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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052212/technical-review-microscopy-and-image-processing-tools-to-analyze-plant-chromatin-practical-considerations
#1
Célia Baroux, Veit Schubert
In situ nucleus and chromatin analyses rely on microscopy imaging that benefits from versatile, efficient fluorescent probes and proteins for static or live imaging. Yet the broad choice in imaging instruments offered to the user poses orientation problems. Which imaging instrument should be used for which purpose? What are the main caveats and what are the considerations to best exploit each instrument's ability to obtain informative and high-quality images? How to infer quantitative information on chromatin or nuclear organization from microscopy images? In this review, we present an overview of common, fluorescence-based microscopy systems and discuss recently developed super-resolution microscopy systems, which are able to bridge the resolution gap between common fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050986/rac1-plays-a-role-in-cxcl12-but-not-ccl3-induced-chemotaxis-and-rac1-gef-inhibitor-nsc23766-has-off-target-effects-on-cxcr4
#2
Shirley C Mills, Lesley Howell, Andrew Beekman, Leanne Stokes, Anja Mueller
Cell migration towards a chemotactic stimulus relies on the re-arrangement of the cytoskeleton, which is triggered by activation of small G proteins RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42, and leads to formation of lamellopodia and actin polymerisation amongst other effects. Here we show that Rac1 is important for CXCR4 induced chemotaxis but not for CCR1/CCR5 induced chemotaxis. For CXCL12-induced migration via CXCR4, breast cancer MCF-7 cells are reliant on Rac1, similarly to THP-1 monocytes and Jurkat T-cells. For CCL3-induced migration via CCR1 and/or CCR5, Rac1 signalling does not regulate cell migration in either suspension or adherent cells...
October 16, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049594/the-perceptual-dimensions-of-natural-dynamic-flow
#3
Yaniv Morgenstern, Daniel J Kersten
We measured perceptual judgments of category, material attributes, affordances, and similarity to investigate the perceptual dimensions underlying the visual representation of a broad class of natural dynamic flows (sea waves, smoke, and windblown foliage). The dynamic flows were looped 3-s movies windowed with circular apertures of two sizes to manipulate the level of spatial context. In low levels of spatial context (smaller apertures), human observers' judgments of material attributes and affordances were inaccurate, with estimates biased toward assumptions that the flows resulted from objects that were rigid, "pick-up-able," and not penetrable...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049548/multimodal-analgesia-in-outpatient-head-and-neck-surgery-a-feasibility-and-safety-study
#4
Justin Oltman, Oleg Militsakh, Mark D'Agostino, Brittany Kauffman, Robert Lindau, Andrew Coughlin, William Lydiatt, Daniel Lydiatt, Russell Smith, Aru Panwar
Importance: Perioperative analgesia strategies that rely solely on narcotics may contribute to adverse effects and concerns about opioid abuse or dependence. Multimodal analgesia protocols incorporating nonnarcotic agents may reduce the need for postoperative narcotic use. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a multimodal analgesia protocol for outpatient head and neck surgical procedures and to identify the association of the multimodal analgesia protocol with postoperative pain perception scores and patient satisfaction...
October 19, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049280/ethoscopes-an-open-platform-for-high-throughput-ethomics
#5
Quentin Geissmann, Luis Garcia Rodriguez, Esteban J Beckwith, Alice S French, Arian R Jamasb, Giorgio F Gilestro
Here, we present the use of ethoscopes, which are machines for high-throughput analysis of behavior in Drosophila and other animals. Ethoscopes provide a software and hardware solution that is reproducible and easily scalable. They perform, in real-time, tracking and profiling of behavior by using a supervised machine learning algorithm, are able to deliver behaviorally triggered stimuli to flies in a feedback-loop mode, and are highly customizable and open source. Ethoscopes can be built easily by using 3D printing technology and rely on Raspberry Pi microcomputers and Arduino boards to provide affordable and flexible hardware...
October 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043151/biobehavioral-assessment-of-the-anxiety-disorders-current-progress-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Deah Abbott, Yasmin Shirali, J Kyle Haws, Caleb W Lack
It is difficult to accurately assess and differentially diagnose the anxiety disorders. The current system of assessment relies heavily on the subjective measures of client self-report, clinical observation, and clinical judgment. Fortunately, recent technological advances may enable practitioners to utilize objective, biobehavioral measures of assessment in a clinical setting. The current body of literature on two of these biobehavioral tools (eye-tracking and electrocardiogram devices) is promising, but more validation and standardization research is needed to maximize the utility of these devices...
September 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040976/diagnosing-psychopathy-through-emotional-regulation-tasks-heart-rate-variability-versus-implicit-association-test
#7
Gerardo Flórez, Xosé A Vila, María J Lado, Pedro Cuesta, Ventura Ferrer, Luis S García, María R Crespo, Manuel Pérez
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the assessment of psychopathy relies on semistructured interviews plus file reviews. In order to improve the predictive validity of psychopathy at the individual level, tools that are not based on the rating of signs and symptoms are in great need. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in a representative sample of 204 Spanish sentenced inmates. These inmates have served at least 6 months of their sentence at the Pereiro de Aguiar (Ourense, Spain) penitentiary...
October 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040314/structure-of-311-service-requests-as-a-signature-of-urban-location
#8
Lingjing Wang, Cheng Qian, Philipp Kats, Constantine Kontokosta, Stanislav Sobolevsky
While urban systems demonstrate high spatial heterogeneity, many urban planning, economic and political decisions heavily rely on a deep understanding of local neighborhood contexts. We show that the structure of 311 Service Requests enables one possible way of building a unique signature of the local urban context, thus being able to serve as a low-cost decision support tool for urban stakeholders. Considering examples of New York City, Boston and Chicago, we demonstrate how 311 Service Requests recorded and categorized by type in each neighborhood can be utilized to generate a meaningful classification of locations across the city, based on distinctive socioeconomic profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039937/concentration-independent-stereodynamic-g-probe-for-chiroptical-enantiomeric-excess-determination
#9
Paolo Zardi, Klaus Wurst, Giulia Licini, Cristiano Zonta
Enantiomeric excess determination is crucial in many aspects of science ranging from synthesis to materials. Within this subject, the use of molecular sensors coupled with chiroptical techniques is a straightforward approach to the stereochemical analysis of chiral molecules, especially in terms of process immediacy and labor. Ste-reodynamic probes typically consist of racemic mixtures of rapidly interconverting enantiomeric conformers able to recognize a chiral analyte and greatly amplify its chiroptical readout...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035880/immunoregulation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-by-endothelial-derived-p33-gc1q-receptor
#10
Ariane Neumann, Praveen Papareddy, Johannes Westman, Ole Hyldegaard, Johanna Snäll, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Heiko Herwald
The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a host defence mechanism, known to facilitate the entrapment and growth inhibition of many bacterial pathogens. It has been implicated that the translocation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from neutrophilic granules to the nucleus is crucial to this process. Under disease conditions, however, excessive NET formation can trigger self-destructive complications by releasing pathologic levels of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs). To counteract such devastating immune reactions, the host has to rely on precautions that help circumvent these deleterious effects...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028819/the-anti-myeloma-activity-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-predominantly-relies-on-the-induction-of-growth-arrest-and-is-apoptosis-independent
#11
Charlotte Lagler, Mohamed El-Mesery, Alexander Christian Kübler, Urs Dietmar Achim Müller-Richter, Thorsten Stühmer, Joachim Nickel, Thomas Dieter Müller, Harald Wajant, Axel Seher
Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignancy of the bone marrow, is characterized by a pathological increase in antibody-producing plasma cells and an increase in immunoglobulins (plasmacytosis). In recent years, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been reported to be activators of apoptotic cell death in neoplastic B cells in MM. Here, we use bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to show that the "apoptotic" effect of BMPs on human neoplastic B cells is dominated by anti-proliferative activities and cell cycle arrest and is apoptosis-independent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027266/reliable-and-sensitive-physical-testing-of-elite-trapeze-sailors
#12
Jonathan Bay, Jens Bojsen-Møller, Nikolai B Nordsborg
It was investigated, if a newly developed discipline specific test for elite-level trapeze sailors is reli-able and sensitive. Furthermore, the physical demands of trapeze sailing were examined. In part 1, nine national team athletes were accustomed to a simulated sailing test, which subsequently was completed on four occasions to determine test reliability and sensitivity to manipulations in body-weight. Rope-pulling mean power output (MPO), oxygen consumption (VO2 ), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate values were acquired in all trials...
October 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027217/danger-signals-chemotherapy-enhancers
#13
REVIEW
Thaiz Rivera Vargas, Lionel Apetoh
Endogenous danger signals are molecules normally present in a given cell compartment that are rapidly released following cell stress and induce immune responses. We and others have shown that dying tumor cells treated with some chemotherapies are able to induce anticancer immune responses, which rely on their release of danger signals such as the nuclear protein HMGB1. DNA can also be released from chemotherapy-treated tumor cells, act as a danger signal, and boost anticancer immunity. While the immunostimulatory properties of DNA have been identified for decades, the recent discovery of a novel family of receptors, cytosolic DNA sensors, has provided a novel impetus not only to understand how chemotherapy can trigger anticancer immune responses but also to exploit DNA-derived molecules for therapeutic use...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021390/eye-hand-coordination-during-flexible-manual-interception-of-an-abruptly-appearing-moving-target
#14
Yuhui Li, Yong Wang, He Cui
As a vital skill in an evolving world, interception of moving objects relies on accurate prediction of target motion. In natural circumstances, active gaze shifts often accompany hand movements when exploring targets of interest, but how eye and hand movements are coordinated during manual interception and their dependence on visual prediction remain unclear. Here, we trained gaze-unrestrained monkeys to manually intercept targets appearing at random locations and circularly moving with random speeds. We found that well-trained animals were able to intercept the targets with adequate compensation for both sensory transmission and motor delays...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020863/examining-employment-outcomes-of-offender-and-nonoffender-vocational-program-graduates
#15
Dana L Formon, Adam T Schmidt, Craig Henderson
Researchers have found providing employment opportunities for ex-offenders through job training programs to be effective at reducing recidivism. Examining various community-based programs for ex-offenders can be beneficial as they may be able to provide more stable and consistent programming without relying on the justice system. This study examined employment outcomes of graduates with and without criminal histories ( n = 617) from a community-based vocational training program. Results showed that ex-offender graduates obtained employment at equal rates to nonoffender graduates and received equal pay to their nonoffender counterparts...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016664/contribution-of-cell-proliferation-to-axial-elongation-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#16
Rodrigo E Cepeda, Renato V Pardo, Constanza C Macaya, Andres F Sarrazin
Most arthropods generate their posterior bodies by adding segments periodically, as the embryo grows, from a posteriorly located region called the segment addition zone. This mode of segmentation is shared with vertebrates and relies on oscillatory mechanisms, where the temporal periodicity of a clock is translated into repetitive spatial patterns. This ordered anterior-to-posterior pattern is achieved at the same time as the tissue elongates, opening the question of the functional coordination between the mechanisms of segmental patterning and posterior growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993236/affective-blindsight-relies-on-low-spatial-frequencies
#17
Nicolas Burra, Alexis Hervais-Adelman, Alessia Celeghin, Beatrice de Gelder, Alan J Pegna
The human brain can process facial expressions of emotions rapidly and without awareness. Several studies in patients with damage to their primary visual cortices have shown that they may be able to guess the emotional expression on a face despite their cortical blindness. This non-conscious processing, called affective blindsight, may arise through an intact subcortical visual route that leads from the superior colliculus to the pulvinar, and thence to the amygdala. This pathway is thought to process the crude visual information conveyed by the low spatial frequencies of the stimuli...
October 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989614/universal-sensor-array-for-highly-selective-system-identification-using-two-dimensional-nanoparticles
#18
Mustafa Salih Hizir, Neil M Robertson, Mustafa Balcioglu, Esma Alp, Muhit Rana, Mehmet V Yigit
A typical lock-and-key sensing strategy, relying only on the most dominant interactions between the probe and target, could be too limiting. In reality, the information received upon sensing is much richer. Non-specific events due to various intermolecular forces contribute to the overall received information with different degrees, and when analyzed, could provide a much more powerful detection opportunity. Here, we have assembled a highly selective universal sensor array using water-soluble two-dimensional nanoparticles (nGO, MoS2 and WS2) and fluorescent DNA molecules...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989610/controlled-in-cell-activation-of-rna-therapeutics-using-bond-cleaving-bio-orthogonal-chemistry
#19
Irfan Khan, Leah M Seebald, Neil M Robertson, Mehmet V Yigit, Maksim Royzen
Temporal control of siRNA activation is a major challenge for RNAi-based therapeutics. The majority of the reported siRNA delivery systems rely on environmental factors, such as differences in extracellular and intracellular redox potential, ATP concentration, or pH to activate an siRNA payload. However dynamic endogenous environments are far too complex to rely on for controllable siRNA release and can result in premature siRNA activation prior to reaching the intended biological target. In addition, there are uncertainties about timing, degree and rate of the siRNA activation with spontaneous release approaches...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989227/smell-or-vision-the-use-of-different-sensory-modalities-in-predator-discrimination
#20
Stefan Fischer, Evelyne Oberhummer, Filipa Cunha-Saraiva, Nina Gerber, Barbara Taborsky
ABSTRACT: Theory predicts that animals should adjust their escape responses to the perceived predation risk. The information animals obtain about potential predation risk may differ qualitatively depending on the sensory modality by which a cue is perceived. For instance, olfactory cues may reveal better information about the presence or absence of threats, whereas visual information can reliably transmit the position and potential attack distance of a predator. While this suggests a differential use of information perceived through the two sensory channels, the relative importance of visual vs...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
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