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Paolo Gabrieli, Francesca Scolari
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Dong-Eog Kim, Jeong-Yeon Kim, Su-Kyoung Lee, Ju Hee Ryu, Ick Chan Kwon, Cheol-Hee Ahn, Kwangmeyung Kim, Dawid Schellingerhout
Direct thrombus imaging visualizes the root cause of thromboembolic infarction. Being able to image thrombus directly allows far better investigation of stroke than relying on indirect measurements, and will be a potent and robust vascular research tool. We use an optical imaging approach that labels thrombi with a molecular imaging thrombus marker - a Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) probe that is covalently linked to the fibrin strands of the thrombus by the fibrin-crosslinking enzymatic action of activated coagulation factor XIIIa during the process of clot maturation...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Joshua Giltinan, Eric Diller, Metin Sitti
At the sub-millimeter scale, capillary forces enable robust and reversible adhesion between biological organisms and varied substrates. Current human-engineered mobile untethered micromanipulation systems rely on forces which scale poorly or utilize gripper-part designs that promote manipulation. Capillary forces, alternatively, are dependent upon the surface chemistry (which is scale independent) and contact perimeter, which conforms to the part surface. We report a mobile capillary microgripper that is able to pick and place parts of various materials and geometries, and is thus ideal for microassembly tasks that cannot be accomplished by large tethered manipulators...
October 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Lis N Velásquez, M Ayelén Milillo, M Victoria Delpino, Aldana Trotta, Pablo Fernández, Roberto G Pozner, Roland Lang, Luciana Balboa, Guillermo H Giambartolomei, Paula Barrionuevo
Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen capable of surviving inside of macrophages. The success of B. abortus as a chronic pathogen relies on its ability to orchestrate different strategies to evade the adaptive CD4(+) T cell responses that it elicits. Previously, we demonstrated that B. abortus inhibits the IFN-γ-induced surface expression of MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules on human monocytes, and this phenomenon correlated with a reduction in antigen presentation. However, the molecular mechanisms, whereby B...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Patrick J Dillon, Ambar Basu
Over the past decade, scholars and practitioners have called for efforts to reduce disparities in the cost and quality of end-of-life care; a key contributor to these disparities is the underuse of hospice care by African American patients. While previous studies have often relied on interviewing minority individuals who may or may not have been terminally ill, among them only few who were using hospice care services, this essay reports the findings of a grounded theory analysis of interviews with 26 African American hospice patients (n = 10) and lay caregivers (n = 16)...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Alberto L Horenstein, Valeria Quarona, Denise Toscani, Federica Costa, Antonella Chillemi, Vito Pistoia, Nicola Giuliani, Fabio Malavasi
Human myeloma cells express CD38 at high levels and grow in hypoxic niches inside the bone marrow. Myeloma cells respond to hypoxia with metabolic changes leading to aerobic glycolysis, thus reducing ATP and increasing NAD(+). Our hypothesis is that these conditions favor the enzymatic pathways involved in the production of adenosine in the niche. Within the niche, NAD(+) is able to activate a discontinuous adenosinergic pathway that relies upon CD38, CD203a, and CD73 or TRACP, according to the environmental pH...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine
J David Hacker
This study relies on IPUMS samples of the 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880 censuses, aggregate census data, and the timing of state laws criminalizing abortion to construct regional estimates of marital fertility in the United States and estimate correlates of marital fertility. The results show a significant lag between the onset of marital fertility decline in the nation's northeastern census divisions and its onset in western and southern census divisions. Empirical models indicate the presence of cultural, economic, and legal impediments to the diffusion of marital fertility control and illustrate the need for more inclusive models of fertility decline...
October 18, 2016: Demography
Maria J Santos, Shruti Khanna, Erin L Hestir, Jonathan A Greenberg, Susan L Ustin
Processes of spread and patterns of persistence of invasive species affect species and communities in the new environment. Predicting future rates of spread is of great interest for timely management decisions, but this depends on models that rely on understanding the processes of invasion and historic observations of spread and persistence. Unfortunately, the rates of spread and patterns of persistence are difficult to model or directly observe, especially when multiple rates of spread and diverse persistence patterns may be co-occurring over the geographic distribution of the invaded ecosystem...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jack Drescher, Alan Schwartz, Flávio Casoy, Christopher A McIntosh, Brian Hurley, Kenneth Ashley, Mary Barber, David Goldenberg, Sarah E Herbert, Lorraine E Lothwell, Marlin R Mattson, Scot G McAfee, Jack Pula, Vernon Rosario, D Andrew Tompkins
Conversion therapies are any treatments, including individual talk therapy, behavioral (e.g. aversive stimuli), group therapy or milieu (e.g. "retreats or inpatient treatments" relying on all of the above methods) treatments, which attempt to change an individual's sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual. However these practices have been repudiated by major mental health organizations because of increasing evidence that they are ineffective and may cause harm to patients and their families who fail to change...
2016: J Med Regul
Stephen Harrap
Genetic discovery in blood pressure is generally referenced in relation to protein-coding genes, despite the fact that genes less than 2% of the genome. Recent exploration of the DNA sequences between genes, once called "junk" DNA, has revealed a wealth of transcripts for RNA species that do not encode protein. These non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as dynamic managers of the business of the genome, able to coordinate the expression of genes in time and space to achieve the complexities of normal development and growth...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
L Dollet, J Magré, M Joubert, C Le May, A Ayer, L Arnaud, C Pecqueur, V Blouin, B Cariou, X Prieur
Loss-of-function mutations in BSCL2 are responsible for Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, a rare disorder characterized by near absence of adipose tissue associated with insulin resistance. Seipin-deficient (Bscl2(-/-)) mice display an almost total loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) with residual brown adipose tissue (BAT). Previous cellular studies have shown that seipin deficiency alters white adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we aimed to decipher the consequences of seipin deficiency in BAT...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ron Henkel, Robert Hoehndorf, Tim Kacprowski, Christian Knüpfer, Wolfram Liebermeister, Dagmar Waltemath
Systems biology models are rapidly increasing in complexity, size and numbers. When building large models, researchers rely on software tools for the retrieval, comparison, combination and merging of models, as well as for version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of 'similarity' may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing...
October 14, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Belén López-Pérez, Michaela Gummerum, Ellie Wilson, Giulia Dellaria
The authors relied on the Process Model of Emotion Regulation (PMER; J. J. Gross, 2007 ) to investigate children's abilities to regulate their emotions and to assess how distinct emotion regulation strategies are used by children of different ages. In Study 1, 180 parents of children aged between 3 and 8 years old reported about a situation in which their child had been able to change what she or he was feeling. In Study 2, 126 children 3-8 years old answered 2 questions about how they regulate their own emotions...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Allison R Heid, Seran Schug, Francine P Cartwright, Rachel Pruchno
OBJECTIVE: Individuals exposed to natural disasters are at risk for negative physical and psychological outcomes. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable; however, social support can act as a resource to help individuals respond to severe stressors. This study explored the challenges older people faced before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and the people they turned to for support. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 older adults in New Jersey drawn from the ORANJ BOWL (Ongoing Research on Aging in New Jersey - Bettering Opportunities for Wellness in Life) research panel, who experienced high levels of primary home damage during Hurricane Sandy...
October 14, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Marco Bacigaluppi, Gianluca Luigi Russo, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Silvia Rossi, Stefano Sandrone, Erica Butti, Roberta De Ceglia, Andrea Bergamaschi, Caterina Motta, Mattia Gallizioli, Valeria Studer, Emanuela Colombo, Cinthia Farina, Giancarlo Comi, Letterio Salvatore Politi, Luca Muzio, Claudia Villani, Roberto William Invernizzi, Dirk Matthias Hermann, Diego Centonze, Gianvito Martino
: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability, but effective therapies are currently widely lacking. Recovery from stroke is very much dependent on the possibility to develop treatments able to both halt the neurodegenerative process as well as to foster adaptive tissue plasticity. Here we show that ischemic mice treated with neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation had on neurophysiological analysis, early after treatment, reduced presynaptic release of glutamate within the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST), and an enhanced NMDA-mediated excitatory transmission in the contralesional CST...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Raza Naseem Malik, Rachel Cote, Tania Lam
BACKGROUND: Skilled walking, such as obstacle crossing, is an essential component of functional mobility. Sensorimotor integration of visual and proprioceptive inputs is important for successful obstacle crossing. The objective of this study was to understand how proprioceptive deficits affect obstacle-crossing strategies when controlling for variations in motor deficits in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: 15 ambulatory individuals with SCI and 15 able-bodied controls were asked to step over an obstacle scaled to their motor abilities under full and obstructed vision conditions...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Rémi Peyraud, Ludovic Cottret, Lucas Marmiesse, Jérôme Gouzy, Stéphane Genin
Bacterial pathogenicity relies on a proficient metabolism and there is increasing evidence that metabolic adaptation to exploit host resources is a key property of infectious organisms. In many cases, colonization by the pathogen also implies an intensive multiplication and the necessity to produce a large array of virulence factors, which may represent a significant cost for the pathogen. We describe here the existence of a resource allocation trade-off mechanism in the plant pathogen R. solanacearum. We generated a genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network of R...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Matthew B O'Rourke, Matthew P Padula
PURPOSE: MALDI IMS is principally used for cancer diagnostics. In our own experience with publishing IMS data, we have been requested to modify our protocols with respect to the areas of the tissue that are imaged in order to comply with the wider literature. In light of this, we have determined that current methodologies lack effective controls and can potentially introduce bias by only imaging specific areas of the targeted tissue EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A previously imaged sample was selected and then cropped in different ways to show the potential effect of only imaging targeted areas...
October 11, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Flemming Javier Olsen, Litten Bertelsen, Martina Chantal de Knegt, Thomas Emil Christensen, Niels Vejlstrup, Jesper Hastrup Svendsen, Jan Skov Jensen, Tor Biering-Sørensen
Several cardiac imaging modalities are able to visualize the left atrium (LA) and, therefore, allow for quantification of both structural and functional properties of this cardiac chamber. In echocardiography, only the maximal LA volume is included in the assessment of diastolic function at the current moment. Numerous studies, however, have shown that functional measures may be superior to the maximal LA volume in several aspects and to possess clinical value even in the absence of structural abnormalities...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Diego De Miguel, Ana Gallego-Lleyda, José María Ayuso, Dolores Pejenaute-Ochoa, Vidal Jarauta, Isabel Marzo, Luis J Fernández, Ignacio Ochoa, Blanca Conde, Alberto Anel, Luis Martinez-Lostao
During the last years, a great effort has been invested into developing new TRAIL formulations with increased bioactivity, trying to overcome the resistance to conventional soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) exhibited by many primary tumours. In our group, we have generated artificial lipid nanoparticles decorated with sTRAIL (LUV-TRAIL), emulating the physiological TRAIL-containing exosomes by which T-cells release TRAIL upon activation. We already demonstrated that LUV-TRAIL has greater cytotoxicity against both chemoresistant haematologic tumour cells and epithelial carcinoma cells compared to a form of sTRAIL similar to that used in clinical trials...
October 8, 2016: Cancer Letters
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