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Emily A Sawin, Bridget M Stroup, Sangita G Murali, Lucas M O'Neill, James M Ntambi, Denise M Ney
BACKGROUND: Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat) or 13% Fat Kcal (control) with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral) biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone...
2016: PloS One
Jia-Jia Song, Qian Wang, Min Du, Tian-Ge Li, Bin Chen, Xue-Ying Mao
SCOPE: Recently, casein glycomacropeptide (GMP)-derived peptide was found to possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, the improvement effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of GMP-derived peptide on hepatic insulin resistance were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The peptide IPPKKNQDKTE was identified from GMP papain hydrolysates by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Effects of IPPKKNQDKTE on glucose metabolism and expression levels of the hepatic insulin signaling proteins in high glucose-induced insulin-resistant HepG2 cells were evaluated...
August 9, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Denise M Ney, Bridget M Stroup, Murray K Clayton, Sangita G Murali, Gregory M Rice, Frances Rohr, Harvey L Levy
BACKGROUND: To prevent cognitive impairment, phenylketonuria requires lifelong management of blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentration with a low-Phe diet. The diet restricts intake of Phe from natural proteins in combination with traditional amino acid medical foods (AA-MFs) or glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MFs) that contain primarily intact protein and a small amount of Phe. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy and safety of a low-Phe diet combined with GMP-MFs or AA-MFs providing the same quantity of protein equivalents in free-living subjects with phenylketonuria...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Dong-Jae Kim, Min-Jung Kang, Jin-A Choi, Dae-Seung Na, Jin-Beom Kim, Chun-Soo Na, Jong-Hwan Park
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of about half of the world's population, causing chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. An increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori arouses demand on alternative non-antibiotic-based therapies. In this study, we freshly prepared crude N-acetylneuraminic acid obtained from glycomacropeptide (G-NANA) of whey through a neuraminidase-mediated reaction and evaluated its antibacterial ability against H. pylori and H. felis. Overnight cultures of the H...
June 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
Rune T Nordvang, Christian Nyffenegger, Jesper Holck, Carsten Jers, Birgitte Zeuner, Ulrik K Sundekilde, Anne S Meyer, Jørn D Mikkelsen
Sialidases ( may exhibit trans-sialidase activity to catalyze sialylation of lactose if the active site topology is congruent with that of the Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase (EC 2.4.1.-). The present work was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a particular aromatic sandwich structure of two amino acids proximal to the active site of the T. cruzi trans-sialidase infers trans-sialidase activity. On this basis, four enzymes with putative trans-sialidase activity were identified through an iterative alignment from 2909 native sialidases available in GenBank, which were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli...
2016: PloS One
Osama K Zaki, Lamia El-Wakeel, Yasmin Ebeid, Hanan S Ez Elarab, Aisha Moustafa, Nayera Abdulazim, Hala Karara, Ahmed Elghawaby
Dietary therapy is the most common therapy applied in treatment of Phenylketonuria (PKU) with restriction of intake of most natural proteins that are rich in Phenylalanine (Phe). Recently, it has been claimed that caseinoglycomacropeptide (GMP), derived of whey, may be used to replace the amino acid formulae (AAF). The Aim of Work. To study the feasibility of use of GMP for partial replacement of artificial formula in treatment of children with PKU. Methods. Ten patients with PKU were included in the study...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
M J Pena, M F de Almeida, E van Dam, K Ahring, A Bélanger-Quintana, K Dokoupil, H Gokmen-Ozel, A M Lammardo, A MacDonald, M Robert, J C Rocha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Protein substitutes (PS) are an essential component in the dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU). PS are available as phenylalanine-free amino-acid mixtures (AAM), glycomacropeptide-based PS (GMP) and large neutral amino acids (LNAA). There is a lack of information regarding their availability in different countries and comparison of their nutritional composition is limited. The objectives of this study were to identify the number of PS available in different European countries and Turkey and to compare their nutritional composition...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Christian L Hvas, Anders Dige, Mia Bendix, Pernille G Wernlund, Lisbet A Christensen, Jens F Dahlerup, Jørgen Agnholt
BACKGROUND: In ulcerative colitis (UC), dietary supplements may have anti-inflammatory properties and improve disease course. We investigated the effects of casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP), a fraction of bovine whey protein, in active UC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized open-label intervention study, 24 patients with active UC involving 10-40 cm of the distal colon were randomized in a 2 : 1 ratio into two groups. The first group was administered their usual treatment plus a daily supplement of CGMP 30 g, and the second group was administered a dose escalation to 4800 mg oral mesalamine daily (standard treatment) for 4 weeks...
June 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Naz Al Hafid, John Christodoulou
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency in the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). If left untreated, the main clinical feature is intellectual disability. Treatment, which includes a low Phe diet supplemented with amino acid formulas, commences soon after diagnosis within the first weeks of life. Although dietary treatment has been successful in preventing intellectual disability in early treated PKU patients, there are major issues with dietary compliance due to palatability of the diet...
October 2015: Translational pediatrics
María J Martinez, Gustavo Martos, Elena Molina, Ana M R Pilosof
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the presence of casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) on the in vitro digestibility and potential allergenicity of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg)-CMP mixtures. The digestion products were analyzed by RP-HPLC and RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The potential allergenicity of the digestion products was studied by human IgE binding by inhibition ELISA with serum samples from children with clinical allergic symptoms to β-lg. No differences were observed by HPLC in the mixtures hydrolysates due to CMP-β-lg interactions...
February 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Emily A Sawin, Travis J De Wolfe, Busra Aktas, Bridget M Stroup, Sangita G Murali, James L Steele, Denise M Ney
Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid (AA) glycophosphopeptide with application to the nutritional management of phenylketonuria (PKU), obesity, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). GMP is a putative prebiotic based on extensive glycosylation with sialic acid, galactose, and galactosamine. Our objective was to determine the prebiotic properties of GMP by characterizing cecal and fecal microbiota populations, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and immune responses. Weanling PKU (Pah(enu2)) and wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6 mice were fed isoenergetic AA, GMP, or casein diets for 8 wk...
October 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Yao Guo, Carsten Jers, Anne S Meyer, Haiying Li, Finn Kirpekar, Jørn D Mikkelsen
Several bacterial sialyltransferases have been reported to be multifunctional also catalysing sialidase and trans-sialidase reactions. In this study, we examined the trans-sialylation efficacy and regioselectivity of mutants of the multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase (PmST) for catalysing the synthesis of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose using casein glycomacropeptide as sialyl-donor and lactose as acceptor. The mutation P34H led to a 980-fold increase in α-2,6-sialyltransferase activity (with cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid as donor), while its α-2,3-sialyltransferase activity was abolished...
October 2015: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Maarten H Wilbrink, Geert A ten Kate, Peter Sanders, Gerrit J Gerwig, Sander S van Leeuwen, Erik Sallomons, Bert Klarenbeek, Johannes A Hage, Carine A van Vuure, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Johannis P Kamerling
Decoration of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) with sialic acid yields mixtures of GOS and sialylated GOS (Sia-GOS), novel products that are expected to have both prebiotic and antiadhesive functionalities. The recombinantly produced trans-sialidase enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS), an enzyme with the ability to transfer (α2-3)-linked sialic acid from sialogalactoglycans to asialogalactoglycans, was employed to catalyze this sialylation. As sialic acid acceptor substrates, Vivinal GOS and derived fractions of specific degree of polymerization were taken...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xue Cheng, Dongxiao Gao, Bin Chen, Xueying Mao
Systemic low-grade inflammation and increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contribute to metabolic dysfunction. The inhibitory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) hydrolysate on the inflammatory response of LPS-stimulated macrophages were investigated. Results showed that the inhibitory effect of GMP hydrolysates obtained with papain on nitric oxide (NO) production were obviously higher than that of GMP hydrolysates obtained with pepsin, alcalase and trypsin (p < 0...
May 2015: Nutrients
Melissa C Rivera, Ana C Pinheiro, Ana I Bourbon, Miguel A Cerqueira, António A Vicente
This work aimed at the development of biodegradable nanocapsules as carriers of two bioactive compounds, 5-aminosalycilic acid and glycomacropeptide. Nanocapsules were produced through layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of chitosan (CH) and alginate (ALG) layers on polystyrene nanoparticles. The bioactive compounds were incorporated on the third layer of the nanocapsules being its encapsulation efficiency and release behaviour evaluated. The LbL deposition process, stability, morphology and size of the multilayer nanocapsules were monitored by means of zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
August 2015: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ty B Wagoner, Loren Ward, E Allen Foegeding
A method for evaluating aspects of colloidal stability of whey protein beverages after thermal treatment was established. Three state diagrams for beverages (pH 3-7) were developed representing protein solubility, turbidity, and macroscopic state after two ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) treatments. Key transitions of stability in the state diagrams were explored using electrophoresis and chromatography to determine aggregation propensities of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin, and glycomacropeptide...
May 6, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rumyana Todorova Eneva, Stephan Andreas Engibarov, Penka Petrova, Radoslav Abrashev, Tanya Strateva, Vera Kolyovska, Ignat Abrashev
Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA) is widely used in biochemical and medical research, in processes for preparing homogenous sialoconjugates, and in the pharmaceutical industry. Its production by non-toxigenic strains is quite desirable, in order to avoid the expensive safety measures. Here, we report the first method for highly effective production of a novel, purified V. cholerae extracellular neuraminidase from a non-toxigenic strain. The enzyme is highly active, and its properties, as well as the responsible gene nanH, are practically identical with those of the toxigenic strains...
May 2015: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hussein A Almehdar, Esmail M El-Fakharany, Vladimir N Uversky, Elrashdy M Redwan
This article continues a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. Besides caseins, which are the major proteinaceous constituents of any milk that can be isolated by isoelectric precipitation, milk contains a set of soluble whey proteins, such as β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, serum albumin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, glycomacropeptide, and proteose peptone (the last two are soluble casein derivatives). Lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are known to possess prominent biocidal activity, serving as efficient antibiotics and antiviral agents against a wide spectrum of bacteria, fungi, and viruses...
2015: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Abdulla A-B Badawy, Donald M Dougherty
The acute tryptophan depletion and loading and the acute tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of cerebral monoamines in behaviour and symptoms related to various disorders. The tests use either amino acid mixtures or proteins. Current amino acid mixtures lack specificity in humans, but not in rodents, because of the faster disposal of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) by the latter. The high content of BCAA (30-60%) is responsible for the poor specificity in humans and we recommend, in a 50g dose, a control formulation with a lowered BCAA content (18%) as a common control for the above tests...
April 2015: Journal of Psychopharmacology
C Jers, Y Guo, K P Kepp, J D Mikkelsen
This study aimed to improve the hydrolase activity of the well-characterised bacterial sialidase from Micromonospora viridifaciens. The enzyme and its mutated versions were produced in Bacillus subtilis and secreted to the growth medium. Twenty amino acid positions in or near the active site were subjected to site-saturation mutagenesis and evaluated on the artificial sialidase substrate 2-O-(p-nitrophenyl)-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid and on the natural substrate casein glycomacropeptide. A considerably higher fraction of the mutants exhibited increased activity on the artificial substrate compared with the natural one, with the most proficient mutant showing a 13-fold improvement in kcat/Km...
February 2015: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
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