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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938276/anesthesia-with-dexmedetomidine-and-low-dose-isoflurane-increases-solute-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-in-rat-brain-when-compared-with-high-dose-isoflurane
#1
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Fengfei Ding, Qian Sun, Ehab Al-Bizri, Rany Makaryus, Stephen Probst, Maiken Nedergaard, Elliot A Stein, Hanbing Lu
BACKGROUND: The glymphatic pathway transports cerebrospinal fluid through the brain, thereby facilitating waste removal. A unique aspect of this pathway is that its function depends on the state of consciousness of the brain and is associated with norepinephrine activity. A current view is that all anesthetics will increase glymphatic transport by inducing unconsciousness. This view implies that the effect of anesthetics on glymphatic transport should be independent of their mechanism of action, as long as they induce unconsciousness...
September 22, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938250/listening-effort-how-the-cognitive-consequences-of-acoustic-challenge-are-reflected-in-brain-and-behavior
#2
Jonathan E Peelle
Everyday conversation frequently includes challenges to the clarity of the acoustic speech signal, including hearing impairment, background noise, and foreign accents. Although an obvious problem is the increased risk of making word identification errors, extracting meaning from a degraded acoustic signal is also cognitively demanding, which contributes to increased listening effort. The concepts of cognitive demand and listening effort are critical in understanding the challenges listeners face in comprehension, which are not fully predicted by audiometric measures...
September 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938151/elucidation-of-shared-and-specific-white-matter-findings-underlying-psychopathology-clusters-in-schizophrenia
#3
Jeanette Lim, Rowena Chin, New Fei Ho, Max Lam, Min Yi Sum, Simon Collinson, Lisa Phillips, Tih-Shih Lee, Balázs Zoltán Gulyás, Juan Zhou, Kang Sim
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with diverse white matter (WM) brain abnormalities. In this study, we sought to examine the WM microstructural findings which underlie clinical psychopathology clusters in schizophrenia and hypothesized that these symptom clusters are associated with common and unique WM tracts. METHODS: Overall, 76 healthy controls (HC), and 148 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) were recruited and severity of symptomatology in schizophrenia was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
September 1, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937893/effect-of-enamel-deproteinization-in-primary-teeth
#4
Ananthi Christopher, R Krishnakumar, N Venugopal Reddy, G Rohini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the topographical features of enamel surface, etched with different materials. STUDY DESIGN: 10 extracted human primary molars were randomly selected and cut and trimmed to 1 mm(2). Each group comprised of 10 blocks and the enamel was treated as follows: Group I-35% H3PO4; Group II-5.25% NaOCl + 35% H3PO4 ;Group III-5.25% NaOCl; Group IV no treatment was carried out. All the samples were prepared for Scanning electron microscope analysis...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937644/american-sign-language-alphabet-recognition-using-a-neuromorphic-sensor-and-an-artificial-neural-network
#5
Miguel Rivera-Acosta, Susana Ortega-Cisneros, Jorge Rivera, Federico Sandoval-Ibarra
This paper reports the design and analysis of an American Sign Language (ASL) alphabet translation system implemented in hardware using a Field-Programmable Gate Array. The system process consists of three stages, the first being the communication with the neuromorphic camera (also called Dynamic Vision Sensor, DVS) sensor using the Universal Serial Bus protocol. The feature extraction of the events generated by the DVS is the second part of the process, consisting of a presentation of the digital image processing algorithms developed in software, which aim to reduce redundant information and prepare the data for the third stage...
September 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937491/improved-calcium-scoring-at-dual-energy-computed-tomography-angiography-using-a-high-z-contrast-element-and-novel-material-separation-technique
#6
Jack W Lambert, Yuxin Sun, Karen G Ordovas, Robert G Gould, Sizhe Wang, Benjamin M Yeh
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of existing dual-energy computed tomography (CT) angiography coronary artery calcium scoring methods to those obtained using an experimental tungsten-based contrast material and a recently described contrast material extraction process (CMEP). METHODS: Phantom coronary arteries of varied diameters, with different densities and arcs of simulated calcified plaque, were sequentially filled with water, iodine, and tungsten contrast materials and scanned within a thorax phantom at rapid-kVp-switching dual-energy CT...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937322/diffusion-tensor-imaging-reveals-morphological-alterations-of-the-lateral-pterygoid-muscle-in-patients-with-mandibular-asymmetry
#7
Enrico Nastro, Lilla Bonanno, Luciano Catalfamo, Michele Runci, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Anastasi, Silvia Marino, Francesco Saverio De Ponte
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate non-invasively the morphological features of both lateral pterygoid (LPM) and masseter muscles by using Diffusion Tensor Imaging on two patients affected by mandibular asymmetry. METHODS: Two female patients with mandibular excess and asymmetry who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were recruited for this study. Morphological (T1-weighted) and diffusion weighted images were acquired with a 3T scanner one week before (T0) and one month after the surgery (T1)...
September 20, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937266/statistical-analysis-of-adcs-and-clinical-biomarkers-in-detecting-acute-renal-transplant-rejection
#8
Elizabeth Hollis, Mohamed Shehata, Mohamed Abou El-Ghar, Mohammed Ghazal, Tarek Eldiasty, Michael Merchant, Andrew E Switala, Ayman El-Baz
OBJECTIVE: To determine which parameters are correlated with transplanted kidney status in patients who have undergone kidney transplantation and can be used for early assessment of acute renal rejection. METHODS: The study included 16 patients with stable renal allografts (Group 1) and 37 patients with rejected allografts (Group 2), determined by renal biopsy post transplantation. All patients' kidneys were evaluated using diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI), in which both clincal and MRI-derived biomarkers were integrated...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936704/extraction-of-the-subpleural-lung-region-from-computed-tomography-images-to-detect-interstitial-lung-disease
#9
Tae Iwasawa, Yuma Iwao, Tamiko Takemura, Koji Okudela, Toshiyuki Gotoh, Tomohisa Baba, Takashi Ogura, Mari S Oba
PURPOSE: To quantify lesions in the subpleural lung region (SubPL) on computed tomography (CT) images and to evaluate whether they are useful for detecting interstitial lung disease (ILD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were 40 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) diagnosed by multidisciplinary methods and 35 age-matched patients without ILDs. The lungs and SubPL were extracted from CT images using a Gaussian histogram normalized correlation system and evaluated for the mean CT attenuation value (CTmean) and the percentage of high attenuation area (%HAA), exceeding -700 Hounsfield units...
September 21, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936654/imaging-ca-2-dynamics-in-wild-type-and-nadph-oxidase-deficient-mutant-pollen-tubes-with-yellow-cameleon-and-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#10
Christina Maria Franck, Jens Westermann, Aurélien Boisson-Dernier
While cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a central role in a myriad of signaling pathways as a secondary messenger, how dynamic changes of cytosolic calcium relate to cell growth control remains poorly understood. The engineering and continuous improvements of genetically encoded calcium sensors such as the Yellow Cameleon (YC) sensors combined with advances in microscopy have allowed imaging with great resolution of the spatiotemporal characteristics of cytosolic [Ca(2+)]cyt in individual cells. An exciting new step consists therefore in cautiously studying calcium dynamics in mutant backgrounds that display disturbed cellular growth behavior to further enhance our understanding on growth-related processes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936601/texture-analysis-of-high-resolution-dedicated-breast-18-f-fdg-pet-images-correlates-with-immunohistochemical-factors-and-subtype-of-breast-cancer
#11
Alexis Moscoso, Álvaro Ruibal, Inés Domínguez-Prado, Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro, Míchel Herranz, Luis Albaina, Sonia Argibay, Jesús Silva-Rodríguez, Juan Pardo-Montero, Pablo Aguiar
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine whether PET textural features measured with a new dedicated breast PET scanner reflect biological characteristics of breast tumors. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-nine breast tumors from 127 consecutive patients were included in this analysis. All of them underwent a (18)F-FDG PET scan before treatment. Well-known PET quantitative parameters such as SUV m a x , SUV m e a n , metabolically active tumor volume (MATV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were extracted...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936489/landmark-based-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-using-longitudinal-structural-mr-images
#12
Jun Zhang, Mingxia Liu, Le An, Yaozong Gao, Dinggang Shen
In this paper, we propose a landmark-based feature extraction method for AD diagnosis using longitudinal structural MR images, which requires no nonlinear registration or tissue segmentation in the application stage and is robust to the inconsistency among longitudinal scans. Specifically, (1) the discriminative landmarks are first automatically discovered from the whole brain, which can be efficiently localized using a fast landmark detection method for the testing images; (2) High-level statistical spatial features and contextual longitudinal features are then extracted based on those detected landmarks...
October 2016: Bayesian and Graphical Models for Biomedical Imaging: BAMBI 2014
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934953/increased-prevalence-of-renal-cysts-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#13
Daveena Meeks, Arunraj Navaratnarajah, Emma Drasar, Ounali Jaffer, C Jason Wilkins, Swee Lay Thein, Claire C Sharpe
BACKGROUND: Early detection and interventions have enabled patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) to live well into adulthood. Consequently, the chronicity of SCD allows for the insidious manifestation of multisystem complications, including renal damage. Cystic renal lesions are commonly incidentally discovered on ultrasound and computerised tomography (CT) imaging of the abdomen. Most are benign simple cysts, however, difficulties may be encountered if infection, rupture, haemorrhage or cancerous changes develop...
September 21, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934923/discriminative-sparse-features-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-using-multimodal-image-data
#14
A Ortiz, F Lozano, J M Gorriz, J Ramírez, F J Martinez-Murci, For The Alzheimer S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
BACKGROUND: Feature extraction in medical image processing still remains a challenge, especially in high-dimensionality datasets, where the expected number of available samples is considerably lower than the dimension of the feature space. This is a common problem in real-world data, and, specifically, in medical image pro- cessing as, while images are composed of hundreds of thousands voxels, only a reduced number of patients are available. OBJECTIVE: Extracting descriptive and discriminative features to represent each sample (image) by a small number of features, which is particularly important in classification task, due to the curse of dimensionality problem...
September 21, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934696/synthesis-and-application-of-a-plastic-antibody-in-electrochemical-microfluidic-platform-for-oxytocin-determination
#15
Piyush Sindhu Sharma, Zofia Iskierko, Krzysztof Noworyta, Maciej Cieplak, Pawel Borowicz, Wojciech Lisowski, Francis D'Souza, Wlodzimierz Kutner
By means of molecular imprinting of a conducting polymer, molecular cavities selective for oxytocin nonapeptide, an autism biomarker, were designed. Embedding of the oxytocin template, and then its extracting from the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was confirmed by the XPS analysis. AFM imaging of the MIP film surface indicated changes in mechanical properties of the film after template extraction. The MIP synthetic receptor was deposited by potentiodynamic electropolymerization as a thin film on an Au film electrode in an electrochemical miniaturized microfluidic cell...
September 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934631/picometer-scale-atom-position-analysis-in-annular-bright-field-stem-imaging
#16
Peng Gao, Akihito Kumamoto, Ryo Ishikawa, Nathan Lugg, Naoya Shibata, Yuichi Ikuhara
We study the effects of specimen mistilt on the picometer-scale measurement of local structure by combing experiment and simulation in annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ABF-STEM). A relative distance measurement method is proposed to separate the tilt effects from the scan noise and sample drift induced image distortion. We find that under a typical experimental condition a small specimen tilt (∼6 mrad) in 25 nm thick SrTiO3 along [001] causes 11.9 pm artificial displacement between O and Sr/TiO columns in ABF image, which is more than 3 times of scan noise and sample drift induced image distortion ∼3...
September 11, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934254/deep-reconstruction-model-for-dynamic-pet-images
#17
Jianan Cui, Xin Liu, Yile Wang, Huafeng Liu
Accurate and robust tomographic reconstruction from dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) acquired data is a difficult problem. Conventional methods, such as the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm for reconstructing the activity distribution-based on individual frames, may lead to inaccurate results due to the checkerboard effect and limitation of photon counts. In this paper, we propose a stacked sparse auto-encoder based reconstruction framework for dynamic PET imaging. The dynamic reconstruction problem is formulated in a deep learning representation, where the encoding layers extract the prototype features, such as edges, so that, in the decoding layers, the reconstructed results are obtained through a combination of those features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934236/automated-computer-assisted-quantitative-analysis-of-intact-murine-lungs-at-the-alveolar-scale
#18
Goran Lovric, Ioannis Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Rajmund Mokso, Marco Stampanoni, Matthias Roth-Kleiner, Johannes C Schittny
Using state-of-the-art X-ray tomographic microscopy we can image lung tissue in three dimensions in intact animals down to a micrometer precision. The structural complexity and hierarchical branching scheme of the lung at this level of details, however, renders the extraction of biologically relevant quantities particularly challenging. We have developed a methodology for a detailed description of lung inflation patterns by measuring the size and the local curvature of the parenchymal airspaces. These quantitative tools for morphological and topological analyses were applied to high-resolution murine 3D lung image data, inflated at different pressure levels under immediate post mortem conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932611/chronic-pelvic-pain-and-infertility-resulting-from-unrecognized-retained-laminaria
#19
Wesley Nilsson, Sasha Mikhael, Jennifer Kaplan
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the abortion rate in the United States was found to be 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. Of these, the CDC estimates that nearly 49% were performed using unsafe measures. Even when these procedures are safely performed, patients are at risk for immediate or delayed complications. In second-trimester terminations, mechanical dilation with an osmotic dilator is common to allow for delivery of the fetus. The Japanese seaweed Laminaria japonica is used to achieve this purpose...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931867/accuracy-and-reliability-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography-for-linear-and-volumetric-mandibular-condyle-measurements-a-human-cadaver-study
#20
Verónica García-Sanz, Carlos Bellot-Arcís, Virginia Hernández, Pedro Serrano-Sánchez, Juan Guarinos, Vanessa Paredes-Gallardo
The accuracy of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) on linear and volumetric measurements on condyles has only been assessed on dry skulls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of linear and volumetric measurements of mandibular condyles in the presence of soft tissues using CBCT. Six embalmed cadaver heads were used. CBCT scans were taken, followed by the extraction of the condyles. The water displacement technique was used to calculate the volumes of the condyles and three linear measurements were made using a digital caliper, these measurements serving as the gold standard...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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