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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917929/development-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-chitosan-hybrid-micro-and-macroparticles-for-encapsulation-of-probiotic-bacteria
#1
P Singh, B Medronho, L Alves, G J da Silva, M G Miguel, B Lindman
Novel carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan (CMC-Cht) hybrid micro- and macroparticles were successfully prepared in aqueous media either by drop-wise addition or via nozzle-spray methods. The systems were either physically or chemically crosslinked using genipin as the reticulation agent. The macroparticles (ca. 2mm) formed are found to be essentially of the core-shell type, while the microparticles (ca. 5μm) are apparently homogeneous. The crosslinked particles are robust, thermally resistant and less sensitive to pH changes...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916541/a-proteomic-atlas-of-insulin-signalling-reveals-tissue-specific-mechanisms-of-longevity-assurance
#2
Luke S Tain, Robert Sehlke, Chirag Jain, Manopriya Chokkalingam, Nagarjuna Nagaraj, Paul Essers, Mark Rassner, Sebastian Grönke, Jenny Froelich, Christoph Dieterich, Matthias Mann, Nazif Alic, Andreas Beyer, Linda Partridge
Lowered activity of the insulin/IGF signalling (IIS) network can ameliorate the effects of ageing in laboratory animals and, possibly, humans. Although transcriptome remodelling in long-lived IIS mutants has been extensively documented, the causal mechanisms contributing to extended lifespan, particularly in specific tissues, remain unclear. We have characterized the proteomes of four key insulin-sensitive tissues in a long-lived Drosophila IIS mutant and control, and detected 44% of the predicted proteome (6,085 proteins)...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904640/short-term-dietary-methionine-supplementation-affects-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-in-the-mouse-gut-and-leads-to-altered-microbiome-profiles-barrier-function-gene-expression-and-histomorphology
#3
Isabelle R Miousse, Rupak Pathak, Sarita Garg, Charles M Skinner, Stepan Melnyk, Oleksandra Pavliv, Howard Hendrickson, Reid D Landes, Annie Lumen, Alan J Tackett, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Igor Koturbash
BACKGROUND: Methionine, a central molecule in one-carbon metabolism, is an essential amino acid required for normal growth and development. Despite its importance to biological systems, methionine is toxic when administered at supra-physiological levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term methionine dietary modulation on the proximal jejunum, the section of the gut specifically responsible for amino acid absorption, in a mouse model. Eight-week-old CBA/J male mice were fed methionine-adequate (MAD; 6...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904431/role-of-gut-derived-uremic-toxins-on-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
S Gouroju, P V L N Srinivasa Rao, A R Bitla, K S Vinapamula, S M Manohar, S Vishnubhotla
Several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been identified among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gut-derived uremic toxins (GDUT) are important modifiable contributors in this respect. There are very few Indian studies on GDUT changes in CKD. One hundred and twenty patients older than 18 years diagnosed with CKD were enrolled along with forty healthy subjects. The patients were classified into three groups of forty patients based on stage of CKD. Indoxyl sulfate (IS), para cresyl sulfate (p-CS), indole acetic acid (IAA), and phenol were estimated along with the assessment of oxidative stress (OS), inflammatory state, and bone mineral disturbance...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#5
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901891/dietary-intake-of-fat-and-fibre-according-to-reference-values-relates-to-higher-gut-microbiota-richness-in-overweight-pregnant-women
#6
Henna Röytiö, Kati Mokkala, Tero Vahlberg, Kirsi Laitinen
The diet-microbiota-metabolism relationships during pregnancy are mostly unknown. We explored the effect of the habitual diet and adherence to the dietary reference values on gut microbiota composition and diversity. Further, the association of gut microbiota with serum lipidomics and low-grade inflammation was evaluated. Overweight and obese women (BMI 30·7 (sd 4·4) kg/m2, n 100) were studied at early pregnancy (≤17 weeks). Intakes of nutrients were calculated from 3-d food diaries. Faecal microbiota composition was analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894149/a-single-early-in-life-macrolide-course-has-lasting-effects-on-murine-microbial-network-topology-and-immunity
#7
Victoria E Ruiz, Thomas Battaglia, Zachary D Kurtz, Luc Bijnens, Amy Ou, Isak Engstrand, Xuhui Zheng, Tadasu Iizumi, Briana J Mullins, Christian L Müller, Ken Cadwell, Richard Bonneau, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Martin J Blaser
Broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently prescribed to children. Early childhood represents a dynamic period for the intestinal microbial ecosystem, which is readily shaped by environmental cues; antibiotic-induced disruption of this sensitive community may have long-lasting host consequences. Here we demonstrate that a single pulsed macrolide antibiotic treatment (PAT) course early in life is sufficient to lead to durable alterations to the murine intestinal microbiota, ileal gene expression, specific intestinal T-cell populations, and secretory IgA expression...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888832/ageing-sensitized-by-ipla2%C3%AE-deficiency-induces-liver-fibrosis-and-intestinal-atrophy-involving-suppression-of-homeostatic-genes-and-alteration-of-intestinal-lipids-and-bile-acids
#8
Li Jiao, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Xingya Zhu, Wang Wei, Sabine Tuma-Kellner, Gerhard Liebisch, Wolfgang Stremmel, WaleeChamulitrat
Ageing is a major risk factor for various forms of liver and gastrointestinal (GI) disease and genetic background may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Group VIA phospholipase A2 or iPLA2β is a homeostatic PLA2 by playing a role in phospholipid metabolism and remodeling. Global iPLA2β(-/-) mice exhibit aged-dependent phenotypes with body weight loss and abnormalities in the bone and brain. We have previously reported the abnormalities in these mutant mice showing susceptibility for chemical-induced liver injury and colitis...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887570/the-salivary-microbiome-is-consistent-between-subjects-and-resistant-to-impacts-of-short-term-hospitalization
#9
Damien J Cabral, Jenna I Wurster, Myrto E Flokas, Michail Alevizakos, Michelle Zabat, Benjamin J Korry, Aislinn D Rowan, William H Sano, Nikolaos Andreatos, R Bobby Ducharme, Philip A Chan, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Peter Belenky
In recent years, a growing amount of research has begun to focus on the oral microbiome due to its links with health and systemic disease. The oral microbiome has numerous advantages that make it particularly useful for clinical studies, including non-invasive collection, temporal stability, and lower complexity relative to other niches, such as the gut. Despite recent discoveries made in this area, it is unknown how the oral microbiome responds to short-term hospitalization. Previous studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiome is extremely sensitive to short-term hospitalization and that these changes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883043/ffar2-ffar3-receptor-heteromerization-modulates-short-chain-fatty-acid-sensing
#10
Zhiwei Ang, Ding Xiong, Min Wu, Jeak Ling Ding
Free fatty acid receptors (FFAR2/FFA2/GPR43 and FFAR3/FFA3/GPR41) are mammalian receptors for gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These receptors are promising drug targets for obesity, colitis, colon cancer, asthma, and arthritis. Here, we demonstrate that FFAR2 and FFAR3 interact to form a heteromer in primary human monocytes and macrophages via proximity ligation assay, and during heterologous expression in HEK293 cells via bimolecular fluorescence complementation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer...
September 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876684/differences-in-microbiome-in-rat-models-of-cardiovascular-disease
#11
A Thiba, C A Umar, S Myende, E Nweke, K Rumbold, G Candy
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have underscored the important role the gut metagenome in various human diseases, including diabetes and obesity. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and heart and kidney failure, and affects approximately 25% of the world's adult population. The cause of essential hypertension remains unknown. Patients given antibiotics show blood pressure changes and transfer of gut bacteria from hypertensive to normal WKY rats resulted in the latter developing hypertension...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875188/alterations-to-metabolically-active-bacteria-in-the-mucosa-of-the-small-intestine-predict-anti-obesity-and-anti-diabetic-activities-of-grape-seed-extract-in-mice
#12
Laura E Griffin, Katherine A Witrick, Courtney Klotz, Melanie R Dorenkott, Katheryn M Goodrich, Gabrielle Fundaro, Ryan P McMillan, Matthew W Hulver, Monica A Ponder, Andrew P Neilson
Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that grapes and grape-derived products may reduce the risk for chronic disease. Grape seed extract specifically has been gaining interest due to its reported ability to prevent weight gain, moderate hyperglycemia, and reduce inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of two doses of grape seed extract (10 and 100 mg kg(-1) body wt per d in mice) on markers of metabolic syndrome in the context of a moderately high-fat diet. After 12 weeks, the lower dose of grape seed extract was more effective at inhibiting fat gain and improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity...
September 6, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874166/the-porcine-virome-and-xenotransplantation
#13
REVIEW
Joachim Denner
The composition of the porcine virome includes viruses that infect pig cells, ancient virus-derived elements including endogenous retroviruses inserted in the pig chromosomes, and bacteriophages that infect a broad array of bacteria that inhabit pigs. Viruses infecting pigs, among them viruses also infecting human cells, as well as porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are of importance when evaluating the virus safety of xenotransplantation. Bacteriophages associated with bacteria mainly in the gut are not relevant in this context...
September 6, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873388/gastrointestinal-endocrinology-in-bariatric-surgery
#14
Martin Wabitsch
The long-lasting weight-reducing effect of bariatric surgical procedures cannot simply be explained by the malabsorption of nutrients and the subsequent energy deficit due to this malabsorption. Clinical studies have shown that the reorganization of the anatomy of the gut and the subsequent alterations of gastrointestinal physiology have a large impact on the secretion and function of gastrointestinal hormones, which regulate hunger and satiety. These changes have been named the BRAVE effect: <under>b</under>ile flow alteration, <under>r</under>eduction of gastric size, <under>a</under>natomical gut rearrangement and altered flow of nutrients, <under>v</under>agal manipulation, and <under>e</under>nteric gut modulation...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871782/antibiotic-treatment-preventing-necrotising-enterocolitis-alters-urinary-and-plasma-metabolomes-in-preterm-pigs
#15
Pingping Jiang, Alessia Trimigno, Jan Stanstrup, Bekzod Khakimov, Nanna Viereck, Søren Balling Engelsen, Per Torp Sangild, Lars Ove Dragsted
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious gut inflammatory condition in premature neonates, onset and development of which depend on the gut microbiome. Attenuation of the gut microbiome by antibiotics can reduce NEC incidence and severity. However, how the antibiotics-suppressed gut microbiome affects the whole-body metabolism in NEC-sensitive premature neonates is unknown. In formula-fed preterm pigs, used as a model for preterm infants, plasma and urinary metabolomes were investigated by LC-MS and (1)H NMR, with and without antibiotic treatment immediately after birth...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871085/probing-the-potential-of-mucus-permeability-to-signify-preterm-birth-risk
#16
K B Smith-Dupont, C E Wagner, J Witten, K Conroy, H Rudoltz, K Pagidas, V Snegovskikh, M House, K Ribbeck
Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality, and is frequently associated with intra-amniotic infection hypothesized to arise from bacterial ascension across a dysfunctional cervical mucus plug. To study this dysfunction, we assessed the permeability of cervical mucus from non-pregnant ovulating (n = 20) and high- (n = 9) and low-risk (n = 16) pregnant women to probes of varying sizes and surface chemistries. We found that the motion of negatively charged, carboxylated microspheres in mucus from pregnant patients was significantly restricted compared to ovulating patients, but not significantly different between high- and low-risk pregnant women...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869285/microbiota-a-mediator-to-transform-glucosinolate-precursors-in-cruciferous-vegetables-to-the-active-isothiocyanates
#17
REVIEW
Sicong Tian, Peng Lei, Xiaodong Liu, Xiaohong Zhang, Yujuan Shan
Isothiocyanates (ITCs), such as sulforaphane (SFN), exhibit powerful biological functions in fighting cancers, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. They normally exist as glucosinolates (GLSs) in cruciferous vegetables, which are not themselves bioactive until they are degraded by myrosinase to form the ITCs. Myrosinase co-exists in the same plants but is normally kept apart from GLSs in different apparatus. A key point is that myrosinase is temperature-sensitive and can be inactivated upon exposure to temperatures over 60°C, as typically occurs during cooking...
September 4, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858913/when-nutrition-and-allergy-collide-the-rise-of-anaphylaxis-to-plant-foods
#18
Isabel J Skypala
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interest in nutrition is increasing, but in the world of internet health gurus, whilst the nutritional benefits of fruits and vegetables are extolled, wheat is often vilified. This review will assess the positive nutritional effects of plant foods in relation to allergy prevention, the effectiveness of gluten-avoidance and the likelihood of anaphylaxis to fruits and vegetables. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the numbers of people who report gluten sensitivity is rising, hard evidence of mass sensitivity to gluten is scant...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855672/evolution-of-gut-bifidobacterium-population-in-healthy-japanese-infants-over-the-first-three-years-of-life-a-quantitative-assessment
#19
Ravinder Nagpal, Takashi Kurakawa, Hirokazu Tsuji, Takuya Takahashi, Kazunari Kawashima, Satoru Nagata, Koji Nomoto, Yuichiro Yamashiro
Bifidobacteria are important members of human gut microbiota; however, quantitative data on their early-life dynamics is limited. Here, using a sensitive reverse transcription-qPCR approach, we demonstrate the carriage of eight signature infant-associated Bifidobacterium species (B. longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. catenulatum group, B. infantis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum and B. dentium) in 76 healthy full-term vaginally-born infants from first day to three years of life. About 21% babies carry bifidobacteria at first day of life (6...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853446/intestinal-hypoxia-and-hypoxia-induced-signalling-as-therapeutic-targets-for-ibd
#20
REVIEW
Sophie Van Welden, Andrew C Selfridge, Pieter Hindryckx
Tissue hypoxia occurs when local oxygen demand exceeds oxygen supply. In chronic inflammatory conditions such as IBD, the increased oxygen demand by resident and gut-infiltrating immune cells coupled with vascular dysfunction brings about a marked reduction in mucosal oxygen concentrations. To counter the hypoxic challenge and ensure their survival, mucosal cells induce adaptive responses, including the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and modulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Both pathways are tightly regulated by oxygen-sensitive prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), which therefore represent promising therapeutic targets for IBD...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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