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Feng Yang, Yuanfang Fan, Xiaoling Wu, Yajiao Cheng, Qinlin Liu, Lingyang Feng, Junxu Chen, Zhonglin Wang, Xiaochun Wang, Taiwen Yong, Weiguo Liu, Jiang Liu, Junbo Du, Kai Shu, Wenyu Yang
The intensity and quality (red to far-red (R/Fr) ratio) of light directly affect growth of plant under shading. Gibberellins (GAs) and auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] play important roles in mediating the shading adaptive responses of plants. Thus, the intensity and quality of the uncoupling light from shading were assessed to identify the influence of each component on the morphology and matter distribution of the leaf, stem, and petiole. This assessment was based on the changes in endogenous Gibberellin 1 (GA1) and IAA levels...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Han Zheng, Yong Ding
The covalent histone modifications were associated with plant development. However, the function of histone modification factors involved in gibberellins (GAs) signaling pathway remains unclear. In recent study, we reported that histone modification factors MUT9p-LIKE KINASE1 (MLK1) and MLK2 coordinate GA and circadian clock signaling in hypocotyl elongation. MLK1 and MLK2 interact with the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), and antagonize the function of RGA to interact with CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), resulting in promoting hypocotyl elongation...
February 12, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Angeline Thomas, Els F M Dobbels, Priscilla E Springer, Christelle Ackermann, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton
The first case of Glutaric aciduria Type 1(GA1) in an African child was reported in 2001. GA1 has a prevalence of 1:5000 in black South Africans. Although early diagnosis is essential for a favourable outcome, newborn screening is not routine in South Africa where an estimated 320,000 children have HIV infection. Neurodevelopmental delay and encephalopathy are complications of both HIV and GA1. In such a setting it is important to recognise that HIV and GA1 can occur simultaneously. We present an HIV-infected South African male child of Xhosa descent with macrocephaly who commenced combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) at 8 weeks of age in a clinical trial which included a neurodevelopmental sub-study...
February 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Lulu Liu, Zhigang Wang, Jianlong Liu, Fengxia Liu, Rui Zhai, Chunqin Zhu, Huibin Wang, Fengwang Ma, Lingfei Xu
Phytohormones play crucial roles in fruit set regulation and development. Here, gibberellins (GA4+7), but not GA3, induced pear parthenocarpy. To systematically investigate the changes upon GA4+7 induced pear parthenocarpy, dynamic changes in histology, hormone and transcript levels were observed and identified in unpollinated, pollinated and GA4+7-treated ovaries. Mesocarp cells continued developing in both GA4+7-treated and pollinated ovaries. In unpollinated ovaries, mesocarp cells stopped developing 14 days after anthesis...
2018: Horticulture Research
Chuanlin Zheng, Atiako Kwame Acheampong, Zhaowan Shi, Tamar Halaly, Yuji Kamiya, Ron Ophir, David W Galbraith, Etti Or
The molecular mechanism regulating dormancy release in grapevine buds is as yet unclear. It has been proposed that (1) Abscisic acid (ABA) represses bud-meristem activity; (2) Perturbation of respiration induces an interplay between ethylene and ABA metabolism, which leads to repression removal; (3) Gibberellin (GA)-mediated growth is resumed. The first two propositions have been formally supported. The current study examines the third proposition regarding the potential involvement of GA in dormancy release...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
J Guidry, S Bagher, O Felemban, A Rich, C Loo
AIM: The purpose of this chart review study was to investigate the common factors that exist in paediatric patients requiring a repeat dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA2) within four years after the initial dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Electronic Health Records of one to 12 year-old children who received dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) between April 2004 and October 2009 were identified and analysed by a single examiner...
December 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Camille Fonouni-Farde, Erin McAdam, David Nichols, Anouck Diet, Eloise Foo, Florian Frugier
Gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinins (CKs) are hormones that play antagonistic roles in several developmental processes in plants. However, there has been little exploration of their reciprocal interactions. Recent work in Medicago truncatula has revealed that GA signalling can regulate CK levels and response in roots. Here, we examine the reciprocal interaction, by assessing how CKs and the CRE1 (Cytokinin Response 1) CK receptor may influence endogenous GA levels. Real-Time RT-PCR analyses revealed that the expression of key GA biosynthesis genes is regulated in response to a short-term CK treatment and requires the CRE1 receptor...
January 26, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ji-Hye Jang, Yun Shang, Hyun Kyung Kang, Sun Young Kim, Beg Hab Kim, Kyoung Hee Nam
Seed germination begins the growth phases of plants and its rate is affected not only by plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroids (BRs), but also by environmental factors. In this study, we searched for additional chemical reagents that affect seed germination, using the det2-1 and ga1-3 mutants that showed reduced seed germination due to defective BR- or GA- biosynthesis, respectively. We found that the reducing reagent dithiothreitol (DTT) specifically enhanced seed germination of det2-1 compared with that of ga1-3...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
S L Zuo, Y Zhang, L C Peng, X Zhao, R Li, H Li, J F Xiong, M He, T Y Zhao, J R Sun, F X Hu, B G Shen
The evolution of topological magnetic domains microscopically correlates the dynamic behavior of memory units in spintronic application. Nanometric bubbles with variation of spin configurations have been directly observed in a centrosymmetric hexagonal magnet (Mn0.5Ni0.5)65(Ga1-yYy)35 (y = 0.01) using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic bubbles instead of biskyrmions are generated due to the enhancement of quality factor Q caused by the substitution of rare-earth element Y. Furthermore, the bubble density and diversified spin configurations are systematically manipulated via combining the electric current with perpendicular magnetic fields...
January 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Swadipta Roy, C V Ramana
We report on the tunable and controlled dielectric properties of iron (Fe)-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3; Ga1.9Fe0.1O3, referred to as GFO) inorganic compounds. The GFO materials were synthesized using a standard high-temperature, solid-state chemical reaction method by varying the thermochemical processing conditions, namely, different calcination and sintering environments. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction revealed that GFO compounds crystallize in the β-Ga2O3 phase. The Fe doping has induced slight lattice strain in GFO, which is evident in structural analysis...
January 17, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Soo-Won Jang, Yoonha Kim, Abdul Latif Khan, Chae-In Na, In-Jung Lee
BACKGROUND: Silicon (Si) has been known to regulate plant growth; however, the underlying mechanisms of short-term exogenous Si application on the regulation of calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N), endogenous phytohormones, and expression of essential proteins have been little understood. RESULTS: Exogenous Si application significantly increased Si content as compared to the control. Among Si treatments, 1.0 mM Si application showed increased phosphorus content as compared to other Si treatments (0...
January 4, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Zahra Pirzadeh, Massoud Houshmand, Jafar Nasiri, Mohsen Mollamohammadi, Mostafa Sedighi, Seyed Hassan Tonekaboni
Objective: Glutaricaciduria type 1 (GA1), is a rare, treatable neuro metabolic disease, due to glutaryl- CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) gene mutation.In regions without neonatal blood screening (NBS), patients are diagnosed in symptomatic period. This study was carried out to assess patients with GA1 for clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging findings and GCDH gene mutations analysis. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, clinical manifestation, neuroimaging and metabolic findings of eleven Iranian GA1 patients of MofidChildren's Hospital, Tehran, Iranbetween 2001 and 2011,were evaluated...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Adrienne N Moran Lauter, Michael G Muszynski, Ryan D Huffman, M Paul Scott
The ga1 locus of maize confers unilateral cross incompatibility, preventing cross pollination between females carrying the incompatible Ga1-s allele and males not carrying a corresponding compatible allele. To characterize this system at the molecular level, we carried out a transcript profiling experiment in which silks from near isogenic lines carrying the Ga1-s and ga1 alleles were compared. While several differentially expressed genes were identified, only one mapped to the known location of ga1. This gene is a pectin methylesterase (PME), which we designated as ZmPme3, and is present and expressed only in Ga1-s genotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
N Chery, T H Ngo, M P Chauvat, B Damilano, A Courville, P DE Mierry, T Grieb, T Mehrtens, F F Krause, K Müller-Caspary, M Schowalter, B Gil, A Rosenauer, P Ruterana
In this work, we analyse the microstructure and local chemical composition of green-emitting Inx Ga1-x N/GaN quantum well (QW) heterostructures in correlation with their emission properties. Two samples of high structural quality grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with a nominal composition of x = 0.15 and 0.18 indium are discussed. The local indium composition is quantitatively evaluated by comparing scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images to simulations and the local indium concentration is extracted from intensity measurements...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
E Park, P H Park, J W Huh, H J Yun, H K Lee, M H Yoon, S Lee, G Ko
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious respiratory infections, second only to influenza virus. In order to know RSV's genetic changes we examined 4028 respiratory specimens from local hospital outpatients in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea over six consecutive years by real-time one-step RT-PCR; 183 patients were positive for RSV infection. To investigate the specific distribution of RSV genotypes, we performed partial sequencing of the glycoprotein gene. Of the 131 RSV-A specimens sequenced, 61 (43·3%) belonged to the ON1 genotype, 66 (46·8%) were NA1 genotype, 3 (2·1%) were GA5 genotype, and 1 (0·7%) belonged to the GA1 genotype...
November 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Syed Tawab Shah, Wageeh A Yehya, Omer Saad, Khanom Simarani, Zaira Chowdhury, Abeer A Alhadi, Lina A Al-Ani
In this research, we report the size-controlled synthesis and surface-functionalization of magnetite with the natural antioxidant gallic acid (GA) as a ligand, using in situ and post-synthesis methods. GA functionalization provided narrow size distribution, with an average particle size of 5 and 8 nm for in situ synthesis of gallic acid functionalized magnetite IONP@GA1 and IONP@GA2, respectively, which are ultra-small particles as compared to unfunctionalized magnetite (IONP) and post functionalized magnetite IONP@GA3 with average size of 10 and 11 nm respectively...
October 5, 2017: Nanomaterials
Ourania Lantzouni, Carina Klermund, Claus Schwechheimer
The phytohormones gibberellin (GA) and strigolactone (SL) are involved in essential processes in plant development. Both GA and SL signal transduction mechanisms employ α/β-hydrolase-derived receptors that confer E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated protein degradation processes. This suggests a common evolutionary origin of these pathways and possibly a molecular interaction between them. One such indication stems from rice, where the DELLA protein of the GA pathway was reported to interact with the SL receptor...
October 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Haiwei Shuai, Yongjie Meng, Xiaofeng Luo, Feng Chen, Wenguan Zhou, Yujia Dai, Ying Qi, Junbo Du, Feng Yang, Jiang Liu, Wenyu Yang, Kai Shu
Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represses soybean seed germination by enhancing ABA biosynthesis, while impairing GA biogenesis, and finally decreasing GA1/ABA and GA4/ABA ratios...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Adrian J Verster, Benjamin D Ross, Matthew C Radey, Yiqiao Bao, Andrew L Goodman, Joseph D Mougous, Elhanan Borenstein
Although gut microbiome composition is well defined, the mechanisms underlying community assembly remain poorly understood. Bacteroidales possess three genetic architectures (GA1-3) of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), an effector delivery pathway that mediates interbacterial competition. Here we define the distribution and role of GA1-3 in the human gut using metagenomic analysis. We find that adult microbiomes harbor limited effector and cognate immunity genes, suggesting selection for compatibility at the species (GA1 and GA2) and strain (GA3) levels...
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
Jochen Bruckbauer, Zhi Li, G Naresh-Kumar, Monika Warzecha, Paul R Edwards, Ling Jiu, Yipin Gong, Jie Bai, Tao Wang, Carol Trager-Cowan, Robert W Martin
Pushing the emission wavelength of efficient ultraviolet (UV) emitters further into the deep-UV requires material with high crystal quality, while also reducing the detrimental effects of built-in electric fields. Crack-free semi-polar [Formula: see text] Al x Ga1-x N epilayers with AlN contents up to x = 0.56 and high crystal quality were achieved using an overgrowth method employing GaN microrods on m-sapphire. Two dominant emission peaks were identified using cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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