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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734013/cervical-cancer-in-africa-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-and-asia-regional-inequalities-and-changing-trends
#1
S Vaccarella, M Laversanne, J Ferlay, F Bray
The vast majority (86% or 453,000 cases) of the global burden of cervical cancer occurs in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia, where one in nine new cancer cases are of the cervix. Although the disease has become rare in high-resource settings (e.g. in North America, parts of Europe, Japan) that have historically invested in effective screening programmes, the patterns and trends are variable elsewhere. While favourable incidence trends have been recorded in many populations in Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean in the past decades, rising rates have been observed in sub-Saharan African countries, where high quality incidence series are available...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732048/wolbachia-and-dengue-virus-infection-in-the-mosquito-aedes-fluviatilis-diptera-culicidae
#2
Jéssica Barreto Lopes Silva, Debora Magalhães Alves, Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Thiago Nunes Pereira, Marcos Henrique Ferreira Sorgine, Eric Pearce Caragata, Luciano Andrade Moreira
Dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. Wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. Aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in Latin America, but its status as a dengue vector has not been clarified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732022/global-economic-trade-offs-between-wild-nature-and-tropical-agriculture
#3
Luis R Carrasco, Edward L Webb, William S Symes, Lian P Koh, Navjot S Sodhi
Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732004/-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-medical-students-from-latin-america-an-overlooked-problem
#4
Paola Novoa-Sandoval, Katherine Pérez-Acuña, Miguel Achata-Espinoza, Carlos J Toro-Huamanchumo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731899/current-perspectives-on-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-disease
#5
Andrea H Haselbeck, Ursula Panzner, Justin Im, Stephen Baker, Christian G Meyer, Florian Marks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We searched PubMed for scientific literature published in the past 2 years for relevant information regarding the burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease and host factors associated with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and discuss current knowledge on vaccine development. The following search terms were used: Salmonella, non typhoidal/nontyphoidal, NTS, disease, bloodstream infection, invasive, sepsis/septicaemia/septicemia, bacteraemia/bacteremia, gastroenteritis, incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, case fatality, host/risk factor, vaccination, and prevention/control...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730504/changing-trends-in-stomach-cancer-throughout-the-world
#6
REVIEW
Maya Balakrishnan, Rollin George, Ashish Sharma, David Y Graham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The paper aims to discuss the global trends in gastric cancer incidence in relation to important factors involved in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite a significant worldwide decline, gastric cancer remains a common cause of cancer death. The decline has been multifactorial and preceded the fall in Helicobacter pylori prevalence. The initial decline was associated with changes in food preservation and availability, especially of fresh fruits and vegetables, followed by a decline in the primary etiologic factor, H...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730089/an-international-survey-of-classification-and-treatment-choices-for-group-d-retinoblastoma
#7
Christina Scelfo, Jasmine H Francis, Vikas Khetan, Thomas Jenkins, Brian Marr, David H Abramson, Carol L Shields, Jacob Pe'er, Francis Munier, Jesse Berry, J William Harbour, Andrey Yarovoy, Evandro Lucena, Timothy G Murray, Pooja Bhagia, Evelyn Paysse, Samuray Tuncer, Guillermo L Chantada, Annette C Moll, Tatiana Ushakova, David A Plager, Islamov Ziyovuddin, Carlos A Leal, Miguel A Materin, Xun-Da Ji, Jose W Cursino, Rodrigo Polania, Hayyam Kiratli, Charlotta All-Ericsson, Rejin Kebudi, Santosh G Honavar, Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai, Sidnel Epelman, Anthony B Daniels, Jeanie D Ling, Fousseyni Traore, Marco A Ramirez-Ortiz
AIM: To determine which IIRC scheme was used by retinoblastoma centers worldwide and the percentage of D eyes treated primarily with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies as well as to correlate trends in treatment choice to IIRC version used and geographic region. METHODS: An anonymized electronic survey was offered to 115 physicians at 39 retinoblastoma centers worldwide asking about IIRC classification schemes and treatment patterns used between 2008 and 2012...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728956/ataluren-in-patients-with-nonsense-mutation-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-act-dmd-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#8
Craig M McDonald, Craig Campbell, Ricardo Erazo Torricelli, Richard S Finkel, Kevin M Flanigan, Nathalie Goemans, Peter Heydemann, Anna Kaminska, Janbernd Kirschner, Francesco Muntoni, Andrés Nascimento Osorio, Ulrike Schara, Thomas Sejersen, Perry B Shieh, H Lee Sweeney, Haluk Topaloglu, Már Tulinius, Juan J Vilchez, Thomas Voit, Brenda Wong, Gary Elfring, Hans Kroger, Xiaohui Luo, Joseph McIntosh, Tuyen Ong, Peter Riebling, Marcio Souza, Robert J Spiegel, Stuart W Peltz, Eugenio Mercuri
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, progressive, and rare neuromuscular, X-linked recessive disease. Dystrophin deficiency is the underlying cause of disease; therefore, mutation-specific therapies aimed at restoring dystrophin protein production are being explored. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ataluren in ambulatory boys with nonsense mutation DMD. METHODS: We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 54 sites in 18 countries located in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and Latin America...
July 17, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728496/a-missing-piece-in-clinical-trial-inspections-in-latin-america-interviews-with-research-subjects-in-peru
#9
Gabriela E Minaya, Duilio J Fuentes-Delgado, Antonio Ugalde, Núria Homedes
Most regulatory agencies conduct clinical trial (CT) site inspections, but the experiences and behaviors of the research subjects and their knowledge of the rights and obligations that ensue from participating in a CT are seldom explored. The authors assessed the technical feasibility of incorporating interviews with participants in CT inspections. This article analyzes the responses of 13 CT participants, 14% ( n = 96) of those included in three tuberculosis (TB) CTs. Participants did not object to being interviewed and provided information not obtained during regular inspections...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728153/genetic-variants-of-cytochrome-cyp2d6-in-two-mixed-chilean-populations
#10
Mónica Acuña, Eric Pinto, Paulina Olivares, Carolina Ríos
OBJECTIVES: It is known that the interindividual and interethnic variability of the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 plays an important role in the presentation of adverse drug reactions and concerning lack of therapeutic effects in humans. However, there are few data available from mixed populations of Latin America, including the Chilean. The aim of this study was therefore to estimate the frequencies of CYP2D6 variants in two samples of hospitals from the northern (Hospital San José, HSJ) and eastern (Clínica Las Condes, CLC) parts of Santiago, Chile, with different degrees of Amerindian admixture (HSJ: 34...
July 21, 2017: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727526/zika-and-reproductive-rights-in-brazil-challenge-to-the-right-to-health
#11
Pablo K Valente
The Zika virus epidemic rapidly spread across Brazil and Latin America, gaining international attention because of the causal relationship between Zika and birth defects. The high number of cases in Brazil has been attributed to a failure of the state to contain the epidemic and protect the affected people, especially women. Therefore, the public health crisis created by Zika exposed a stark conflict between Brazil's constitutional right to health and the long-standing violation of reproductive rights in the country...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724362/prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-peruvian-primary-care-setting
#12
Percy Herrera-Añazco, Alvaro Taype-Rondan, María Lazo-Porras, E Alberto Quintanilla, Victor Manuel Ortiz-Soriano, Adrian V Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. There are few studies in Latin America, especially in primary care settings. Our objective was to determine the prevalence, stages, and associated factors of CKD in primary care setting. METHODS: We did a retrospective secondary analysis of a database from the Diabetes and Hypertension Primary Care Center of the Peruvian Social Security System (EsSalud) in Lima, Peru. We defined CKD as the presence of eGFR <60 mL/min and/or albuminuria >30 mg/day in 24 h, according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)...
July 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723905/evolution-of-anti-trypanosoma-cruzi-antibody-production-in-patients-with-chronic-chagas-disease-correlation-between-antibody-titers-and-development-of-cardiac-disease-severity
#13
Ingebourg Georg, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Sergio Salles Xavier, Marcelo Teixeira de Holanda, Eric Henrique Roma, Maria da Gloria Bonecini-Almeida
Chagas disease is one of the most important endemic infections in Latin America affecting around 6-7 million people. About 30-50% of patients develop the cardiac form of the disease, which can lead to severe cardiac dysfunction and death. In this scenario, the identification of immunological markers of disease progression would be a valuable tool for early treatment and reduction of death rates. In this observational study, the production of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies through a retrospective longitudinal follow-up in chronic Chagas disease patients´ cohort and its correlation with disease progression and heart commitment was evaluated...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722567/bartonella-infection-in-hematophagous-insectivorous-and-phytophagous-bat-populations-of-central-mexico-and-the-yucatan-peninsula
#14
Matthew J Stuckey, Bruno B Chomel, Guillermo Galvez-Romero, José Ignacio Olave-Leyva, Cirani Obregón-Morales, Hayde Moreno-Sandoval, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Mónica Salas-Rojas, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién
Although emerging nonviral pathogens remain relatively understudied in bat populations, there is an increasing focus on identifying bat-associated bartonellae around the world. Many novel Bartonella strains have been described from both bats and their arthropod ectoparasites, including Bartonella mayotimonensis, a zoonotic agent of human endocarditis. This cross-sectional study was designed to describe novel Bartonella strains isolated from bats sampled in Mexico and evaluate factors potentially associated with infection...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721593/public-policies-and-interventions-for-diabetes-in-latin-america-a-scoping-review
#15
REVIEW
Elizabeth Kaselitz, Gurpreet K Rana, Michele Heisler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful interventions are needed to diagnose and manage type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Latin America, a region that is experiencing a significant rise in rates of T2DM. Complementing an earlier review exploring diabetes prevention efforts in Latin America, this scoping review examines the literature on (1) policies and governmental programs intended to improve diabetes diagnosis and treatment in Latin America and (2) interventions to improve diabetes management in Latin America...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720727/impact-of-paracoccin-gene-silencing-on-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-virulence
#16
Fabrício F Fernandes, Aline F Oliveira, Taise N Landgraf, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho, Patrícia E Vendruscolo, Relber A Gonçales, Fausto Almeida, Thiago A da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira
Among the endemic deep mycoses in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is a major cause of morbidity. Disease development and its manifestations are associated with both host and fungal factors. Concerning the latter, several recent studies have employed the methodology of gene modulation in P. brasiliensis using antisense RNA (AsRNA) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to identify proteins that influence fungus virulence...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719500/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-latin-america
#17
Pío López, Adriano Arguedas Mohs, Arturo Abdelnour Vásquez, Maria Consuelo-Miranda, Emmanuel Feroldi, Fernando Noriega, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Betzana Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. METHODS: Infants (N=1375) received HB vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of three batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4-6 months of age, co-administered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months)...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719316/high-mortality-and-coinfection-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-patients-with-histoplasmosis-in-guatemala
#18
Blanca Samayoa, Monika Roy, Angela Ahlquist Cleveland, Narda Medina, Dalia Lau-Bonilla, Christina M Scheel, Beatriz L Gomez, Tom Chiller, Eduardo Arathoon
Histoplasmosis is one of the most common and deadly opportunistic infections among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Latin America, but due to limited diagnostic capacity in this region, few data on the burden and clinical characteristics of this disease exist. Between 2005 and 2009, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with suspected histoplasmosis at a hospital-based HIV clinic in Guatemala City. A case of suspected histoplasmosis was defined as a person presenting with at least three of five clinical or radiologic criteria...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719313/keynote-address-november-2016-zika-virus-disease-in-the-americas-a-storm-in-the-making
#19
Carissa Etienne, Thais Dos Santos, Marcos A Espinal
More than 700,000 cases of Zika virus (ZIKAV) disease have been officially reported to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) from 48 countries and territories of the Americas. The response led by the PAHO and partners suggests major lessons of this outbreak. A seemingly innocuous pathogen became the new villain, causing fear, economic losses and, most importantly, debilitating birth defects and neurological problems, reaffirming the well-known war principle of never to underestimate one's opponent. The ZIKAV tested public health capacities under the International Health Regulations, highlighting the need for continued investment in health security...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717769/end-of-life-care-in-latin-america
#20
REVIEW
Enrique Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Yanin Chavarri-Guerra, Tania Pastrana, Rossana Ruiz-Mendoza, Alexandra Bukowski, Paul E Goss
Cancer has become a global pandemic with disproportionately higher mortality rates in low- and middle- income countries, where a large fraction of patients present in advanced stages and in need of end-of-life care. Globally, the number of adults needing end-of-life care is greater than 19 million, and up to 78% of these patients are living in low- and middle- income countries. In the Americas alone, more than one million people are in need of end-of-life care, placing an enormous burden on local health systems, which are often unprepared to meet the challenge presented by this complex patient population...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
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