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Latin america

Mauro Fisberg, Irina Kovalskys, Georgina Gómez, Attilio Rigotti, Lilia Yadira Cortés Sanabria, Martha Cecilia Yépez García, Rossina Gabriella Pareja Torres, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Ioná Zalcman Zimberg, Berthold Koletzko, Michael Pratt, Luis A Moreno Aznar, Viviana Guajardo, Regina Mara Fisberg, Cristiane Hermes Sales, Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli
Non-communicable diseases are growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. We assessed total and added sugar intake in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, to verify the adequacy of the World Health Organization's recommendations, considering gender, socioeconomic level (SEL) and age. A total of 9218 non-institutionalized individuals living in urban areas (age range 15-65 years) were assessed in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS), a multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey...
March 22, 2018: Nutrients
Florencia Díaz-Viraqué, María Laura Chiribao, Andrea Trochine, Fabiola González-Herrera, Christian Castillo, Ana Liempi, Ulrike Kemmerling, Juan Diego Maya, Carlos Robello
The discovery that trypanosomatids, unicellular organisms of the order Kinetoplastida, are capable of synthesizing prostaglandins raised questions about the role of these molecules during parasitic infections. Multiple studies indicate that prostaglandins could be related to the infection processes and pathogenesis in trypanosomatids. This work aimed to unveil the role of the prostaglandin F2 α synthase Tc OYE in the establishment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the causative agent of Chagas disease. This chronic disease affects several million people in Latin America causing high morbidity and mortality...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Diego H Cáceres, Blanca E Samayoa, Narda G Medina, Angela M Tobón, Brenda J Guzmán, Danicela Mercado, Angela Restrepo, Tom Chiller, Eduardo E Arathoon, Beatriz L Gómez
Histoplasmosis is an important cause of mortality in patients with AIDS, especially in countries with limited access to antiretroviral therapies and diagnostic tests. However, many disseminated infections in Latin America go undiagnosed. A simple, rapid method to detect Histoplasma capsulatum infection in endemic regions would dramatically decrease time to diagnosis and treatment, reducing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to validate a commercial monoclonal Histoplasma galactomannan (HGM) ELISA (Immuno-Mycologics [IMMY], Norman, Oklahoma, USA) in two cohorts of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Vanessa Couras Regadas, Márcio de Castro E Silva, Lucas Giansante Abud, Luiz Mario Pereira Lopes Labadessa, Rafael Gouvêa Gomes de Oliveira, Cecília Hissae Miyake, Rodolfo Mendes Queiroz
Currently Latin America is undergoing a major epidemic of Zika virus, which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Concern for Zika virus infection has been increasing as it is suspected of causing brain defects in newborns such as microcephaly and, more recently, potential neurological and autoimmune complications including Guillian-Barré syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We describe a case of virus infection in a 25-year-old woman during the first trimester of her pregnancy, confirmed by laboratory tests only for the detection of viral particles in maternal urine, with imaging studies demonstrating the progression of cranial and encephalic changes in the fetus and later in the newborn, such as head circumference reduction, cerebral calcifications and ventriculomegaly...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
John H-O Pettersson, Vegard Eldholm, Stephen J Seligman, Åke Lundkvist, Andrew K Falconar, Michael W Gaunt, Didier Musso, Antoine Nougairède, Remi Charrel, Ernest A Gould, Xavier de Lamballerie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: MBio
Anne C G Almeida, Andrea Kuehn, Arthur J M Castro, Sheila Vitor-Silva, Erick F G Figueiredo, Larissa W Brasil, Marcelo A M Brito, Vanderson S Sampaio, Quique Bassat, Ingrid Felger, Wanderli P Tadei, Wuelton M Monteiro, Ivo Mueller, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies conducted in Latin America have shown a high proportion of asymptomatic and submicroscopic malarial infections. Considering efforts aiming at regional elimination, it is important to investigate the role of this asymptomatic reservoir in malaria transmission in peri-urban areas. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and gametocyte burden on symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in the Brazilian Amazon. RESULTS: Two cross-sectional household surveys (CS) were conducted including all inhabitants in a peri-urban area of Manaus, western Amazonas State, Brazil...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Mary Freire de Carvalho, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio A Pompei, Felipe Rocha, Alexandra Vokaty, Baldomero Molina Flores, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA)...
March 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Juan Pablo Sade, Carlos Alberto Vargas Báez, Martin Greco, Carlos Humberto Martínez, Miguel Ángel Álvarez Avitia, Carlos Palazzo, Narciso Hernández Toriz, Patricia Isabel Bernal Trujillo, Diogo Assed Bastos, Fabio Augusto Schutz, Santiago Bella, Lucas Nogueira, Neal D Shore
Prostate cancer is a significant burden and cause of mortality in Latin America. This article reviews the treatment options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and provides consensus recommendations to assist Latin American prostate cancer specialists with clinical decision making. A multidisciplinary expert panel from Latin America reviewed the available data and their individual experience to develop clinical consensus opinions for the use of life-prolonging agents in mCRPC, with consideration given to factors influencing patient selection and treatment monitoring...
March 19, 2018: Medical Oncology
Diana Meza-Figueroa, Belem González-Grijalva, Francisco Romero, Joaquin Ruiz, Martín Pedroza-Montero, Carlos Ibañez-Del Rivero, Mónica Acosta-Elías, Lucas Ochoa-Landin, Sofía Navarro-Espinoza
The environmental fate of lead derived from traffic paint has been poorly studied in developing countries, mainly in arid zones. For this purpose, a developing city located in the Sonoran desert (Hermosillo, Mexico), was chosen to conduct a study. In this paper the lead chromate (crocoite) sources in atmospheric dust were addressed using a combination of Raman microspectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Pb isotope measurements. A high concentration of Pb and Cr as micro- and nanostructured pigments of crocoite is reported in yellow traffic paint (n=80), road dust (n=146), settled dust in roofs (n=21), and atmospheric dust (n=20) from a developing city located in the Sonoran Desert...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alvaro Sanabria, Daniel Sánchez, Andrés Chala, Andres Alvarez
The effect on quality of life (QOL) of laryngectomy and organ preservation protocols is important in decision making. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate QOL outcomes of patients with advanced laryngeal tumors who were treated with laryngectomy or organ preservation protocols in Latin America. A total of 35 patients from three oncology units were enrolled. Patients with stage III/IV laryngeal cancer who were treated using organ preservation protocols or laryngectomy were assessed with the University of Washington QOL Questionnaire...
March 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Pia Martino-Fuentealba, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun, Andrea Cortinez-O'Ryan, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Astrid Von Oetinger, Kabir P Sadarangani
Background: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, have been historically under-represented due to the lack of surveillance of physical behaviours in young populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare overall physical activity (PA), active transportation to and from school (i.e. walking or cycling), physical education (PE) participation, and sedentary behaviour (SB) in adolescents from 26 countries in LAC. Methods: Data were collected in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2007-13)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Bruce Y Lee, Sarah M Bartsch, Laura Skrip, Daniel L Hertenstein, Cameron M Avelis, Martial Ndeffo-Mbah, Carla Tilchin, Eric O Dumonteil, Alison Galvani
BACKGROUND: The 2020 Sustainable Development goals call for 100% certified interruption or control of the three main forms of Chagas disease transmission in Latin America. However, how much will achieving these goals to varying degrees control Chagas disease; what is the potential impact of missing these goals and if they are achieved, what may be left? METHODS: We developed a compartmental simulation model that represents the triatomine, human host, and non-human host populations and vector-borne, congenital, and transfusional T...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Marcelo Label, Luciana C Karayan, Sybren De Hoog, Javier Afeltra, Togo Bustamante, Roxana G Vitale
Chromoblastomycosis is a mutilating infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by melanized fungi belonging to the order Chaetothyriales. Proven cases of the main agent, Fonsecaea pedrosoi are mainly limited to (sub)tropical, humid climates of Latin and Central America and the Caribbean. Fonsecaea monophora has a global distribution along the equator. Cases outside the (sub)tropics have thus far mostly been considered to have been imported, but here we report the first endemic case by F. monophora from Argentina...
June 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Carlos Hernán Rodríguez, Marcela Nastro, Angela Famiglietti
Carbapenem resistance in gram-negative bacteria by production of carbapenemases is one of the most challenging issues regarding healthcare worldwide. We review the epidemiology and prevalence of carbapenemases in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Latin American countries. High resistance rates to antimicrobial agents, particularly to carbapenems, are observed in this region. OXA-23 is the most widely disseminated class D-carbapenemase; it is present in all the countries of the region and is frequently associated to endemic clones CC113/CC79, CC104/CC15, CC110/ST25 and CC109/CC1...
March 13, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Oscar Illescas, Juan C Gomez-Verjan, Lizbeth García-Velázquez, Tzipe Govezensky, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa
Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a role in several metabolic and inflammatory processes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -173 G/C (rs755622) on MIF gene has been associated with numerous diseases, such as arthritis and cancer. However, most of the reports concerning the association of MIF with these and other pathologies are inconsistent and remain quite controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis from 96 case-control studies on -173 G/C MIF SNP and stratified the data according to the subjects geographic localization or the disease pathophysiology, in order to determine a more meaningful significance to this SNP...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Manuel Fresno, Núria Gironès
Chagas disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , which affects ~8 million people in Latin America, killing 7,000 people annually. Chagas disease is one of the main causes of death in the endemic area and the leading cause of infectious myocarditis in the world. T. cruzi infection induces two phases, acute and chronic, where the infection is initially asymptomatic and the majority of patients will remain clinically indeterminate for life. However, over a period of 10-30 years, ~30% of infected individuals will develop irreversible, potentially fatal cardiac syndromes (chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy [CCC]), and/or dilatation of the gastro-intestinal tract (megacolon or megaesophagus)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Raquel B De Boni, Meridith B Peratikos, Bryan E Shepherd, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Claudia Cortés, Denis Padgett, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Peter F Rebeiro, Stephany N Duda, Catherine C McGowan
BACKGROUND: The HIV care cascade has improved in Latin America over the last decade. However, the influence of alcohol and noninjected drug use (NIDU) on cascade outcomes is mostly unknown. This study estimated the association of alcohol and NIDU with retention in care, loss to follow up (LTFU), and virologic failure (VF). METHODS: Individuals ≥18 years attending routine HIV clinic visits and completing the Rapid Screening Tool (RST; evaluating NIDU and ART adherence in 7-day recall period) during 2012-13 were followed up to 2015 in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology...
2018: PloS One
Daniela Munro-Rojas, Esdras Fernandez-Morales, José Zarrabal-Meza, Ma Teresa Martínez-Cazares, Aurora Parissi-Crivelli, Javier Fuentes-Domínguez, Marie Nancy Séraphin, Michael Lauzardo, Jorge Alberto González-Y-Merchand, Sandra Rivera-Gutierrez, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Mexico is one of the most important contributors of drug and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latin America; however, knowledge of the genetic diversity of drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates is limited. METHODS: In this study, the genetic structure of 112 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from the southeastern Mexico was determined by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTRs. FINDINGS: The results show eight major lineages, the most of which was T1 (24%), followed by LAM (16%) and H (15%)...
2018: PloS One
Arran Hamlet, Kévin Jean, William Perea, Sergio Yactayo, Joseph Biey, Maria Van Kerkhove, Neil Ferguson, Tini Garske
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a vector-borne flavivirus endemic to Africa and Latin America. Ninety per cent of the global burden occurs in Africa where it is primarily transmitted by Aedes spp, with Aedes aegypti the main vector for urban yellow fever (YF). Mosquito life cycle and viral replication in the mosquito are heavily dependent on climate, particularly temperature and rainfall. We aimed to assess whether seasonal variations in climatic factors are associated with the seasonality of YF reports...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Danika Martyn, Maryse Darch, Ashley Roberts, Han Youl Lee, Tina Yaqiong Tian, Naoko Kaburagi, Pablo Belmar
The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides-globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
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