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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645296/myd88-dependent-pro-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induction-in-dendritic-cells-exposed-to-food-grade-synthetic-amorphous-silica
#1
Hans Christian Winkler, Julian Kornprobst, Peter Wick, Lea Maria von Moos, Ioannis Trantakis, Elisabeth Maria Schraner, Barbara Bathke, Hubertus Hochrein, Mark Suter, Hanspeter Naegeli
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized first-line sensors of foreign materials invading the organism. These sentinel cells rely on pattern recognition receptors such as Nod-like or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to launch immune reactions against pathogens, but also to mediate tolerance to self-antigens and, in the intestinal milieu, to nutrients and commensals. Since inappropriate DC activation contributes to inflammatory diseases and immunopathologies, a key question in the evaluation of orally ingested nanomaterials is whether their contact with DCs in the intestinal mucosa disrupts this delicate homeostatic balance between pathogen defense and tolerance...
June 23, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643894/do-implicit-and-explicit-belief-processing-share-neural-substrates
#2
Claire K Naughtin, Kristina Horne, Dana Schneider, Dustin Venini, Ashley York, Paul E Dux
Humans rely on their ability to infer another person's mental state to understand and predict others' behavior ("theory of mind," ToM). Multiple lines of research suggest that not only are humans able to consciously process another person's belief state, but also are able to do so implicitly. Here we explored how general implicit belief states are represented in the brain, compared to those substrates involved in explicit ToM processes. Previous work on this topic has yielded conflicting results, and thus, the extent to which the implicit and explicit ToM systems draw on common neural bases is unclear...
June 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642757/the-fungal-pathogen-candida-glabrata-does-not-depend-on-surface-ferric-reductases-for-iron-acquisition
#3
Franziska Gerwien, Abu Safyan, Stephanie Wisgott, Sascha Brunke, Lydia Kasper, Bernhard Hube
Iron acquisition is a crucial virulence determinant for many bacteria and fungi, including the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata. While the diverse strategies used by C. albicans for obtaining iron from the host are well-described, much less is known about the acquisition of this micronutrient from host sources by C. glabrata - a distant relative of C. albicans with closer evolutionary ties to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which nonetheless causes severe clinical symptoms in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639697/determination-of-metabolic-resistance-mechanisms-in-pyrethroid-resistant-and-fipronil-tolerant-brown-dog-ticks
#4
A L Eiden, P E Kaufman, F M Oi, M J Dark, J R Bloomquist, R J Miller
Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host dog tick found worldwide that is able to complete its' entire lifecycle indoors. Options for the management of R. sanguineus are limited and its' control relies largely on only a few acaricidal active ingredients. Previous studies have confirmed permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in R. sanguineus populations, commonly conferred by metabolic detoxification or target site mutations. Herein, five strains of permethrin-resistant and three strains of fipronil-tolerant ticks were evaluated for metabolic resistance using synergists to block metabolic enzymes...
June 22, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639486/estimated-prevalence-of-the-target-population-for-brain-computer-interface-neurotechnology-in-the-netherlands
#5
Elmar G M Pels, Erik J Aarnoutse, Nick F Ramsey, Mariska J Vansteensel
BACKGROUND: People who suffer from paralysis have difficulties participating in society. Particularly burdensome is the locked-in syndrome (LIS). LIS patients are not able to move and speak but are cognitively healthy. They rely on assistive technology to interact with the world and may benefit from neurotechnological advances. Optimal research and design of such aids requires a well-defined target population. However, the LIS population is poorly characterized and the number of patients in this condition is unknown...
June 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638403/jaburetox-update-on-a-urease-derived-peptide
#6
REVIEW
Arlete Beatriz Becker-Ritt, Camila Saretta Portugal, Célia Regina Carlini
Urease from Canavalia ensiformis seeds was the first enzyme ever to be crystallized, in 1926. These proteins, found in plants, bacteria and fungi, present different biological properties including catalytic hydrolysis of urea, and also enzyme-independent activities, such as induction of exocytosis, pro-inflammatory effects, neurotoxicity, antifungal and insecticidal properties. Urease is toxic to insects and fungi per se but part of this toxicity relies on an internal peptide (~11 kDa), which is released upon digestion of the protein by insect enzymes...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635440/adding-an-accredited-exercise-physiologist-role-to-a-new-model-of-care-at-a-secure-extended-care-mental-health-service-a-qualitative-study
#7
Trentham Furness, Jude Hewavasam, Jakqui Barnfield, Brian McKenna, Corey Joseph
BACKGROUND: Accredited exercise physiologists (AEPs) are emerging as essential members of allied health in the management of non-communicable chronic diseases. People diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI) are at greater risk of cardiovascular diseases. Secure extended care units (SECUs) provide treatment, supervision and support for people with SMI whose needs cannot be met adequately in the community. However, the role of AEPs in SECUs has not been described. AIM: Describe the processes and outcomes of adding an AEP to a new model of care at a SECU...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634770/medical-negligence-determinations-the-right-to-try-and-expanded-access-to-innovative-treatments
#8
Denise Meyerson
This article considers the issue of expanded access to innovative treatments in the context of recent legislative initiatives in the United Kingdom and the United States. In the United Kingdom, the supporters of legislative change argued that the common law principles governing medical negligence are a barrier to innovation. In an attempt to remove this perceived impediment, two bills proposed that innovating doctors sued for negligence should be able to rely in their defence on the fact that their decision to innovate was "responsible...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623709/the-mechanism-of-neuroprotective-action-of-natural-compounds
#9
REVIEW
Agnieszka Wąsik, Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk
Disturbance of cerebral redox homeostasis is the primary cause of human neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. Well known experimental research demonstrates that oxidative stress is a main cause of cell death. A high concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species leads to damage of a lot of proteins, lipids and also DNA. Synthetic compounds used for the treatment in the neurodegenerative diseases failed to meet the hopes they had raised and often exhibit a number of side effects...
April 30, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623180/behavioral-screening-of-the-lopac-1280-library-in-zebrafish-embryos
#10
Sara M Vliet, Trina C Ho, David C Volz
Spontaneous activity represents an early, primitive form of motor activity within zebrafish embryos, providing a potential readout for identification of neuroactive compounds. However, despite use as an endpoint in chemical screens around the world, the predictive power and limitations of assays relying on spontaneous activity remain unclear. Using an improved high-content screening assay that increased throughput from 384 to 3072 wells per week, we screened a well-characterized library of 1280 pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC(1280)) - 612 of which target neurotransmission - to identify which targets are detected using spontaneous activity as a readout...
June 13, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620458/reproducibility2020-progress-and-priorities
#11
REVIEW
Leonard P Freedman, Gautham Venugopalan, Rosann Wisman
The preclinical research process is a cycle of idea generation, experimentation, and reporting of results. The biomedical research community relies on the reproducibility of published discoveries to create new lines of research and to translate research findings into therapeutic applications. Since 2012, when scientists from Amgen reported that they were able to reproduce only 6 of 53 "landmark" preclinical studies, the biomedical research community began discussing the scale of the reproducibility problem and developing initiatives to address critical challenges...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617072/evaluation-of-ninepoint-medical-s-nvision-vle-device-for-gastrointestinal-applications
#12
Jeffrey D Mosko, Douglas Pleskow
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased over the last few decades. With a known precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, this remains a target for screening and surveillance with the goal of detecting and providing curative treatment for early neoplasia. Areas covered: Current surveillance techniques rely on white light endoscopy and random tissue sampling which is time consuming, costly and prone to sampling error. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE), a second-generation optical coherence technology, has emerged as an advanced imaging modality with the potential to improve dysplasia detection, surveillance and subsequently prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma...
June 15, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605496/validation-of-microbiological-testing-in-cardiovascular-tissue-banks-results-of-a-quality-round-trial
#13
Theo M M H de By, Carl McDonald, Susanne Süßner, Jill Davies, Wee Ling Heng, Ramadan Jashari, Ad J J C Bogers, Pieter Petit
OBJECTIVES: Surgeons needing human cardiovascular tissue for implantation in their patients are confronted with cardiovascular tissue banks that use different methods to identify and decontaminate micro-organisms. To elucidate these differences, we compared the quality of processing methods in 20 tissue banks and 1 reference laboratory. We did this to validate the results for accepting or rejecting tissue. We included the decontamination methods used and the influence of antibiotic cocktails and residues with results and controls...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602295/aptamer-based-detection-of-adenosine-triphosphate-via-qpcr
#14
Harshvardhan Modh, Martin Witt, Katharina Urmann, Antonina Lavrentieva, Ester Segal, Thomas Scheper, Johanna-Gabriela Walter
Sensitive and specific detection and quantification of small molecules often remain challenging. We developed a novel magnetic bead-based aptamer-assisted real-time PCR (Apta-qPCR) assay to provide a versatile platform for quantification of small molecules. The assay has been realized for the detection of ATP as a model system. The assay relies on a combination of qPCR with the target-induced dissociation (TID) of ATP aptamer from an oligonucleotide, complementary to the ATP binding site of the aptamer. The complementary oligonucleotide was immobilized on deoxythymidine (dT)-modified magnetic beads (dT-beads) and hybridized with the aptamer...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595649/data-driven-prediction-of-adverse-drug-reactions-induced-by-drug-drug-interactions
#15
Ruifeng Liu, Mohamed Diwan M AbdulHameed, Kamal Kumar, Xueping Yu, Anders Wallqvist, Jaques Reifman
BACKGROUND: The expanded use of multiple drugs has increased the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, such reactions are typically not observed in clinical drug-development studies because most of them focus on single-drug therapies. ADR reporting systems collect information on adverse health effects caused by both single drugs and DDIs. A major challenge is to unambiguously identify the effects caused by DDIs and to attribute them to specific drug interactions...
June 8, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594530/key-concepts-of-musculoskeletal-infection
#16
Scott B Rosenfeld, Lawson A Copley, Megan Mignemi, Thomas An, Michael Benvenuti, Jonathan Schoenecker
Over the past few decades, musculoskeletal infections have increased in both incidence and severity. The clinical manifestations of musculoskeletal infections range from isolated osteomyelitis to multisite infections with systemic complications. Although this increased incidence of musculoskeletal infections correlates with the increased incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, other nonresistant infectious organisms have been associated with severe musculoskeletal infections; this finding supports the likelihood that an antibiotic resistance profile is not a major factor in bacterial virulence...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590253/when-lithography-meets-self-assembly-a-review-of-recent-advances-in-the-directed-assembly-of-complex-metal-nanostructures-on-planar-and-textured-surfaces
#17
Robert Hughes, Eredzhep Menumerov, Svetlana Neretina
One of the foremost challenges in nanofabrication is the establishment of a processing science that integrates wafer-based materials, techniques, and devices with the extraordinary physicochemical properties accessible when materials are reduced to nanoscale dimensions. Such a merger would allow for exacting controls on nanostructure positioning, promote cooperative phenomenon between adjacent nanostructures and/or substrate materials, and allow for electrical contact to individual or groups of nanostructures...
June 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587498/surface-eeg-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-closed-loop-system
#18
Jorge Leite, Leon Morales-Quezada, Sandra Carvalho, Aurore Thibaut, Deniz Doruk, Chiun-Fan Chen, Steven C Schachter, Alexander Rotenberg, Felipe Fregni
Conventional transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocols rely on applying electrical current at a fixed intensity and duration without using surrogate markers to direct the interventions. This has led to some mixed results; especially because tDCS induced effects may vary depending on the ongoing level of brain activity. Therefore, the objective of this preliminary study was to assess the feasibility of an EEG-triggered tDCS system based on EEG online analysis of its frequency bands. Six healthy volunteers were randomized to participate in a double-blind sham-controlled crossover design to receive a single session of 10[Formula: see text]min 2[Formula: see text]mA cathodal and sham tDCS...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587421/effect-of-suo-quan-wan-on-the-bladder-function-of-aging-rats-based-on-the-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor
#19
Yi-Fei Xu, Zhi-Jian Liang, Zhao-Jin Kuang, Jie-Jun Chen, Jun Wu, Xiang-E Lu, Wei-Wen Jiang, Ping-Long Fan, Li-Yao Tang, Yi-Tao Li, Ping Huang, Hong-Ying Cao
Suo Quan Wan (SQW) has been used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly patients for hundreds of years in China. β-adrenoceptors (β-ARs), particularly β3-adrenoceptor (β3-AR), was reported to be important in the bladder dysfunction of the elderly. The present study was conducted to explore the effect of β-AR, and particularly the β3-adrenoceptor, in aging rat bladder function in vitro and to test the therapeutic effect of SQW on LUTS in an aging rat model based on the β3-adrenoceptor...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587105/internal-model-based-robust-tracking-control-design-for-the-mems-electromagnetic-micromirror
#20
Jiazheng Tan, Weijie Sun, John T W Yeow
The micromirror based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology is widely employed in different areas, such as scanning, imaging and optical switching. This paper studies the MEMS electromagnetic micromirror for scanning or imaging application. In these application scenarios, the micromirror is required to track the command sinusoidal signal, which can be converted to an output regulation problem theoretically. In this paper, based on the internal model principle, the output regulation problem is solved by designing a robust controller that is able to force the micromirror to track the command signal accurately...
May 26, 2017: Sensors
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