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Yuan Wu, Yun Wang, Xue-Fei Mi, Jun-Xiang Shan, Xin-Min Li, Jian-Long Xu, Hong-Xuan Lin
Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Roda Seseogullari-Dirihan, Mustafa Murat Mutluay, David H Pashley, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay
OBJECTIVE: Inactivation of dentin proteases by crosslinkers has been suggested as a way to prevent the degradation of dentin collagen in the hybrid layer. However, it is not known if the inhibition is reversible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inactivation effect of various crosslinkers on dentin protease activity over a period of 6 months. METHODS: Demineralized dentin beams (1×2×6mm, n=10/group) were treated with (1) 1% glutaraldehyde (GA1), (2) 5% glutaraldehyde (GA5), (3) 1% grape seed extract (GS1), (4) 5% grape seed extract (GS5), (5) 10% sumac berry extract (S), (6) 20μM curcumin (CR20), and (7) 200μM curcumin (CR200) for 5min...
October 10, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, In-Jung Lee
The nutritional quality of green leafy vegetables can be enhanced by application of plant beneficial micro-organisms. The present study was aimed to increase the food values of lettuce leaves by bacterial treatment. We isolated bacterial strain KE2 from Kimchi food and identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus by phylogenetic analysis. The beneficial effect of B. methylotrophicus KE2 on plants was confirmed by increasing the percentage of seed germination of Lactuca sativa L., Cucumis melo L., Glycine max L...
September 29, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Bárbara Castro Vieira, Elisa Monteze Bicalho, Sergi Munné-Bosch, Queila Souza Garcia
The relationship between the phytohormones, gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) and light and temperature on seed germination is still not well understood. Here, we investigated the interaction between light, temperature, ABA and GA in seed germination of Vellozia caruncularis, V. intermedia, and V. alutacea. Seeds were incubated in 100 μM solutions of GA (GA3 or GA4 ), ABA and their respective biosynthesis inhibitors (paclobutrazol - PAC, and fluridone - FLU) at two temperatures (25 and 40 °C). Furthermore, endogenous concentrations of active gibberellins (GAs), including GA1 , GA3 and GA4 , and those of ABA were measured in seeds of V...
October 8, 2016: Plant Biology
Chao Wu, Kehui Cui, Wencheng Wang, Qian Li, Shah Fahad, Qiuqian Hu, Jianliang Huang, Lixiao Nie, Shaobing Peng
Heat stress causes morphological and physiological changes and reduces crop yield in rice (Oryza sativa). To investigate changes in phytohormones and their relationships with yield and other attributes under heat stress, four rice varieties (Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, Liangyoupeijiu, and Shanyou 63) were grown in pots and subjected to three high temperature treatments plus control in temperature-controlled greenhouses for 15 d during the early reproductive phase. Yield reductions in Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, and Liangyoupeijiu were attributed to reductions in spikelet fertility, spikelets per panicle, and grain weight...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Siti Aishah Abdul Wahab, Yusnita Yakob, Nor Azimah Abdul Azize, Zabedah Md Yunus, Leong Huey Yin, Mohd Khairul Nizam Mohd Khalid, Ngu Lock Hock
Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme encoded by the GCDH gene. In this study, we presented the clinical and molecular findings of seven GA1 patients in Malaysia. All the patients were symptomatic from infancy and diagnosed clinically from large excretion of glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids. Bidirectional sequencing of the GCDH gene revealed ten mutations, three of which were novel (Gln76Pro, Glu131Val, and Gly390Trp)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Xiaobo Gu, Sun-Young Park, Marco Tonelli, Gabriel Cornilescu, Tianbing Xia, Dongping Zhong, Susan J Schroeder
Metal ions are critical for RNA structure and enzymatic activity. We present the structure of an asymmetric RNA loop that binds metal ions and has an essential function in a bacteriophage packaging motor. Prohead RNA is a noncoding RNA that is required for genome packaging activity in phi29-like bacteriophage. The loops in GA1 and phi29 bacteriophage share a conserved adenine that forms a base triple, although the structural context for the base triple differs. NMR relaxation studies and femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy reveal the dynamic behavior of the loop in the metal ion bound and unbound forms...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
José A Martín-Rodríguez, Raúl Huertas, Tania Ho-Plágaro, Juan A Ocampo, Veronika Turečková, Danuše Tarkowská, Jutta Ludwig-Müller, José M García-Garrido
Plant hormones have become appropriate candidates for driving functional plant mycorrhization programs, including the processes that regulate the formation of arbuscules in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Here, we examine the role played by ABA/GA interactions regulating the formation of AM in tomato. We report differences in ABA and GA metabolism between control and mycorrhizal roots. Active synthesis and catabolism of ABA occur in AM roots. GAs level increases as a consequence of a symbiosis-induced mechanism that requires functional arbuscules which in turn is dependent on a functional ABA pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lirong Zou, Lina Yi, Jie Wu, Yingchao Song, Guofeng Huang, Xin Zhang, Lijun Liang, Hanzhong Ni, Oliver G Pybus, Changwen Ke, Jing Lu
Respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs) including subgroups A (RSV-A) and B (RSV-B) are an important cause of acute respiratory tract infections worldwide. RSV-A include major epidemic strains. Fundamental questions concerning the evolution, persistence and transmission of RSV-A are critical for disease control and prevention, yet remain unanswered. In this study, we generated 64 complete G gene sequences of RSV-A strains collected between 2008 and 2015 in Guangdong, China. Phylogenetic analysis was undertaken by incorporating 572 publicly available RSV-A sequences...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Natalia Teribia, Verónica Tijero, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Sweet cherries are highly appreciated by consumers worldwide and are usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening before distribution to the market. Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit, for which ripening is known to be regulated by abscisic acid. Here we aimed to examine the hormone profiles, including measurements of abscisic acid, auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), in relation to variations in sugar and anthocyanin contents, during growth and ripening of this fruit...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Houping Wang, Jinjing Pan, Yang Li, Dengji Lou, Yanru Hu, Diqiu Yu
Gibberellin (GA) and photoperiod pathways have recently been demonstrated to collaboratively modulate flowering under long days (LDs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this collaboration remain largely unclear. In this study, we found that GA-induced expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) under LDs was dependent on CONSTANS (CO), a critical transcription factor positively involved in photoperiod signaling. Mechanistic investigation revealed that DELLA proteins, a group of crucial repressors in GA signaling, physically interacted with CO...
September 2016: Plant Physiology
Songwen Zhang, Dong Zhang, Sheng Fan, Lisha Du, Yawen Shen, Libo Xing, Youmei Li, Juanjuan Ma, Mingyu Han
Gibberellins (GAs) reduce apple (Malus domestica) flowering rates; however, the mechanism of their action is not fully understood. To gain a better insight into gibberellin-regulated flowering, here, 5 year-old 'Fuji' apple trees were used to explore the responses of hormones [GA1+3, GA4+7, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin-riboside (ZR), and abscisic acid (ABA)], and gibberellin- and flowering-associated genes, to applications of gibberellin acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PAC). Results showed that GA3 relatively stimulated vegetative growth and delayed floral induction...
October 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xin Zhou, Zhong-Lin Zhang, Jeongmoo Park, Ludmila Tyler, Jikumaru Yusuke, Kai Qiu, Edward A Nam, Shelley Lumba, Darrell Desveaux, Peter McCourt, Yuji Kamiya, Tai-Ping Sun
The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in promoting stem elongation in plants. Previous studies show that GA activates its signaling pathway by inducing rapid degradation of DELLA proteins, GA signaling repressors. Using an activation-tagging screen in a reduced-GA mutant ga1-6 background, we identified AtERF11 to be a novel positive regulator of both GA biosynthesis and GA signaling for internode elongation. Overexpression of AtERF11 partially rescued the dwarf phenotype of ga1-6 AtERF11 is a member of the ERF (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR) subfamily VIII-B-1a of ERF/AP2 transcription factors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
August 2016: Plant Physiology
Marloes E M Vester, Gepke Visser, Frits A Wijburg, Francjan J van Spronsen, Monique Williams, Rick R van Rijn
UNLABELLED: Patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1), a rare inherited metabolic disorder, have an increased risk for subdural hematomas (SDHs). GA1 is therefore generally included in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with SDHs. This retrospective cohort study reviews all 25 registered, in the Dutch Diagnosis Registration for Metabolic Disorders, GA1 patients in the Netherlands. This was done between May 2014 and November 2014 to determine the lifetime incidence of SDHs in this population...
July 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Eduardo Bueso, Jesús Muñoz-Bertomeu, Francisco Campos, Cándido Martínez, Carlos Tello, Irene Martínez-Almonacid, Patricia Ballester, Miguel Simón-Moya, Veronique Brunaud, Lynne Yenush, Cristina Ferrándiz, Ramón Serrano
Light is a major regulator of plant growth and development by antagonizing gibberellins (GA), and we provide evidence for a role of light perception and GA in seed coat formation and seed tolerance to deterioration. We have identified two activation-tagging mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, cog1-2D and cdf4-1D, with improved seed tolerance to deterioration linked to increased expression of COG1/DOF1.5 and CDF4/DOF2.3, respectively. These encode two homologous DOF transcription factors, with COG1 most highly expressed in seeds...
September 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yusei Masaki, Katsutoshi Tsutsumi, Shin-Ichi Hirano, Naoko Okibe
Chinoike Jigoku ("Blood Pond Hell") is located in the hot spring town of Beppu on the southern island of Kyushu in Japan, and is the site of a red-colored acidic geothermal pond. This study aimed to investigate the microbial population composition in this extremely acidic environment and to isolate/characterize acidophilic microorganism with metal-reducing ability. Initially, PCR (using bacteria- and archaea-specific primers) of environmental DNA samples detected the presence of bacteria, but not archaea. This was followed by random sequencing analysis, confirming the presence of wide bacterial diversity at the site (123 clones derived from 18 bacterial and 1 archaeal genera), including those closely related to known autotrophic and heterotrophic acidophiles (Acidithiobacillus sp...
September 2016: Research in Microbiology
Raheem Shahzad, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul Latif Khan, Sajjad Asaf, Muhammad Aaqil Khan, Sang-Mo Kang, Byung-Wook Yun, In-Jung Lee
Some microorganisms are adapted to an endophytic mode, living symbiotically with plants through vertical transmission in seeds. The role of plant growth-promoting endophytes has been well studied, but those of seed-associated endophytic bacteria are less understood. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacterial endophytes associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Jin so mi') seeds, their potential to produce gibberellins (GAs), and role in improving host-plant physiology. The isolated bacterial endophyte RWL-1 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis...
September 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Daoyou Guo, Yuehua An, Wei Cui, Yusong Zhi, Xiaolong Zhao, Ming Lei, Linghong Li, Peigang Li, Zhenping Wu, Weihua Tang
Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carlos Mesejo, Roberto Yuste, Carmina Reig, Amparo Martínez-Fuentes, Domingo J Iglesias, Natalia Muñoz-Fambuena, Almudena Bermejo, M Antonietta Germanà, Eduardo Primo-Millo, Manuel Agustí
Citrus is a wide genus in which most of the cultivated species and cultivars are natural parthenocarpic mutants or hybrids (i.e. orange, mandarin, tangerine, grapefruit). The autonomous increase in GA1 ovary concentration during anthesis was suggested as being the stimulus responsible for parthenocarpy in Citrus regardless of the species. To determine the exact GA-role in parthenocarpic fruit set, the following hypothesis was tested: GA triggers and maintains cell division in ovary walls causing fruit set. Obligate and facultative parthenocarpic Citrus species were used as a model system because obligate parthenocarpic Citrus sp (i...
June 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Karl Rickert, Philippe Boullay, Sylvie Malo, Vincent Caignaert, Kenneth R Poeppelmeier
The structure solution of the modulated, delafossite-related, orthorhombic Ga3-xIn3TixO9+x/2 for x = 1.5 is reported here in conjunction with a model describing the modulation as a function of x for the entire system. Previously reported structures in the related A3-xIn3TixO9+x/2 (A = Al, Cr, or Fe) systems use X-ray diffraction to determine that the anion lattice is the source of modulation. Neutron diffraction, with its enhanced sensitivity to light atoms, offers a route to solving the modulation and is used here, in combination with precession electron diffraction tomography (PEDT), to solve the structure of Ga1...
May 2, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
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