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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220699/hiv-1-tat-protein-induces-dna-damage-in-human-peripheral-blood-b-lymphocytes-via-mitochondrial-ros-production
#1
Rawan El-Amine, Diego Germini, Vlada V Zakharova, Tatyana Tsfasman, Eugene V Sheval, Ruy A N Louzada, Corinne Dupuy, Chrystèle Bilhou-Nabera, Aline Hamade, Fadia Najjar, Eric Oksenhendler, Marс Lipinski, Boris V Chernyak, Yegor S Vassetzky
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with B-cell malignancies in patients though HIV-1 is not able to infect B-cells. The rate of B-cell lymphomas in HIV-infected individuals remains high even under the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) that reconstitutes the immune function. Thus, the contribution of HIV-1 to B-cell oncogenesis remains enigmatic. HIV-1 induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in infected cells via multiple mechanisms, including viral Tat protein. We have detected elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in B-cells of HIV-infected individuals...
December 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218398/enhanced-hemoglobin-oxygen-unloading-in-migratory-salmonids
#2
Jacelyn J Shu, Till S Harter, Phillip R Morrison, Colin J Brauner
Recent findings indicate that some teleost fishes may be able to greatly enhance hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) unloading at the tissues under conditions that result in catecholamine release. The putative mechanism relies on the high pH sensitivity of teleost hemoglobin (Hb), intracellular red blood cell (RBC) pH regulation via β-adrenergic Na+/H+ exchanger (β-NHE) activity, and plasma-accessible carbonic anhydrase at the tissues that short-circuits RBC pH regulation. Previous studies have shown that in rainbow trout, this system may double Hb-O2 unloading to red muscle compared to a situation without short-circuiting...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215097/the-molecular-dialogue-between-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-the-necrotrophic-fungus-botrytis-cinerea-leads-to-major-changes-in-host-carbon-metabolism
#3
Florian Veillet, Cécile Gaillard, Pauline Lemonnier, Pierre Coutos-Thévenot, Sylvain La Camera
Photoassimilates play crucial roles during plant-pathogen interactions, as colonizing pathogens rely on the supply of sugars from hosts. The competition for sugar acquisition at the plant-pathogen interface involves different strategies from both partners which are critical for the outcome of the interaction. Here, we dissect individual mechanisms of sugar uptake during the interaction of Arabidopsis thaliana with the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea using millicell culture insert, that enables molecular communication without physical contact...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206462/lipidomics-reveals-dramatic-physiological-kinetic-isotope-effects-during-the-enzymatic-oxygenation-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-i-ex-vivo-i
#4
Aaron R Navratil, Mikhail S Shchepinov, Edward A Dennis
Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4) is an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and the main precursor to the class of lipid mediators known as eicosanoids. The enzymes that catalyze the oxygenation of AA begin by abstracting hydrogen from one of three bis-allylic carbons within 1,4- cis,cis-diene units. Substitution of deuterium for hydrogen has been shown to lead to massive kinetic isotope effects (KIE) for soybean lipoxygenase (sLOX) oxygenation of linoleic acid (LA, 18:2). Yet, experimental determination of the KIE during oxygenation of AA and LA by mammalian enzymes including cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) has revealed far lower values...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205516/a-tripartite-mode-of-action-approach-for-investigating-the-impact-of-aneugens-on-tubulin-polymerization
#5
Valerie Stock, Andreas Sutter, Marian Raschke, Nina Queisser
Chemical-induced disruption of the cellular microtubule network is one key mechanism of aneugenicity. Since recent data indicate that genotoxic effects of aneugens show nonlinear dose-response relationships, margins of safety can be derived with the ultimate goal to perform a risk assessment for the support of drug development. Furthermore, microtubule-interacting compounds are widely used for cancer treatment. While there is a need to support the risk assessment of tubulin-interacting chemicals using reliable mechanistic assays, no standard assays exist to date in regulatory genotoxicity testing for the distinction of aneugenic mechanisms...
December 4, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202922/simultaneous-analysis-of-multiple-allergens-in-food-products-by-lc-ms-ms
#6
Lee Sun New, Andre Schreiber, Jianru Stahl-Zeng, Hua-Fen Liu
There is currently no cure for food allergies, and sufferers can only rely on the correct labeling of foods toavoid allergens. Hence, it is important that analytical methods are sensitive and accurate enough to screen for the presence of multiple allergens in food products. In this study, we developed an LC-tandem MS method that is able to simultaneously screen or quantify the signature tryptic peptides of multiple allergen commodities. This method is capable of screening and identifying egg white, skim milk, peanut, soy, and tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, hazelnut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut) at a detection limit of 10 ppm in incurred bread and cookies...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202356/apraxia-of-object-related-action-does-not-depend-on-visual-feedback
#7
Christoph Sperber, Andrea Christensen, Winfried Ilg, Martin A Giese, Hans-Otto Karnath
Pantomime of tool use is typically affected in neurological patients with apraxia, while at the same time these patients are able to perform the use of the actual tool with less or no errors. This discrepancy is commonly explained by differences in afferent input, in particular a lack of visual online feedback from the object in pantomime. The present study investigated the role of visual feedback in apraxia of pantomime by testing neurological patients with apraxia and healthy controls in a task requiring the pantomime of tool use as well as real tool use...
November 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201433/heart-regeneration-in-the-salamander-relies-on-macrophage-mediated-control-of-fibroblast-activation-and-the-extracellular-landscape
#8
J W Godwin, R Debuque, E Salimova, N A Rosenthal
In dramatic contrast to the poor repair outcomes for humans and rodent models such as mice, salamanders and some fish species are able to completely regenerate heart tissue following tissue injury, at any life stage. This capacity for complete cardiac repair provides a template for understanding the process of regeneration and for developing strategies to improve human cardiac repair outcomes. Using a cardiac cryo-injury model we show that heart regeneration is dependent on the innate immune system, as macrophage depletion during early time points post-injury results in regeneration failure...
2017: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198749/mitochondrial-fission-is-associated-with-ucp1-activity-in-human-brite-beige-adipocytes
#9
Didier F Pisani, Valentin Barquissau, Jean-Claude Chambard, Diane Beuzelin, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Aline Mairal, Sophie Pagnotta, Saverio Cinti, Dominique Langin, Ez-Zoubir Amri
OBJECTIVE: Thermogenic adipocytes (i.e. brown or brite/beige adipocytes) are able to burn large amounts of lipids and carbohydrates as a result of highly active mitochondria and enhanced uncoupled respiration, due to UCP1 activity. Although mitochondria are the key organelles for this thermogenic function, limited human data are available. METHODS/RESULTS: We characterized changes in the mitochondrial function of human brite adipocytes, using hMADS cells as a model of white- to brite-adipocyte conversion...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196425/providing-social-support-for-underrepresented-racial-and-ethnic-minority-phd-students-in-the-biomedical-sciences-a-career-coaching-model
#10
Simon N Williams, Bhoomi K Thakore, Richard McGee
Improvement in the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions has been unsatisfactory. Although this is a complex problem, one key issue is that graduate students often rely on research mentors for career-related support, the effectiveness of which can be variable. We present results from a novel academic career "coaching" intervention, one aim of which was to provide supplementary social support for PhD students, particularly those from underrepresented backgrounds...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193997/predicting-airport-screening-officers-visual-search-competency-with-a-rapid-assessment
#11
Stephen R Mitroff, Justin M Ericson, Benjamin Sharpe
Objective The study's objective was to assess a new personnel selection and assessment tool for aviation security screeners. A mobile app was modified to create a tool, and the question was whether it could predict professional screeners' on-job performance. Background A variety of professions (airport security, radiology, the military, etc.) rely on visual search performance-being able to detect targets. Given the importance of such professions, it is necessary to maximize performance, and one means to do so is to select individuals who excel at visual search...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191809/molecular-fingerprint-for-terminal-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-disease
#12
Gabor Gäbel, Bernd H Northoff, Irina Weinzierl, Stefan Ludwig, Irene Hinterseher, Wolfgang Wilfert, Daniel Teupser, Stefan A Doderer, Hendrik Bergert, Frank Schönleben, Jan H N Lindeman, Lesca M Holdt
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision making in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) relies completely on diameter. At this point, improved decision tools remain an unmet medical need. Our goal was to identify changes at the molecular level specifically leading up to AAA rupture. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aortic wall tissue specimens were collected during open elective (eAAA; n=31) or emergency repair of ruptured AAA (rAAA; n=17), and gene expression was investigated using microarrays...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190695/high-accuracy-detection-of-early-parkinson-s-disease-using-multiple-characteristics-of-finger-movement-while-typing
#13
Warwick R Adams
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disease affecting over 6 million people worldwide. Loss of dopamine-producing neurons results in a range of both motor and non-motor symptoms, however there is currently no definitive test for PD by non-specialist clinicians, especially in the early disease stages where the symptoms may be subtle and poorly characterised. This results in a high misdiagnosis rate (up to 25% by non-specialists) and people can have the disease for many years before diagnosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190659/a-digital-memories-based-user-authentication-scheme-with-privacy-preservation
#14
JunLiang Liu, Qiuyun Lyu, Qiuhua Wang, Xiangxiang Yu
The traditional username/password or PIN based authentication scheme, which still remains the most popular form of authentication, has been proved insecure, unmemorable and vulnerable to guessing, dictionary attack, key-logger, shoulder-surfing and social engineering. Based on this, a large number of new alternative methods have recently been proposed. However, most of them rely on users being able to accurately recall complex and unmemorable information or using extra hardware (such as a USB Key), which makes authentication more difficult and confusing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190067/matrix-sputtering-method-a-novel-physical-approach-for-photoluminescent-noble-metal-nanoclusters
#15
Yohei Ishida, Ryan D Corpuz, Tetsu Yonezawa
Noble metal nanoclusters are believed to be the transition between single metal atoms, which show distinct optical properties, and metal nanoparticles, which show characteristic plasmon absorbance. The interesting properties of these materials emerge when the particle size is well below 2 nm, such as photoluminescence, which has potential application particularly in biomedical fields. These photoluminescent ultrasmall nanoclusters are typically produced by chemical reduction, which limits their practical application because of the inherent toxicity of the reagents used in this method...
November 30, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189781/observation-of-a-many-body-dynamical-phase-transition-with-a-53-qubit-quantum-simulator
#16
J Zhang, G Pagano, P W Hess, A Kyprianidis, P Becker, H Kaplan, A V Gorshkov, Z-X Gong, C Monroe
A quantum simulator is a type of quantum computer that controls the interactions between quantum bits (or qubits) in a way that can be mapped to certain quantum many-body problems. As it becomes possible to exert more control over larger numbers of qubits, such simulators will be able to tackle a wider range of problems, such as materials design and molecular modelling, with the ultimate limit being a universal quantum computer that can solve general classes of hard problems. Here we use a quantum simulator composed of up to 53 qubits to study non-equilibrium dynamics in the transverse-field Ising model with long-range interactions...
November 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185136/molecular-simulations-of-cellular-processes
#17
REVIEW
Fabio Trovato, Giordano Fumagalli
It is, nowadays, possible to simulate biological processes in conditions that mimic the different cellular compartments. Several groups have performed these calculations using molecular models that vary in performance and accuracy. In many cases, the atomistic degrees of freedom have been eliminated, sacrificing both structural complexity and chemical specificity to be able to explore slow processes. In this review, we will discuss the insights gained from computer simulations on macromolecule diffusion, nuclear body formation, and processes involving the genetic material inside cell-mimicking spaces...
November 28, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183923/rna2dmut-a-web-tool-for-the-design-and-analysis-of-rna-structure-mutations
#18
Walter N Moss
With the wide-spread application of high-throughput sequencing, novel RNA sequences are being discovered at an astonishing rate. The analysis of function, however, lags behind. In both the cis- and trans-regulatory functions of RNA, secondary structure (2D base pairing) plays essential regulatory roles. In order to test RNA function, it is essential to be able to design and analyze mutations that can affect structure. This was the motivation for the creation of the RNA2DMut web tool. With RNA2DMut, users can enter in RNA sequences to analyze, constrain mutations to specific residues or limit changes to purines/pyrimidines...
November 28, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182568/a-quartz-crystal-microbalance-immunosensor-for-stem-cell-selection-and-extraction
#19
Ornella Maglio, Salvatore Costanzo, Rosaria Cercola, Gerardo Zambrano, Marco Mauro, Raffaele Battaglia, Gianluca Ferrini, Flavia Nastri, Vincenzo Pavone, Angela Lombardi
A cost-effective immunosensor for the detection and isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has been developed. The recognition mechanism relies on anti-CD34 antibodies, DPSC-specific monoclonal antibodies that are anchored on the surface of the quartz crystals. Due to its high specificity, real time detection, and low cost, the proposed technology has a promising potential in the field of cell biology, for the simultaneous detection and sorting of stem cells from heterogeneous cell samples...
November 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180748/altered-responses-to-social-chemosignals-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Yaara Endevelt-Shapira, Ofer Perl, Aharon Ravia, Daniel Amir, Ami Eisen, Vered Bezalel, Liron Rozenkrantz, Eva Mishor, Liron Pinchover, Timna Soroka, Danielle Honigstein, Noam Sobel
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social communication, often attributed to misreading of emotional cues. Why individuals with ASD misread emotions remains unclear. Given that terrestrial mammals rely on their sense of smell to read conspecific emotions, we hypothesized that misreading of emotional cues in ASD partially reflects altered social chemosignaling. We found no difference between typically developed (TD) and cognitively able adults with ASD at explicit detection and perception of social chemosignals...
November 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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