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Kirsten K Ahring, Allan M Lund, Erik Jensen, Thomas G Jensen, Karen Brøndum-Nielsen, Michael Pedersen, Allan Bardow, Jens Juul Holst, Jens F Rehfeld, Lisbeth B Møller
Introduction: Management of phenylketonuria (PKU) is achieved through low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet, supplemented with low-protein food and mixture of free-synthetic (FS) amino acid (AA). Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) is a natural peptide released in whey during cheese-making and does not contain Phe. Lacprodan® CGMP-20 used in this study contained a small amount of Phe due to minor presence of other proteins/peptides. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare absorption of CGMP-20 to FSAA with the aim of evaluating short-term effects on plasma AAs as well as biomarkers related to food intake...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Bridget M Stroup, Nivedita Nair, Sangita G Murali, Katarzyna Broniowska, Fran Rohr, Harvey L Levy, Denise M Ney
Background: Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) have a risk of cognitive impairment and inflammation. Many follow a low-phenylalanine (low-Phe) diet devoid of animal protein in combination with medical foods (MFs). Objective: To assess lipid metabolism in participants with PKU consuming amino acid MFs (AA-MFs) or glycomacropeptide MFs (GMP-MFs), we conducted fatty acid and metabolomics analyses. Methods: We used subsets of fasting plasma and urine samples from our randomized crossover trial in which participants with early-treated classical and variant (milder) PKU consumed a low-Phe diet combined with AA-MFs or GMP-MFs for 3 wk each...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Takuo Nakano, Lech Ozimek, Mirko Betti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
A Taivosalo, T Kriščiunaite, A Seiman, N Part, I Stulova, R Vilu
We applied capillary electrophoresis, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass-spectrometry (MS/MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography to determine the composition of water-insoluble and water-soluble proteinaceous fractions of the cheese and to study in detail the degradation of caseins during 8 mo of ripening of Estonian high-temperature cooked hard cheese Old Saare. The application of high-resolution and high-accuracy MS/MS enabled identification of more than 3,000 small peptides, representing a fairly full casein peptidome containing peptides of 4 to 25 AA in length: 1,049 from β-casein (CN), 944 from αS1 -CN, 813 from αS2 -CN, and 234 from κ-CN...
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Shane Feeney, Joseph Thomas Ryan, Michelle Kilcoyne, Lokesh Joshi, Rita Hickey
In recent years, the potential of glycosylated food components to positively influence health has received considerable attention. Milk is a rich source of biologically active glycoconjugates which are associated with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-adhesion, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic properties. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the C-terminal portion of kappa-casein that is released from whey during cheese-making by the action of chymosin. Many of the biological properties associated with GMP, such as anti-adhesion, have been linked with the carbohydrate portion of the protein...
October 27, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
R Morales, M J Martinez, A M R Pilosof
Several strategies to improve the interfacial properties and foaming properties of proteins may be developed; among them, the use of mixtures of biopolymers that exhibit synergistic interactions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) on foaming and surface properties of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and to establish the role of protein interactions in the aqueous phase. To this end particles size, interfacial and foaming properties of CMP, NaCas and NaCas-CMP mixtures at pH 5...
November 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yongbo Cui, Chenchen Zhu, Zhu Ming, Jiangming Cao, Yali Yan, Pei Zhao, Guangchang Pang, Zixin Deng, Yi Yao, Qingsen Chen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which food-derived casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) maintains internal homeostasis in the intestinal mucosa and to investigate the effects of CGMP on the intestinal mucosal immunological barrier and related signal transduction pathways. METHODS: In this study, a famoxadone (OXZ)-induced mouse experimental ulcerative colitis (UC) model was built. The experimental UC mice were intragastrically administered milk-derived CGMP for four consecutive days...
2017: PloS One
Bridget M Stroup, Sangita G Murali, Nivedita Nair, Emily A Sawin, Fran Rohr, Harvey L Levy, Denise M Ney
This article provides original data on median dietary intake of 18 amino acids from amino acid medical foods, glycomacropeptide medical foods, and natural foods based on 3-day food records obtained from subjects with phenylketonuria who consumed low-phenylalanine diets in combination with amino acid medical foods and glycomacropeptide medical foods for 3 weeks each in a crossover design. The sample size of 30 subjects included 20 subjects with classical phenylketonuria and 10 with a milder or variant form of phenylketonuria...
August 2017: Data in Brief
Tiange Li, Xue Cheng, Min Du, Bin Chen, Xueying Mao
Recently, we have shown that casein glycomacropeptide hydrolysates (GHP) exhibit both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities in vitro. However, whether heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in the cytoprotective effect of GHP against the inflammatory status remains unclear. Therefore, we hypothesized that HO-1 is a potential target of GHP, which mediates its anti-inflammatory effect. Here, GHP inhibited the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expression and enhanced reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264...
July 19, 2017: Food & Function
Bridget M Stroup, Emily A Sawin, Sangita G Murali, Neil Binkley, Karen E Hansen, Denise M Ney
Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU). A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16-35 y) provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1-3 wks...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
A Pinto, M F Almeida, P C Ramos, S Rocha, A Guimas, R Ribeiro, E Martins, A Bandeira, A MacDonald, J C Rocha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low phenylalanine (PHE), glycomacropeptide-based protein substitute (GMP) is an alternative to traditional L-amino acid supplements (AA) used in the dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU). In a retrospective, longitudinal study, we report the nutritional status of PKU patients taking AA and GMP. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eleven PKU patients aged 27±10 years (1 HPA, 4 mild and 6 classical PKU) on dietary treatment were evaluated (anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure measurements, biochemical markers including vitamin, mineral, lipids, carbohydrates and protein status/metabolism, and nutritional intake assessment) at two different annual reviews...
October 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Denise M Ney, Sangita G Murali, Bridget M Stroup, Nivedita Nair, Emily A Sawin, Fran Rohr, Harvey L Levy
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine synthesized from Tyr and serotonin synthesized from Trp, are of concern in PKU. Our objective was to utilize metabolomics analysis to assess monoamine metabolites in subjects with PKU consuming amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) and glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). METHODS: Subjects with PKU consumed a low-Phe diet combined with AA-MF or GMP-MF for 3weeks each in a randomized, controlled, crossover study...
June 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Fabiola Carolina Muñoz, Maritza Montserrat Cervantes, Daniel Cervantes-García, Mariela Jiménez, Javier Ventura-Juárez, Eva Salinas
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common skin diseases, whose incidence is increasing in industrialized countries. The epicutaneous application of a hapten, such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), evokes an experimental murine AD-like reaction. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a dairy bioactive peptide derived from hydrolysis of κ-casein by chymosin action. It has anti-inflammatory, prebiotic, and immunomodulatory effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of GMP administration on DNCB-induced AD in rats...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
Hye-Ji Noh, Hong Bum Koh, Hee-Kyoung Kim, Hyang Hyun Cho, Jeongmin Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization of the stomach mucosa and duodenum is the major cause of acute and chronic gastroduodenal pathology in humans. Efforts to find effective anti-bacterial strategies against H. pylori for the non-antibiotic control of H. pylori infection are urgently required. In this study, we used whey to prepare glycomacropeptide (GMP), from which sialic acid (G-SA) was enzymatically isolated. We investigated the anti-bacterial effects of G-SA against H...
February 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
Alexandra Ntemiri, Fodhla Ní Chonchúir, Tom F O'Callaghan, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross, Paul W O'Toole
The potential of milk-derived glycomacropeptide (GMP) and lactose for modulating the human gut microbiota of older people, in whom loss of diversity correlates with inferior health, was investigated. We used an in vitro batch fermentation (artificial colon model) to simulate colonic fermentation processes of two GMP products, i.e., a commercially available GMP concentrate and a semipurified GMP concentrate, and lactose. Faecal samples were collected from healthy and frail older people. Samples were analyzed by Illumina Miseq sequencing of rRNA gene amplicons...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
A Daly, S Evans, S Chahal, S Santra, A MacDonald
BACKGROUND: In phenylketonuria (PKU), there are no data available for children with respect to evaluating casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) as an alternative to phenylalanine-free protein substitutes [Phe-free L-amino acid (AA)]. CGMP contains a residual amount of phenylalanine, which may alter blood phenylalanine control. METHODS: In a prospective 6-month pilot study, we investigated the effect on blood phenylalanine control of CGMP-amino acid (CGMP-AA) protein substitute in 22 PKU subjects (13 boys, nine girls), median age (range) 11 years (6-16 years)...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Tiange Li, Bin Chen, Min Du, Jiajia Song, Xue Cheng, Xu Wang, Xueying Mao
Oxidative stress is considered as an important mediator in the progression of metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential hepatoprotective effects and mechanisms of bovine casein glycomacropeptide hydrolysates (GHP) on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Results showed that GHP significantly blocked H₂O₂-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell viability reduction in a dose-dependent manner. Further, GHP concentration-dependently induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation...
January 15, 2017: Nutrients
Mariela Jiménez, Daniel Cervantes-García, Yualli Haydee Muñoz, Alejandra García, Luis Miguel Haro, Eva Salinas
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergic diseases is globally increasing. We have previously described that glycomacropeptide (GMP), a bioactive milk peptide, has therapeutic value in experimental models of skin hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, and asthma, as it prevents an excessive T helper type 2 cell immune response. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of GMP on key elements directly involved in the development or control of allergy, in order to improve the precise knowledge about its mechanism of action...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
María F Baieli, Nicolás Urtasun, María J Martinez, Daniela B Hirsch, Ana M R Pilosof, María V Miranda, Osvaldo Cascone, Federico J Wolman
Casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) is a 64- amino acid peptide found in cheese whey, which is released after κ-casein specific cleavage by chymosin. CMP lacks aromatic amino acids, a characteristic that makes it usable as a nutritional supplement for people with phenylketonuria. CMP consists of two nonglycosylated isoforms (aCMP A and aCMP B) and its different glycosylated forms (gCMP A and gCMP B). The most predominant carbohydrate of gCMP is N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid). Here, we developed a CMP purification process based on the affinity of sialic acid for wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)...
January 2017: Biotechnology Progress
Yun-Hee Rhee, Hyun-Jeong Ku, Hye-Ji Noh, Hyang-Hyun Cho, Hee-Kyong Kim, Jin-Chul Ahn
AIM: To investigate the bactericidal effects of calcium chelated N-acetylneuraminic acid-glycomacropeptide (CaG-NANA) against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS: For manufacture of CaG-NANA, calcium (Ca) was combined with glycomacropeptide (GMP) by chelating, and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) was produced with Ca-GMP substrate by an enzymatic method. The final concentration of each component was 5% Ca, 7% NANA, 85% GMP, and 3% water. For in vitro study, various concentrations of CaG-NANA were investigated under the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
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