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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735334/detection-of-polioviruses-in-sewage-using-cell-culture-and-molecular-methods
#1
Agnieszka Figas, Magdalena Wieczorek, Bogumiła Litwińska, Włodzimierz Gut
The work presented here demonstrates the utility of a two-step algorithm for environmental poliovirus surveillance based on: preselection of sewage samples tested for the presence of enteroviral genetic material-RT-PCR assay and detection of infectious viruses by cell culture technique (L20B for polioviruses and RD for polio and other non-polio enteroviruses). RD and L20B cell lines were tested to determine their sensitivity for isolation of viruses from environmental samples (sewage). Finally, we wanted to determine if sewage concentration affects the results obtained for RT-PCR and cell cultures...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724546/high-protein-diet-promotes-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiome-without-altering-brain-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#2
Lixin Wang, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Pu-Qing Yuan, Shuping Vincent Wu, Mulugeta Million, Joseph R Reeve, Joseph R Pisegna, Yvette Taché
High protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation, altered glucose levels, cholecystokinin (CCK) sensitivity and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 weeks were switched to a HPD for 6 weeks. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. Compared to normal diet, WD increased body weight (9...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722828/bioaccumulation-based-silver-nanoparticle-toxicity-in-daphnia-magna-and-maternal-impacts
#3
Sunandan Pakrashi, Cheng Tan, Wen-Xiong Wang
In this study, we tested whether the bioaccumulation in specific tissues of Daphnia magna could explain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) toxicity. Daphnids were exposed to different concentrations of well suspended AgNPs and AgNO3 . The accumulations of Ag in the whole body, guts and non-gut tissues, as well as the mortality of daphnids were recorded over a period of 7 days. Regression analysis showed higher degree of positive correlation between the concentration of Ag in the non-gut tissues than gut tissues and the mortality of the daphnids...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720151/supplementation-with-lactobacillus-paracasei-or-pediococcus-pentosaceus-does-not-prevent-diarrhoea-in-neonatal-pigs-infected-with-escherichia-coli-f18
#4
Anders D Andersen, Malene S Cilieborg, Charlotte Lauridsen, Anne Louise Mørkbak, Per Torp Sangild
Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newborn caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6×108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus pentosaceus (PEP, 1·3×1010 CFU/kg per d), were administered for 5 d with or without inoculation of the porcine pathogen, Escherichia coli F18 (F18, 1010 CFU/d)...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#5
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715773/developmental-toxicity-of-fe3o4-nanoparticles-on-cysts-and-three-larval-stages-of-artemia-salina
#6
Song Zhu, Ming-Yang Xue, Fei Luo, Wei-Chao Chen, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Using Artemia salina cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae (instar I, II and III) as experimental models, the potential effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) on marine ecosystems were investigated. Hatchability, mortality and a number of ethological, morphological and biochemical parameters were selected as end-points to define the toxic responses. Data showed that the hatching rates of capsulated and decapsulated cysts were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) following exposure to 600 mg/L for 24 and 36 h...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713349/the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-chilean-subjects-reveals-a-high-abundance-of-the-phylum-verrucomicrobia
#7
Sayaka Fujio-Vejar, Yessenia Vasquez, Pamela Morales, Fabien Magne, Patricia Vera-Wolf, Juan A Ugalde, Paola Navarrete, Martin Gotteland
The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713336/development-and-use-of-a-real-time-quantitative-pcr-method-for-detecting-and-quantifying-equol-producing-bacteria-in-human-faecal-samples-and-slurry-cultures
#8
Lucía Vázquez, Lucía Guadamuro, Froilán Giganto, Baltasar Mayo, Ana B Flórez
This work introduces a novel real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocol for detecting and quantifying equol-producing bacteria. To this end, two sets of primers targeting the dihydrodaidzein reductase (ddr) and tetrahydrodaidzein reductase (tdr) genes, which are involved in the synthesis of equol, were designed. The primers showed high specificity and sensitivity when used to examine DNA from control bacteria, such as Slackia isoflavoniconvertens, Slackia equolifaciens, Asaccharobacter celatus, Adlercreutzia equolifaciens, and Enterorhabdus mucosicola...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705785/determination-of-certain-bacterial-groups-in-gut-microbiota-and-endotoxin-levels-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
Ceren Özkul, Meltem Yalınay, Tarkan Karakan, Güldal Yılmaz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In recent years, the role of the gut microbiota has emerged in several diseases. Herein we aimed to determine the fecal microbiota, endotoxin levels, and inflammation markers in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 46 NASH patients and 38 healthy controls were included. NASH patients were diagnosed according to the steatosis, activity, and fibrosis score/fatty liver inhibition of progression algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703362/in-vivo-delivery-and-activation-of-masked-fluorogenic-hydrolase-substrates-by-endogenous-hydrolases-in-c-elegans
#10
Shataakshi Dube, Hitesh Dube, Nicole B Green, Erik M Larsen, Alex White, R Jeremy Johnson, Jennifer Kowalski
Protein expression and localization are often studied in vivo by tagging molecules with green fluorescent protein (GFP), yet subtle changes in protein levels are not easily detected. To develop a sensitive in vivo method to amplify fluorescence signals and allow cell-specific quantification of protein abundance changes, we sought to apply an enzyme-activated cellular fluorescence system in vivo by delivering ester-masked fluorophores to Caenorhabditis elegans neurons expressing porcine liver esterase (PLE)...
July 12, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702022/preparing-the-gut-with-antibiotics-enhances-gut-microbiota-reprogramming-efficiency-by-promoting-xenomicrobiota-colonization
#11
Shou K Ji, Hui Yan, Tao Jiang, Chun Y Guo, Jing J Liu, Shuang Z Dong, Kai L Yang, Ya J Wang, Zhi J Cao, Sheng L Li
Gut microbiota plays multiple important roles in intestinal and physiological homeostasis, and using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to reprogram gut microbiota has demonstrated promise for redressing intestinal and physiological disorders. This study tested the alterations in reprogramming efficiency caused by different gut preparation procedures and explored the associated underlying mechanisms. We prepared the guts of mice for FMT by administering one of the three most-clinically used pretreatments [antibiotics, bowel cleansing (BC) solution, or no pretreatment], and we found that preparing the gut with antibiotics induced a more efficient modification of the gut bacterial community than was induced by either of the other two pretreatment types...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701081/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-older-adults
#12
K Lippert, L Kedenko, L Antonielli, I Kedenko, C Gemeier, M Leitner, A Kautzky-Willer, B Paulweber, E Hackl
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have become highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and the human gut microbiota, due to its influence on host energy metabolism, has been attributed an important role therein. This pilot study explores host-microbiota relationships in men and women affected by various types of glucose metabolism disorder. Among 20 individuals aged 58 to 71 years with either normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus the gut bacterial communities were compared based on barcoded 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples...
July 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689325/factors-affecting-separation-and-detection-of-bile-acids-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-in-negative-mode
#13
Shanshan Yin, Mingming Su, Guoxiang Xie, Xuejing Li, Runmin Wei, Changxiao Liu, Ke Lan, Wei Jia
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol metabolites with important biological functions. They undergo extensive host-gut microbial co-metabolisms during the enterohepatic circulation, creating a vast structural diversity and resulting in great challenges to separate and detect them. Based on the bioanalytical reports in the past decade, this work developed three chromatographic gradient methods to separate a total of 48 BA standards on an ethylene-bridged hybrid (BEH) C18 column and high-strength silica (HSS) T3 column and accordingly unraveled the factors affecting the separation and detection of them by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
July 8, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688979/remarkable-richness-of-trypanosomes-in-tsetse-flies-glossina-morsitans-morsitans-and-glossina-pallidipes-from-the-gorongosa-national-park-and-niassa-national-reserve-of-mozambique-revealed-by-fluorescent-fragment-length-barcoding-fflb
#14
Herakles A Garcia, Carla M F Rodrigues, Adriana C Rodrigues, Dagmar L Pereira, Carlos L Pereira, Erney P Camargo, P B Hamilton, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosomes of African wild ungulates transmitted by tsetse flies can cause human and livestock diseases. However, trypanosome diversity in wild tsetse flies remains greatly underestimated. We employed FFLB (fluorescent fragment length barcoding) for surveys of trypanosomes in tsetse flies (3086) from the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) and Niassa National Reserve (NNR) in Mozambique (MZ), identified as Glossina morsitans morsitans (GNP/NNR=77.6%/90.5%) and Glossina pallidipes (22.4%/9.5%). Trypanosomes were microscopically detected in 8...
July 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688617/critical-review-of-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-applications-in-the-pharmaceutical-field
#15
REVIEW
J Cailletaud, C De Bleye, E Dumont, P-Y Sacré, L Netchacovitch, Y Gut, M Boiret, Y-M Ginot, Ph Hubert, E Ziemons
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive analytical tool used in the pharmaceutical field in recent years. SERS keeps all the advantages of classical Raman spectroscopy while being is more sensitive allowing its use for the detection and the quantification of low-dose substances contained in pharmaceutical samples. However, the analytical performance of SERS is limited due to the difficulty to implement a quantitative methodology correctly validated. Nevertheless, some studies reported the development of SERS quantitative methods especially in pharmaceutical approaches...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685028/bariatric-surgery-and-obesity-influence-on-the-incretins
#16
REVIEW
B Laferrère
The gut hormone incretins have an important physiological role in meal-related insulin release and post-prandial glucose control. In addition to weight loss, the incretin hormones have a role in glucose control after bariatric surgery. The release of incretins, and specifically of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, in response to the ingestion of nutrients, is greatly enhanced after gastric bypass (RYGBP). The rapid transit of food from the gastric pouch to the distal ileum is responsible for the greater GLP-1 release after RYGBP...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684342/development-of-a-real-time-pcr-method-for-quantification-of-prevotella-histicola-from-the-gut
#17
Baskar Balakrishnan, David Luckey, Eric Marietta, Melissa Karau, Robin Patel, Joseph Murray, Veena Taneja
We designed species-specific primers and developed a qPCR method for enumerating P. histicola from intestinal samples. The two designed primer sets showed specificity for the target 16S rRNA gene of P. histicola. The absolute qPCR method was sensitive to quantify as few as 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) in the gut.
July 3, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683295/will-gut-microbiota-help-design-the-next-generation-of-glp-1-based-therapies-for-type-2-diabetes
#18
Sandrine Paule Claus
Glucagon-like peptide one (GLP-1)-based therapies for reducing hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients are efficient, though some individuals develop GLP-1 resistance. In a recent issue of Cell Metabolism, Grasset et al. (2017) demonstrated that GLP-1 sensitivity is modulated by gut bacteria through NO signaling in the enteric nervous system.
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673568/metformin-exerts-anti-obesity-effect-via-gut-microbiome-modulation-in-prediabetics-a-hypothesis
#19
Kunal Maniar, Amal Moideen, Rajasri Bhattacharyya, Dibyajyoti Banerjee
Prediabetic individuals are characterized by high levels of insulin, an anabolic hormone having an important role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. However, insulin has also been found to increase the growth of certain bacteria which form the non-butyrate producing part of the gut microbiome. The gut microbiome is recently in focus for its strong association with many chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Metformin, a widely popular anti-diabetic medication has been shown to prevent weight gain in many trials...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672432/pros-and-cons-while-looking-through-an-asian-window-on-the-rome-iv-criteria-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-pros
#20
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal
A decade after Rome III, in 2016, Rome IV criteria were published. There are major differences between Rome IV and the earlier iteration, some of which are in line with Asian viewpoints. The clinical applicability of the Rome IV criteria of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asian perspective is reviewed here. Instead of considering functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) to be largely psychogenic, Rome IV suggested the importance of the gut over brain ("disorders of gut-brain interaction" not "brain-gut interaction")...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
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