protein immune mice displayed weight loss and lung histopathology and high mucus production and eosinophils...
August 30, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846899/virus-like-particle-vaccine-primes-immune-responses-preventing-inactivated-virus-vaccine-enhanced-disease-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#8
Hye Suk Hwang, Young-Tae Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Youri Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Sang-Moo Kang
Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge...
August 25, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825870/intranasal-immunization-with-a-single-dose-of-the-fusion-protein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-induces-long-term-protective-immunity-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#9
R Garg, L Latimer, V Gerdts, A Potter, S van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of respiratory tract infections in both children and elderly people. In this study we evaluated the short- and long-term protective efficacy of a single intranasal (IN) immunization with a RSV vaccine formulation consisting of a codon-optimized fusion (F) protein formulated with poly(I:C), an innate defense regulator peptide and a polyphosphazene (ΔF/TriAdj). This vaccine induced strong systemic and local immune responses, including RSV F-specific IgG1 and IgG2a, SIgA and virus neutralizing antibodies in mice...
August 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804787/burden-of-paediatric-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-and-potential-effect-of-different-immunisation-strategies-a-modelling-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis-for-england
#10
Deborah Cromer, Albert Jan van Hoek, Anthony T Newall, Andrew J Pollard, Mark Jit
BACKGROUND: Vaccines and prophylactic antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are in development and likely to be available in the next 5-10 years. The most efficient way to use these products when they become available is an important consideration for public health decision makers. METHODS: We performed a multivariate regression analysis to estimate the burden of RSV in children younger than 5 years in England (UK), a representative high-income temperate country, and used these results to assess the potential effect of different RSV immunisation strategies (targeting vaccination for infants, or pregnant women, or prophylactic antibodies for neonates)...
August 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747497/the-genetic-stability-of-piv5-vectored-rsv-vaccine-candidates-after-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-passage
#11
Shannon I Phan, Carolyn M Adam, Zhenhai Chen, Michael Citron, Xiaoping Liang, Amy S Espeseth, Dai Wang, Biao He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading etiologic agent of lower respiratory tract infections in children, but no licensed vaccine exists. Previously, our laboratory developed two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-based RSV vaccine candidates that protect mice against RSV challenge. PIV5 was engineered to express either the RSV fusion protein (F) or the RSV major attachment glycoprotein (G) between the HN and L genes of the PIV5 genome [PIV5-RSV-F (HN-L) or PIV5-RSV-G (HN-L)]. To investigate the stability of the vaccine candidates in vitro, they were passaged in Vero cells at high and low multiplicities of infection (MOI) for eleven generations and the genome sequences, growth kinetics, and protein expression of the resulting viruses were compared with those of the parent viruses...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747496/parainfluenza-virus-5-piv5-expressing-wild-type-or-pre-fusion-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-protect-mice-and-cotton-rats-from-rsv-challenge
#12
Shannon I Phan, James R Zengel, Huiling Wei, Zhuo Li, Dai Wang, Biao He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and hospitalizations. RSV can also cause severe complications in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. There is no licensed vaccine. We previously generated a PIV5-vectored vaccine candidate expressing the RSV fusion protein (F) that was immunogenic and protective in mice. In this work, our goal was to improve the original vaccine candidate by modifying the PIV5 vector or by modifying the RSV-F antigen. We previously demonstrated that inserting a foreign gene at the PIV5 SH-HN junction or deleting PIV5 SH increased vaccine efficacy...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722020/a-critical-role-of-gas6-axl-signal-in-allergic-airway-responses-during-rsv-vaccine-enhanced-disease
#13
Takehiko Shibata, Manabu Ato
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that causes lower respiratory infections across a wide range of ages. A licensed RSV vaccine is not available because vaccination with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) and the subsequent RSV infection cause not only insufficient induction of neutralizing antibodies but also severe allergic airway responses, termed FI-RSV vaccine enhanced disease (FI-RSV VED). However, the underlying mechanism has not been identified, although a Th2-biased immune response is known to be a hallmark of this disease...
July 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702175/costs-of-hospitalization-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-illness-among-children-aged-5-years-and-the-financial-impact-on-households-in-bangladesh-2010
#14
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Stephen P Luby, Nadia Ishrat Alamgir, Nusrat Homaira, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Emily S Gurley, Jaynal Abedin, Rashid Uz Zaman, Asm Alamgir, Mahmudur Rahman, Ismael R Ortega-Sanchez, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute respiratory illness in young children and results in significant economic burden. There is no vaccine to prevent RSV illness but a number of vaccines are in development. We conducted this study to estimate the costs of severe RSV illness requiring hospitalization among children <5 years and associated financial impact on households in Bangladesh. Data of this study could be useful for RSV vaccine development and also the value of various preventive strategies, including use of an RSV vaccine in children if one becomes available...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689664/global-regional-and-national-disease-burden-estimates-of-acute-lower-respiratory-infections-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-young-children-in-2015-a-systematic-review-and-modelling-study
#15
Ting Shi, David A McAllister, Katherine L O'Brien, Eric A F Simoes, Shabir A Madhi, Bradford D Gessner, Fernando P Polack, Evelyn Balsells, Sozinho Acacio, Claudia Aguayo, Issifou Alassani, Asad Ali, Martin Antonio, Shally Awasthi, Juliet O Awori, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Henry C Baggett, Vicky L Baillie, Angel Balmaseda, Alfredo Barahona, Sudha Basnet, Quique Bassat, Wilma Basualdo, Godfrey Bigogo, Louis Bont, Robert F Breiman, W Abdullah Brooks, Shobha Broor, Nigel Bruce, Dana Bruden, Philippe Buchy, Stuart Campbell, Phyllis Carosone-Link, Mandeep Chadha, James Chipeta, Monidarin Chou, Wilfrido Clara, Cheryl Cohen, Elizabeth de Cuellar, Duc-Anh Dang, Budragchaagiin Dash-Yandag, Maria Deloria-Knoll, Mukesh Dherani, Tekchheng Eap, Bernard E Ebruke, Marcela Echavarria, Carla Cecília de Freitas Lázaro Emediato, Rodrigo A Fasce, Daniel R Feikin, Luzhao Feng, Angela Gentile, Aubree Gordon, Doli Goswami, Sophie Goyet, Michelle Groome, Natasha Halasa, Siddhivinayak Hirve, Nusrat Homaira, Stephen R C Howie, Jorge Jara, Imane Jroundi, Cissy B Kartasasmita, Najwa Khuri-Bulos, Karen L Kotloff, Anand Krishnan, Romina Libster, Olga Lopez, Marilla G Lucero, Florencia Lucion, Socorro P Lupisan, Debora N Marcone, John P McCracken, Mario Mejia, Jennifer C Moisi, Joel M Montgomery, David P Moore, Cinta Moraleda, Jocelyn Moyes, Patrick Munywoki, Kuswandewi Mutyara, Mark P Nicol, D James Nokes, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Maria Tereza da Costa Oliveira, Histoshi Oshitani, Nitin Pandey, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà, Lia N Phillips, Valentina Sanchez Picot, Mustafizur Rahman, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Zeba A Rasmussen, Barbara A Rath, Annick Robinson, Candice Romero, Graciela Russomando, Vahid Salimi, Pongpun Sawatwong, Nienke Scheltema, Brunhilde Schweiger, J Anthony G Scott, Phil Seidenberg, Kunling Shen, Rosalyn Singleton, Viviana Sotomayor, Tor A Strand, Agustinus Sutanto, Mariam Sylla, Milagritos D Tapia, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Elizabeth D Thomas, Rafal Tokarz, Claudia Turner, Marietjie Venter, Sunthareeya Waicharoen, Jianwei Wang, Wanitda Watthanaworawit, Lay-Myint Yoshida, Hongjie Yu, Heather J Zar, Harry Campbell, Harish Nair
BACKGROUND: We have previously estimated that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was associated with 22% of all episodes of (severe) acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) resulting in 55 000 to 199 000 deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2005. In the past 5 years, major research activity on RSV has yielded substantial new data from developing countries. With a considerably expanded dataset from a large international collaboration, we aimed to estimate the global incidence, hospital admission rate, and mortality from RSV-ALRI episodes in young children in 2015...
July 6, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686692/estimating-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-mortality-in-western-kenya-using-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-data-2007-2013
#16
Gideon O Emukule, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Sandra S Chaves, Joshua A Mott, Stefano Tempia, Godfrey Bigogo, Bryan Nyawanda, Amek Nyaguara, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Koos van der Velden, John W Paget
BACKGROUND: Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated mortality has not been well-established in tropical Africa. METHODS: We used the negative binomial regression method and the rate-difference method (i.e. deaths during low and high influenza/RSV activity months), to estimate excess mortality attributable to influenza and RSV using verbal autopsy data collected through a health and demographic surveillance system in Western Kenya, 2007-2013. Excess mortality rates were calculated for a) all-cause mortality, b) respiratory deaths (including pneumonia), c) HIV-related deaths, and d) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) related deaths...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679495/dose-selection-for-an-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-f-protein-vaccine-for-older-adults-based-on-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses
#17
Judith Falloon, H Keipp Talbot, Craig Curtis, John Ervin, Diane Krieger, Filip Dubovsky, Therese Takas, Jing Yu, Li Yu, Stacie L Lambert, Tonya Villafana, Mark T Esser
This is the second phase 1 study of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine containing RSV fusion protein (sF) adjuvanted with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) in a squalene-based 2% stable emulsion (GLA-SE). In this randomized, double-blind study, 261 subjects aged ≥60 years received inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), a vaccine containing 120 μg sF with escalating doses of GLA (1, 2.5, or 5 μg) in SE, or a vaccine containing 80 μg sF with 2.5 μg GLA in SE. Subjects receiving 120 μg sF with 2.5 or 5 μg GLA were also randomized to receive IIV or placebo...
September 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652534/poly-u-and-cpg-ameliorate-the-unbalanced-t-cell-immunity-and-pneumonia-of-mice-with-rsv-vaccine-enhanced-disease
#18
Ran Jia, Lu Lu, Xiaozhen Liang, Zhiwu Sun, Lingbing Tan, Menghua Xu, Liyun Su, Jin Xu
Respiratory Syncycial Virus (RSV) is the most important pathogen responsible for children's severe lower respiratory tract infection. So far no RSV vaccine has yet been authorized for clinical use. The main impediment that blocked development of RSV vaccine is that inactivated RSV vaccine could cause RSV vaccine-enhanced disease (RVED). The mechanism of RVED remains unclear. Recently some researchers found that insufficient activation of innate immunity, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), might be associated with the onset of RVED...
June 26, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646954/development-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccines-for-infants
#19
Hannah E Gerretsen, Charles J Sande
2017 will mark the 60(th) anniversary since the first isolation of RSV in children. In spite of concerted efforts over all these years, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against paediatric RSV disease has remained elusive. One of the main hurdles standing in the way of an effective vaccine is the fact that the age incidence of severe disease peaks within the first 3 months of life, providing limited opportunity for intervention. In addition to this complexity, the spectre of failed historical vaccines, which increased the risk of illness and death upon subsequent natural infection, has substantially increased the safety criteria against which modern vaccines will be assessed...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624306/preclinical-assessment-of-safety-of-maternal-vaccination-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-in-cotton-rats
#20
Jorge C G Blanco, Lioubov M Pletneva, Raymonde O Otoa, Mira C Patel, Stefanie N Vogel, Marina S Boukhvalova
Maternal immunization directed to control RSV infection in newborns and infants is an appealing vaccination strategy currently under development. In this work we have modeled maternal vaccination against RSV in cotton rats (CR) to answer two fundamental questions on maternal vaccine safety. We tested (i), whether a known, unsafe RSV vaccine (i.e., FI-RSV Lot 100 vaccine) induces vaccine enhanced disease in the presence of passively transferred, RSV maternal immunity, and (ii) whether the same FI-RSV vaccine could induce vaccine enhanced disease in CR litters when used to immunize their RSV-primed mothers...
July 13, 2017: Vaccine
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