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The sensitive gut

Ana E López-Pérez, Kulmira Nurgali, Raquel Abalo
Beyond their well-known role in embryonic development of the central and peripheral nervous system, neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, exert an essential role in pain production and sensitization. This has mainly been studied within the framework of somatic pain, and even antibodies (tanezumab and fasinumab) have recently been developed for their use in chronic somatic painful conditions, such as osteoarthritis or low back pain. However, data suggest that neurotrophins also exert an important role in the occurrence of visceral pain and visceral sensitization...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Vida Abedi, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Interactions among the gut microbiome, dysregulated immune responses, and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nlrx1 -/- mice have exacerbated disease severity, colonic lesions, and increased inflammatory markers. Global transcriptomic analyses demonstrate enhanced mucosal antimicrobial defense response, chemokine and cytokine expression, and epithelial cell metabolism in colitic Nlrx1 -/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Cell-specificity studies using cre-lox mice demonstrate that the loss of NLRX1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) recapitulate the increased sensitivity to DSS colitis observed in whole body Nlrx1 -/- mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Karen M Lammers, Maria G Herrera, Veronica I Dodero
Gluten-related disorders are a complex group of diseases that involve the activation of the immune system triggered by the ingestion of gluten. Among these, celiac disease, with a prevalence of 1 %, is the most investigated, but recently, a new pathology, named nonceliac gluten sensitivity, was reported with a general prevalence of 7 %. Finally, there other less-prevalent gluten-related diseases such as wheat allergy, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis (with an overall prevalence of less than 0...
March 2018: ChemistryOpen
Xinghua Gao, Qiuhua Cao, Yan Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Zhuo Wang, Hongbao Yang, Qijin Wu, Linjun You, Yue Wang, Yanting Lin, Xianjing Li, Yun Wang, Jin-Song Bian, Dongdong Sun, Lingyi Kong, Lutz Birnbaumer, Yong Yang
Chronic stress is known to promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unresolved. Here, we found chronic stress to sensitize mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis; to increase the infiltration of B cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory ly6Chi macrophages in colonic lamina propria; and to present with decreased thymus and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) coefficients. Circulating total white blood cells were significantly increased after stress, and the proportion of MLN-associated immune cells were largely changed...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aliana Meneses Ferreira, Frederico Moreira, Thais Guimaraes, Fernanda Spadão, Jessica Fernandes Ramos, Marjorie Vieira Batista, Jayr Schmidt Filho, Silvia Figueiredo Costa, Vanderson Rocha
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a major complication in the early phase of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). AIM: To describe the incidence and risk factors for BSI occurring in the pre-engraftment phase of HSCT and its impact on mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed clinical variables of 232 HSCT patients between 2014 and 2015. Univariate Cox regression analyses were performed to test the association between each covariate and the outcome...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
A Haghikia, R A Linker
Epidemiological data indicate a disproportional increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) over the last decades, particularly in industrialized countries. Although this increase is also associated with altered diagnostic criteria and improved sensitivity of imaging procedures, current data suggest that particularly alterations in our way of life play an important role. In recent years the importance of the gut and intestinal microbiome for some neurological diseases and in particular for MS was recognized...
March 7, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Eric Dumonteil, Maria-Jesus Ramirez-Sierra, Silvia Pérez-Carrillo, Christian Teh-Poot, Claudia Herrera, Sébastien Gourbière, Etienne Waleckx
Trypanosoma cruzi is the agent of Chagas disease, transmitted by hematophagous triatomine vectors. Establishing transmission cycles is key to understand the epidemiology of the disease, but integrative assessments of ecological interactions shaping parasite transmission are still limited. Current approaches also lack sensitivity to assess the full extent of this ecological diversity. Here we developed a metabarcoding approach based on next-generation sequencing to identify triatomine gut microbiome, vertebrate feeding hosts, and parasite diversity and their potential interactions...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Papanna Shobharani, Serva P Muthukumar, Dhanya Kizhakayil, Prakash M Halami
Safety and efficacy was investigated for two candidate probiotic B. flexus MCC2427 and B. licheniformis MCC2512 via in vivo studies on albino Wistar rats. In acute toxicity assay, rats were fed with single dose of 1010  cfu mL-1 of probiotics. The follow-up studies for next 14 days did not reveal any toxicity-related criteria indicating the non-toxicity nature of probiotics. In 90-day repeated dosage studies, the cultures were administered in three doses (106 , 107 , 108  cfu mL-1 ). Results showed no overt toxic effect and no drastic treatment-related changes pertaining to histopathology of vital organs...
March 6, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Federico M Winkler, Ricardo García, María V Valdivia, Karin B Lohrmann
Withering Syndrome (WS) is a lethal disease that affects abalone species in both wild and farmed populations. This infection, caused by the rickettsial-like intracellular organism (RLO) Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, can severely impair the normal development of affected animals, and ultimately, their survival. The most common line of action against the WS has been the use of antibiotics, specifically oxytetracycline (OTC), administered via intramuscular injection and per os via medicated feed. In the present study, we have assessed the effectiveness of OTC baths as therapeutic treatment for the control of the WS agent in H...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Noelia Martínez, Roberto Luque, Christian Milani, Marco Ventura, Oscar Bañuelos, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are mutualistic intestinal bacteria and their presence in the human gut has been associated with health-promoting activities. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in this genus is controversial, since, although bifidobacteria are non-pathogenic microorganisms, they could serve as reservoirs of resistance for intestinal pathogens. However, until now, few antibiotic resistance determinants have been functionally characterized in this genus. In this work, we show that Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 displays atypical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Qian Jiang, Xiwei He, Yuntao Zou, Yin Ding, Huang Li, Huimei Chen
Inflammation has recently been attributed to dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, which has been linked to proteinuria in chronic kidney disease. Since Adriamycin® (ADR) is widely used to induce proteinuria in mouse models, the aim of this study was to explore the potential effect of gut microbiome on this process. Both ADR resistant (C57BL/6) and susceptible (BALB/C) strains were part of the induced nephropathy with ADR injection. BALB/C mice significantly presented increased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) with renal lesions in pathology, but C57BL/6 mice were absent from kidney damage...
February 28, 2018: AMB Express
Bi Zhang, Jianke Gong, Wenyuan Zhang, Rui Xiao, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu
Tissue-tissue communications are integral to organismal aging, orchestrating a body-wide aging process. The brain plays a key role in this process by detecting and processing signals from the environment and then communicating them to distal tissues such as the gut to regulate longevity. How this is achieved, however, is poorly understood. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we identified two distinct neuroendocrine signaling circuits by which the worm nervous system senses cool and warm environmental temperatures through cool- and warm-sensitive neurons and then signals the gut to extend and shorten life span, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Genes & Development
Anette Fischer Pedersen, Mads Lind Ingeman, Peter Vedsted
OBJECTIVE: Research has suggested that physicians' gut feelings are associated with parents' concerns for the well-being of their children. Gut feeling is particularly important in diagnosis of serious low-incidence diseases in primary care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether empathy, that is, the ability to understand what another person is experiencing, relates to general practitioners' (GPs) use of gut feelings. Since empathy is associated with burn-out, we also examined whether the hypothesised influence of empathy on gut feeling use is dependent on level of burn-out...
February 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Sunhye Lee, Katherine I Keirsey, Rebecca Kirkland, Zachary I Grunewald, Joan G Fischer, Claire B de La Serre
Background: Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been linked to obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Microbiota manipulation may therefore affect obesity-related comorbidities. Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins, which have anti-inflammatory properties and may alter the gut microbiota. Objective: We hypothesized that blueberry supplementation would alter the gut microbiota, reduce systemic inflammation, and improve insulin resistance in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed rats...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
J Alard, V Peucelle, D Boutillier, J Breton, S Kuylle, B Pot, S Holowacz, C Grangette
Alterations in the gut microbiota composition play a key role in the development of chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The potential use of probiotics therefore gained attention, although outcomes were sometimes conflicting and results largely strain-dependent. The present study aimed to identify new probiotic strains that have a high potential for the management of this type of pathologies. Strains were selected from a large collection by combining different in vitro and in vivo approaches, addressing both anti-inflammatory potential and ability to improve the gut barrier function...
February 27, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Preeti Pathak, Xie Cen, Robert G Nichols, Jessica M Ferrell, Shannon Boehme, Kristopher W Krausz, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez, John Y L Chiang
Bile acids activate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, aka TGR5) to regulate bile acid metabolism and glucose and insulin sensitivity. FXR and TGR5 are co-expressed in the enteroendocrine L cells but their roles in integrated regulation of metabolism are not completely understood. We reported recently that activation of FXR induces TGR5 to stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion to improve insulin sensitivity and hepatic metabolism. In this study, we used the intestine-restricted FXR agonist fexaramine (FEX) to study the effect of activation of intestinal FXR on the gut microbiome, bile acid metabolism, and FXR and TGR5 signaling...
February 27, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
James R F Hockley, Toni S Taylor, Gerard Callejo, Anna L Wilbrey, Alex Gutteridge, Karsten Bach, Wendy J Winchester, David C Bulmer, Gordon McMurray, Ewan St John Smith
OBJECTIVE: Integration of nutritional, microbial and inflammatory events along the gut-brain axis can alter bowel physiology and organism behaviour. Colonic sensory neurons activate reflex pathways and give rise to conscious sensation, but the diversity and division of function within these neurons is poorly understood. The identification of signalling pathways contributing to visceral sensation is constrained by a paucity of molecular markers. Here we address this by comprehensive transcriptomic profiling and unsupervised clustering of individual mouse colonic sensory neurons...
February 26, 2018: Gut
Attia Anwar, Provvidenza Maria Abruzzo, Sabah Pasha, Kashif Rajpoot, Alessandra Bolotta, Alessandro Ghezzo, Marina Marini, Annio Posar, Paola Visconti, Paul J Thornalley, Naila Rabbani
Background: Clinical chemistry tests for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are currently unavailable. The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic utility of proteotoxic biomarkers in plasma and urine, plasma protein glycation, oxidation, and nitration adducts, and related glycated, oxidized, and nitrated amino acids (free adducts), for the clinical diagnosis of ASD. Methods: Thirty-eight children with ASD (29 male, 9 female; age 7.6 ± 2.0 years) and 31 age-matched healthy controls (23 males, 8 females; 8...
2018: Molecular Autism
Rabi Yacoub, Alexander Jacob, Josette Wlaschin, Matthew McGregor, Richard J Quigg, Jessy J Alexander
Microbiota consists of more than 1014 microorganisms that inhabit different areas of the body including the gastrointestinal tract, mainly the mouth and gut. It includes viruses, fungi, protozoa, archaea and bacteria. The microbiota interacts closely with host leading to a dynamic relationship that results in the biological effects observed. Its diverse genetic material (microbiome) interacts closely with the host immune system and cells, and therefore is closely associated with inflammation, immune tolerance, adaptive immunity and autoimmune diseases...
November 16, 2017: Immunobiology
Brendan A Daisley, Mark Trinder, Tim W McDowell, Stephanie L Collins, Mark W Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Despite benefits to the global food supply and agricultural economies, pesticides are believed to pose a threat to both human and wildlife health. Chlorpyrifos (CP), a commonly used organophosphate insecticide, has poor target-specificity and causes acute neurotoxicity in a wide range of species via suppression of acetylcholinesterase. This effect is exacerbated 10- to 100-fold by chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), a principal metabolite of CP. Since many animal-associated symbiont microorganisms are known to hydrolyze CP into CPO, we used a Drosophila melanogaster insect model to investigate the hypothesis that indigenous and probiotic bacteria could affect CP metabolism and toxicity...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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