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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451873/in-silico-analysis-of-antibiotic-induced-clostridium-difficile-infection-remediation-techniques-and-biological-adaptations
#1
Eric W Jones, Jean M Carlson
In this paper we study antibiotic-induced C. difficile infection (CDI), caused by the toxin-producing C. difficile (CD), and implement clinically-inspired simulated treatments in a computational framework that synthesizes a generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) model with SIR modeling techniques. The gLV model uses parameters derived from an experimental mouse model, in which the mice are administered antibiotics and subsequently dosed with CD. We numerically identify which of the experimentally measured initial conditions are vulnerable to CD colonization, then formalize the notion of CD susceptibility analytically...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449856/efficient-detection-of-long-dsrna-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-using-the-dsrna-binding-domain-from-fhv-b2-protein
#2
Baptiste Monsion, Marco Incarbone, Kamal Hleibieh, Vianney Poignavent, Ahmed Ghannam, Patrice Dunoyer, Laurent Daeffler, Jens Tilsner, Christophe Ritzenthaler
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) plays essential functions in many biological processes, including the activation of innate immune responses and RNA interference. dsRNA also represents the genetic entity of some viruses and is a hallmark of infections by positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Methods for detecting dsRNA rely essentially on immunological approaches and their use is often limited to in vitro applications, although recent developments have allowed the visualization of dsRNA in vivo . Here, we report the sensitive and rapid detection of long dsRNA both in vitro and in vivo using the dsRNA binding domain of the B2 protein from Flock house virus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447916/helix-formation-and-stability-in-membranes
#3
REVIEW
Matthew J McKay, Fahmida Afrose, Roger E Koeppe, Denise V Greathouse
In this article we review current understanding of basic principles for the folding of membrane proteins, focusing on the more abundant alpha-helical class. Membrane proteins, vital to many biological functions and implicated in numerous diseases, fold into their active conformations in the complex environment of the cell bilayer membrane. While many membrane proteins rely on the translocon and chaperone proteins to fold correctly, others can achieve their functional form in the absence of any translation apparatus or other aides...
February 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447857/estradiol-effect-on-short-term-object-memory-under-hypocholinergic-condition
#4
Luciana M Pereira, Isabella M Guimarães, Vinícius E M Oliveira, Cristiane P Bastos, Fabíola M Ribeiro, Vânia F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Grace S Pereira
Estrogens positively affect object recognition memory (ORM). However, whether this effect rely on acetylcholine is unknown. Here we investigated if 17β-estradiol (E2) would be able to recover ORM deficits in animals with decreased expression of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT KD HET ). We found that E2 improved short-term ORM (STM) in VAChT KD HET male and in OVX female mutant mice. However, E2 did not recover long-term (LTM) ORM in both sexes. Next, we tested whether hippocampal ERs activation could also rescue STM in mutant mice...
February 12, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443833/experimental-study-on-effects-of-adipose-derived-stem-cell-seeded-silk-fibroin-chitosan-film-on-wound-healing-of-a-diabetic-rat-model
#5
Yan-Yun Wu, Yan-Peng Jiao, Li-Ling Xiao, Min-Min Li, Hong-Wei Liu, Sheng-Hong Li, Xuan Liao, Yong-Tian Chen, Jiang-Xuan Li, Yang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Wound healing is a complex process that relies on growth factors and stimulation of angiogenesis. Tissue engineering materials composed of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and silk fibroin (SF)/chitosan (CS) may be able to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the wound-healing potential of ADSC-seeded SF/CS in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were purchased and randomly assigned into 3 groups: a control group (no graft), a group treated with SF/CS film graft, and a group treated with ADSC-seeded SF/CS graft...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442974/vinyl-functionalized-porous-silica-nanospheres-prepared-by-poly-1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-grafted-surface-protected-selective-etching-strategy
#6
Jie Li, Jia Zhang, Lianxi Chen, Yu Wang, Zhenhui Liu
A new effective surface poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) grafted layer protected selective etching strategy has been used for preparing vinyl functionalized porous silica nanospheres (V-PSNSs). The main reaction mechanism was relied on the vinyl groups distributed on the surface of outer vinyl silica nanospheres (V-SiO2) which can be polymerized with another vinyl monomer, such as 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP), in the presence of initiator. It was observed from the research results that only grafting PVP on the surface of outer vinyl silica nanospheres (V-SiO2) can V-PSNSs be obtained, because grafting PVP was able to protect outer V-SiO2 from being etched prior to inner pure silica (sSiO2)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438377/modeling-the-spread-of-the-zika-virus-using-topological-data-analysis
#7
Derek Lo, Briton Park
Zika virus (ZIKV), a disease spread primarily through the Aedes aegypti mosquito, was identified in Brazil in 2015 and was declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO). Epidemiologists often use common state-level attributes such as population density and temperature to determine the spread of disease. By applying techniques from topological data analysis, we believe that epidemiologists will be able to better predict how ZIKV will spread. We use the Vietoris-Rips filtration on high-density mosquito locations in Brazil to create simplicial complexes, from which we extract homology group generators...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437882/decidual-regulation-of-trophoblast-is-altered-in-pregnancies-at-risk-of-pre-eclampsia
#8
Laura B James-Allan, Guy StJ Whitley, Karin Leslie, Alison E Wallace, Judith E Cartwright
Successful implantation and placentation are dependent on the interaction between decidual stromal cells (DSC) and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells. The extent of trophoblast invasion relies on communication between the placenta and maternal decidua. The cyclical process of decidualisation induces a transformation of endometrial fibroblasts to secretory DSC; these secreted products have many functions including the control of trophoblast invasion. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and remodelling of the uterine vessels (the spiral arteries) are associated with pregnancy disorders such as pre-eclampsia...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434262/revolving-supramolecular-chiral-structures-powered-by-light-in-nanomotor-doped-liquid-crystals
#9
Tetiana Orlova, Federico Lancia, Charles Loussert, Supitchaya Iamsaard, Nathalie Katsonis, Etienne Brasselet
Molecular machines operated by light have been recently shown to be able to produce oriented motion at the molecular scale1,2 as well as do macroscopic work when embedded in supramolecular structures3-5. However, any supramolecular movement irremediably ceases as soon as the concentration of the interconverting molecular motors or switches reaches a photo-stationary state6,7. To circumvent this limitation, researchers have typically relied on establishing oscillating illumination conditions-either by modulating the source intensity8,9 or by using bespoke illumination arrangements10-13...
February 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433132/-the-economic-value-of-vaccinations-a-systematic-review-of-italian-economic-evaluations-and-hta-reports
#10
Francesco Di Nardo, Sara Boccalini, Giovanna Elisa Calabrò, Andrea Marcellusi, Matteo Ruggeri, Paolo Bonanni, Raffaella Vitali, Eleonora Capannini, Francesco Saverio Mennini, Americo Cicchetti, Donatella Panatto, Roberto Gasparini, Walter Ricciardi, Chiara De Waure
INTRODUCTION: Decision-making in healthcare should rely on evidence-based approaches able to make possible a transparent and robust assessment of all the aspects related to health technologies. One of the assessment elements is represented by the efficiency that is the specific objective of economic evaluations and also of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The collection and synthesis of evidence is the first indispensable step in order to foster a proper convey of scientific knowledge to the decision-makers...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432600/early-life-parent-child-relationships-and-adult-children-s-support-of-unpartnered-parents-in-later-life
#11
I-Fen Lin, Hsueh-Sheng Wu
Objectives: The proportion of older adults who are unpartnered has increased significantly over the past 25 years. Unpartnered older adults often rely on their adult children for support. Most previous studies have focused on proximal factors associated with adult children's support of their parents, while few have examined distal factors, such as parent-child relationships formed during childhood. This study fills the gap by investigating the direct and indirect associations between early-life parent-child relationships and adult children's upward transfers to unpartnered parents...
February 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432295/screening-tools-for-paediatric-malnutrition-are-we-there-yet
#12
Luise V Marino, Philippa C Thomas, Robert M Beattie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of nutritional screening tools has done much to raise the profile of nutrition and encourage healthcare practitioners to consider how to identify children at nutritional risk. However, the next challenge is to ensure nutritional screening accurately identifies those who have immediate and ongoing risk and therefore the potential to impact on it. RECENT FINDINGS: In this article, we review recent evidence which suggests that the large-scale use of these tools outside of a research setting is not always helpful...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427702/high-brain-distribution-of-a-new-central-nervous-system-drug-candidate-despite-its-p-glycoprotein-mediated-efflux-at-the-mouse-blood-brain-barrier
#13
Camille Taccola, Sylvaine Cartot-Cotton, Delphine Valente, Pascal Barneoud, Catherine Aubert, Valérie Boutet, Fabienne Gallen, Murielle Lochus, Sophie Nicolic, Agnès Dodacki, Maria Smirnova, Salvatore Cisternino, Xavier Declèves, Fanchon Bourasset
Efficacy of drugs aimed at treating central nervous system (CNS) disorders rely partly on their ability to cross the cerebral endothelium, also called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which constitutes the main interface modulating exchanges of compounds between the brain and blood. In this work, we used both, conventional pharmacokinetics (PK) approach and in situ brain perfusion technique to study the blood and brain PK of PKRinh, an inhibitor of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation, in mice...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427438/nanoparticle-based-approaches-to-immune-tolerance-for-the-treatment-of-autoimmune-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Pau Serra, Pere Santamaria
Autoimmune diseases are caused by antigenically complex immune responses of the adaptive and innate immune system against specific cells, tissues or organs. Antigen-specific approaches for induction of immune tolerance in autoimmunity, based on the use of antigenic peptides or proteins, have failed to deliver the desired therapeutic results in clinical trials. These approaches, which are largely relying on triggering clonal anergy and/or deletion of defined autoreactive specificities, do not address the overwhelming antigenic, molecular and cellular complexity of most autoimmune diseases, which involve various immune cells and ever-growing repertoires of antigenic epitopes on numerous self-antigens...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420949/nickel-mediated-allosteric-manipulation-of-g-quadruplex-dnazyme-for-highly-selective-detection-of-histidine
#15
Zijun Li, Jian Zhao, Zhaoyin Wang, Zhihui Dai
Since abnormal metabolism of histidine (His) is defined as an indicator of several diseases, detection of His in biological fluids becomes increasingly urgent to us. However, due to similar structures and properties of different amino acids, selective quantification of His is difficulty, and typically needs the participation of special reagents. In this work, we report for the first time that nickel ions (Ni2+) can induce the allostery of G-quadruplex, and is thus able to manipulate the activity of G-quadruplex DNAzyme...
May 30, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420669/insights-into-the-reproduction-of-some-antarctic-dendroceratid-poecilosclerid-and-haplosclerid-demosponges
#16
Vasiliki Koutsouveli, Sergi Taboada, Juan Moles, Javier Cristobo, Pilar Ríos, Andrea Bertran, Joan Solà, Conxita Avila, Ana Riesgo
Sponges are a dominant element of the Antarctic benthic communities, posing both high species richness and large population densities. Despite their importance in Antarctic ecosystems, very little is known about their reproductive patterns and strategies. In our study, we surveyed the tissue of six different species for reproductive elements, namely, Dendrilla antarctica Topsent, 1905 (order Dendroceratida), Phorbas areolatus (Thiele, 1905), Kirkpatrickia variolosa (Kirkpatrick, 1907), and Isodictya kerguelenensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (order Poecilosclerida), and Hemigellius pilosus (Kirkpatrick, 1907) and Haliclona penicillata (Topsent, 1908) (Haplosclerida)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419751/accurate-initial-state-estimation-in-a-monocular-visual-inertial-slam-system
#17
Xufu Mu, Jing Chen, Zixiang Zhou, Zhen Leng, Lei Fan
The fusion of monocular visual and inertial cues has become popular in robotics, unmanned vehicles and augmented reality fields. Recent results have shown that optimization-based fusion strategies outperform filtering strategies. Robust state estimation is the core capability for optimization-based visual-inertial Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) systems. As a result of the nonlinearity of visual-inertial systems, the performance heavily relies on the accuracy of initial values (visual scale, gravity, velocity and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) biases)...
February 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417574/medicare-payment-penalties-and-safety-net-hospital-profitability-minimal-impact-on-these-vulnerable-hospitals
#18
Gloria J Bazzoli, Michael P Thompson, Teresa M Waters
OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between penalties assessed by Medicare's Hospital Readmission Reduction Program and Value-Based Purchasing Program and hospital financial condition. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, American Hospital Association, and Area Health Resource File data for 4,824 hospital-year observations. STUDY DESIGN: Bivariate and multivariate analysis of pooled cross-sectional data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Safety net hospitals have significantly higher HRRP/VBP penalties, but, unlike nonsafety net hospitals, increases in their penalty rate did not significantly affect their total margins...
February 8, 2018: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417018/lacunae-in-noncommunicable-disease-control-program-need-to-focus-on-adherence-issues
#19
Tarundeep Singh, Nidhi Bhatnagar, Gopal Singh Moond
Introduction: Chronic non communicable diseases in India have increased in magnitude with earlier onset and more likelihood of complications. Much emphasis is given to early diagnosis and timely treatment. Additionally, tertiary prevention through medication adherence is needed to limit disability and prevent early onset of complications. This study was aimed to assess the magnitude of medication and lifestyle adherence among elderly patients suffering from diabetes and hypertension in rural areas of Punjab...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416012/ros-independent-er-stress-mediated-nrf2-activation-promotes-warburg-effect-to-maintain-stemness-associated-properties-of-cancer-initiating-cells
#20
Ching-Wen Chang, Yu-Syuan Chen, Yeou-Guang Tsay, Chia-Li Han, Yu-Ju Chen, Cheng-Chieh Yang, Kai-Feng Hung, Chao-Hsiung Lin, Tsung-Yen Huang, Shou-Yen Kao, Te-Chang Lee, Jeng-Fan Lo
Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and therapeutic resistance; moreover, redox homeostasis is important in regulating cancer stemness. Previously, we have identified that cancer cells containing low intracellular reactive oxygen species levels (ROSLow cells) display enhanced features of CICs. However, the specific metabolic signatures of CICs remain unclear and are required for further characterization by systemic screenings. Herein, we first showed CICs mainly relying on glycolysis that was important for the maintenance of stemness properties...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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