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image extraction

Muhammad Sajid, Imtiaz Ahmad Taj, Usama Ijaz Bajwa, Naeem Iqbal Ratyal
Face recognition aims to establish the identity of a person based on facial characteristics. On the other hand, age group estimation is the automatic calculation of an individual's age range based on facial features. Recognizing age-separated face images is still a challenging research problem due to complex aging processes involving different types of facial tissues, skin, fat, muscles, and bones. Certain holistic and local facial features are used to recognize age-separated face images. However, most of the existing methods recognize face images without incorporating the knowledge learned from age group estimation...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
J-H Liu, X Sun, J M Young, L A Bachmeier, D J Newman
The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of computer vision system to predict pork intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%). Center-cut loin samples (n = 85) were trimmed of subcutaneous fat and connective tissue. Images were acquired and pixels were segregated to estimate image IMF% and 18 image color features for each image. Subjective IMF% was determined by a trained grader. Ether extract IMF% was calculated using ether extract method. Image color features and image IMF% were used as predictors for stepwise regression and support vector machine models...
March 26, 2018: Meat Science
Michael F Bonner, Russell A Epstein
Biologically inspired deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), trained for computer vision tasks, have been found to predict cortical responses with remarkable accuracy. However, the internal operations of these models remain poorly understood, and the factors that account for their success are unknown. Here we develop a set of techniques for using CNNs to gain insights into the computational mechanisms underlying cortical responses. We focused on responses in the occipital place area (OPA), a scene-selective region of dorsal occipitoparietal cortex...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Kai Pang, Chengying Xie, Zhangru Yang, Yuanzhen Suo, Xi Zhu, Dan Wei, Xiaofu Weng, Xunbin Wei, Zhengqin Gu
It remains controversial whether surgical castration prolongs survival rate and improves therapy prospects in patients suffering from prostate cancer. We used PC3 cell line to establish prostate tumor models. In vivo flow cytometry and ultrasonic imaging were used to monitor the process of prostate cancer growth, development and metastasis. We found out that the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in orthotopic tumor model was higher than that in subcutaneous tumor model. The CTC number in orthotopic tumor model was due to burst growth, while CTC number in subcutaneous tumor model showed a gradual increase with tumor size...
April 23, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Qurrat U van den Blink, Kate Garcez, Caroline C Henson, Susan E Davidson, Claire E Higham
BACKGROUND: Pelvic radiotherapy is a treatment delivered to an estimated 150,000 to 300,000 people annually across high-income countries. Fractures due to normal stresses on weakened bone due to radiotherapy are termed insufficiency fractures. Pelvic radiotherapy-related interruption of the blood supply to the hip is termed avascular necrosis and is another recognised complication. The reported incidences of insufficiency fractures are 2.7% to 89% and risk of developing avascular necrosis is 0...
April 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Teresa Correia, Giulia Ginami, Gastão Cruz, Radhouene Neji, Imran Rashid, René M Botnar, Claudia Prieto
PURPOSE: To develop a robust and efficient reconstruction framework that provides high-quality motion-compensated respiratory-resolved images from free-breathing 3D whole-heart Cartesian coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) acquisitions. METHODS: Recently, XD-GRASP (eXtra-Dimensional Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel MRI) was proposed to achieve 100% scan efficiency and provide respiratory-resolved 3D radial CMRA images by exploiting sparsity in the respiratory dimension...
April 22, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Ruiqing Ni, Markus Rudin, Jan Klohs
The effect of cerebral amyloidosis on cerebral hemodynamics was investigated with photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). First, the sensitivity and robustness of PAT for deriving metrics of vascular and tissue oxygenation in the murine brain was assessed in wild-type mice with a hyperoxia-normoxia challenge. Secondly, cerebral oxygenation was assessed in young and aged arcAβ mice and wild-type controls with PAT, while cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by perfusion MRI. The investigations revealed that PAT can sensitively and robustly detect physiological changes in vascular and tissue oxygenation...
June 2018: Photoacoustics
Sivaramakrishnan Rajaraman, Sameer K Antani, Mahdieh Poostchi, Kamolrat Silamut, Md A Hossain, Richard J Maude, Stefan Jaeger, George R Thoma
Malaria is a blood disease caused by the Plasmodium parasites transmitted through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito. Microscopists commonly examine thick and thin blood smears to diagnose disease and compute parasitemia. However, their accuracy depends on smear quality and expertise in classifying and counting parasitized and uninfected cells. Such an examination could be arduous for large-scale diagnoses resulting in poor quality. State-of-the-art image-analysis based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) methods using machine learning (ML) techniques, applied to microscopic images of the smears using hand-engineered features demand expertise in analyzing morphological, textural, and positional variations of the region of interest (ROI)...
2018: PeerJ
Amit Kumar Kundu, Shaikh Anowarul Fattah, Mamshad Nayeem Rizve
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is an effective video technology to diagnose gastrointestinal (GI) disease, such as bleeding. In order to avoid conventional tedious and risky manual review process of long duration WCE videos, automatic bleeding detection schemes are getting importance. In this paper, to investigate bleeding, the analysis of WCE images is carried out in normalized RGB color space as human perception of bleeding is associated with different shades of red. In the proposed method, at first, from the WCE image frame, an efficient region of interest (ROI) is extracted based on interplane intensity variation profile in normalized RGB space...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Huisi Miao, Changyan Xiao
The density or quantity of leukocytes and erythrocytes in a unit volume of blood, which can be automatically measured through a computer-based microscopic image analysis system, is frequently considered an indicator of diseases. The segmentation of blood cells, as a basis of quantitative statistics, plays an important role in the system. However, many conventional methods must firstly distinguish blood cells into two types (i.e., leukocyte and erythrocyte) and segment them in independent procedures. In this paper, we present a marker-controlled watershed algorithm for simultaneously extracting the two types of blood cells to simplify operations and reduce computing time...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
M Ramón, F Martínez-Pastor
Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) produces a wealth of data that is frequently ignored. The use of multiparametric statistical methods can help explore these datasets, unveiling the subpopulation structure of sperm samples. In this review we analyse the significance of the internal heterogeneity of sperm samples and its relevance. We also provide a brief description of the statistical tools used for extracting sperm subpopulations from the datasets, namely unsupervised clustering (with non-hierarchical, hierarchical and two-step methods) and the most advanced supervised methods, based on machine learning...
April 23, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Ioan Scarneciu, Cristian Andrei, Camelia Scarneciu, Aura Mihaela Lupu, Ovidiu Gabriel Bratu, Sorin Lupu
Male sling for urinary incontinence is usually accompanied by very good results, with a small number of complications,but, when appear, they may be redundant. Voluminous urethral stone developed on suburethral sling as a result of sling erosion into the proximal urethra is an extremely rare complication (following the analysis of cases published on the internet, the authors of this article no longer identified another similar case). We present the case of a patient who presented in our clinic for severe and permanent urinary incontinence, perineal discomfortand pain that was influenced by position...
April 21, 2018: Urology Journal
Anna Fabijańska
Diagnostic information regarding the health status of the corneal endothelium may be obtained by analyzing the size and the shape of the endothelial cells in specular microscopy images. Prior to the analysis, the endothelial cells need to be extracted from the image. Up to today, this has been performed manually or semi-automatically. Several approaches to automatic segmentation of endothelial cells exist; however, none of them is perfect. Therefore this paper proposes to perform cell segmentation using a U-Net-based convolutional neural network...
April 18, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Guiyan Yang, Qingyan Wang, Chen Liu, Xiaobin Wang, Shuxiang Fan, Wenqian Huang
Rapid and visual detection of the chemical compositions of plant seeds is important but difficult for a traditional seed quality analysis system. In this study, a custom-designed line-scan Raman hyperspectral imaging system was applied for detecting and displaying the main chemical compositions in a heterogeneous maize seed. Raman hyperspectral images collected from the endosperm and embryo of maize seed were acquired and preprocessed by Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter and adaptive iteratively reweighted Penalized Least Squares (airPLS)...
April 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Md Nasir Uddin, Teresa D Figley, Chase R Figley
Tissue contrast can be enhanced by dividing T1 -weighted (T1 w) images by T2 -weighted (T2 w) images to map the so-called T1 w/T2 w ratio, which has become an increasingly popular technique for quantifying brain tissue changes associated with neurodevelopment, aging, and a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. However, although it is self-evident that T1 w/T2 w ratios increase with the amount of T2 -weighting in the T2 w image - which is determined by the echo time (TE), all else being equal - longer TEs also reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the T2 w images, and it is not clear how these SNR characteristics affect the reliability of T1 w/T2 w measurements...
April 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Lydia W Ng, Kenneth K Wong, Chia-Ling Ally Wu, Richard Sposto, Arthur J Olch
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of dose sculpting intensity modulated radiation therapy on vertebral body growth in children with neuroblastoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2000 to 2011, 88 children with neuroblastoma underwent radiation at the authors' institution. Children with paravertebral tumors with at least 3 years of evaluable posttreatment imaging were included, and children who underwent spine reirradiation before follow-up were excluded. If vertebral bodies could not be spared, these "target" vertebral bodies were treated to at least 18 Gy...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
James M Gwinnutt, Charlotte A Sharp, Deborah P M Symmons, Mark Lunt, Suzanne M M Verstappen
OBJECTIVE: To assess baseline predictors of long-term functional disability in patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature from 1990 to 2017 using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if (i) they were prospective observational studies, (ii) all patients had IA with symptom duration ≤2 years at baseline, (iii) follow-up was at least 5 years, and (iv) baseline predictors of HAQ score at long-term follow-up (i...
March 15, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Wei Zhao, Don Vernekohl, Fei Han, Bin Han, Hao Peng, Yong Yang, Lei Xing, James K Min
PURPOSE: Many clinical applications depend critically on the accurate differentiation and classi-fication of different types of materials in patient anatomy. This work introduces a unified framework for accurate nonlinear material decomposition and applies it, for the first time, in the concept of triple-energy CT (TECT) for enhanced material differentiation and classification as well as dual-energy CT METHODS: We express polychromatic projection into a linear combination of line integrals of material-selective images...
April 21, 2018: Medical Physics
Xiaoming Liu, Shuxu Guo, Bingtao Yang, Shuzhi Ma, Huimao Zhang, Jing Li, Changjian Sun, Lanyi Jin, Xueyan Li, Qi Yang, Yu Fu
Accurate segmentation of specific organ from computed tomography (CT) scans is a basic and crucial task for accurate diagnosis and treatment. To avoid time-consuming manual optimization and to help physicians distinguish diseases, an automatic organ segmentation framework is presented. The framework utilized convolution neural networks (CNN) to classify pixels. To reduce the redundant inputs, the simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) of super-pixels and the support vector machine (SVM) classifier are introduced...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Julia Schmidt, Kathryn S Hayward, Katlyn E Brown, Jill G Zwicker, Jennie Ponsford, Paul van Donkelaar, Shelina Babul, Lara A Boyd
CONTEXT: Pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common and poorly understood injury. Neuroimaging may index brain injury and outcome after pediatric mTBI, but remains largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in neuroimaging findings in children/youth with mTBI. Measures of behavior, symptoms, time since injury, and age at injury were also considered. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was conducted up to July 6, 2016...
April 20, 2018: Pediatrics
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