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The sensitive gut

Yu-Ling Chen, Yi-Ting Chen, Cheng-Feng Lo, Ching-I Hsieh, Shang-Yi Chiu, Chang-Yen Wu, Yu-Shan Yeh, Shu-Hsuan Hung, Po-Hao Cheng, Yu-Hsuan Su, Si-Tse Jiang, Hsian-Jean Chin, Yu-Chia Su
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic and progressive inflammatory intestinal disease that includes two major types, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD). CD is characterized by intestinal epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. Transfer of CD25(-)CD45RB(hi)CD4(+) (naïve) T cells into immunodeficiency mice induces autoimmune colitis with pathological lesions similar to CD and loss of body weight 4 weeks after cell transfer. However, weight loss neither has sufficient sensitivity nor totally matches the pathological findings of CD...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stefan Tukaj, Anna Görög, Konrad Kleszczyński, Detlef Zillikens, Sarolta Kárpáti, Michael Kasperkiewicz
Inflammation-induced heat shock proteins (HSPs) and hypovitaminosis D have been reported to impact immune responses and to be associated with autoimmune diseases including celiac disease (CD), a gluten-sensitive enteropathy mediated by autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (TG2). Recently, we provided evidence for a role of autoantibodies to HSPs in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), an inflammatory skin disease induced by underlying latent CD. In this study, we aimed at investigating the humoral autoimmune response to HSPs and vitamin D status in CD patients (n=15) presenting without the cutaneous disease manifestation...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Julie Reygner, Lydia Lichtenberger, Ghada Elmhiri, Samir Dou, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Larbi Rhazi, Flore Depeint, Veronique Bach, Hafida Khorsi-Cauet, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5) with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water)...
2016: PloS One
Aziz Homayouni Rad, Farnaz Sahhaf, Tohid Hassanalilou, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Negar Motayagheni, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Mina Javadi, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Leila Khalili
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property. OBJECTIVE: This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Mahalingam Balakumar, Durai Prabhu, Chandrakumar Sathishkumar, Paramasivam Prabu, Namita Rokana, Ramesh Kumar, Srividhya Raghavan, Avinash Soundarajan, Sunita Grover, Virender Kumar Batish, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
PURPOSE: Diabetes and obesity are characterized by glucose intolerance, fat deposition, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Recent reports postulated that distinct gut microbiota alterations were observed in obese/diabetic subjects and modulating gut microbiota beneficially through specific probiotics could be a potential therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes/obesity. Therefore, we attempted to study the efficacy of probiotics of Indian gut origin (Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC5690 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC5689) along with a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) on glucose/lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic animal model...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Xiaopeng Zhu, Hua Bian, Xin Gao
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a globally observed metabolic disease with high prevalence both in adults and children. However, there is no efficient medication available yet. Increased evidence indicates that berberine (BBR), a natural plant product, has beneficial effects on NAFLD, though the mechanisms are not completely known. In this review, we briefly summarize the pathogenesis of NAFLD and factors that influence the progression of NAFLD, and focus on the potential mechanisms of BBR in the treatment of NAFLD...
October 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Drew D Kiraly, Deena M Walker, Erin S Calipari, Benoit Labonte, Orna Issler, Catherine J Pena, Efrain A Ribeiro, Scott J Russo, Eric J Nestler
Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Juan Bai, Ying Zhu, Ying Dong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Dervla O'Malley
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating and disturbed bowel habit, symptoms which impact on the quality of life of sufferers. The pathophysiological changes underlying this multifactorial condition are complex and include increased sensitivity to luminal and mucosal factors which result in altered colonic transit and visceral pain. Moreover, dysfunctional communication in the bidirectional signaling axis between the brain and the gut, which involves efferent and afferent branches of the peripheral nervous systems, circulating endocrine hormones and local paracrine and neurocrine factors, including immune and perhaps even microbial signaling molecules have a role to play in this disorder...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Siyang Yan, Amanda C Kentner
Exposure to painful procedures and/or stressors during the early neonatal period can reprogram the underlying neurocircuitry involved in nociception and neuropathic pain perception. The reprogramming of these systems can result in an enduring elevation in sensitivity towards mechanical and thermal stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to mild inflammatory mediators during the neonatal period can induce similar pain responses in both adolescent and adult rats. Therefore, we sought to profile changes in the expression of several genes across brain areas involved in the active modulation of nociception and neuropathic pain using a well-recognized model of neonatal inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes, however the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience
Yonatan Kahn, Benjamin R Safdi, Jesse Thaler
When ultralight axion dark matter encounters a static magnetic field, it sources an effective electric current that follows the magnetic field lines and oscillates at the axion Compton frequency. We propose a new experiment to detect this axion effective current. In the presence of axion dark matter, a large toroidal magnet will act like an oscillating current ring, whose induced magnetic flux can be measured by an external pickup loop inductively coupled to a SQUID magnetometer. We consider both resonant and broadband readout circuits and show that a broadband approach has advantages at small axion masses...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Valeriy A Poroyko, Alba Carreras, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Vanessa Leone, Eduard Peris, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Zhuanhong Qiao, Nathaniel Hubert, Ramon Farré, Eugene B Chang, David Gozal
Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Chondronikola, L L S Harris, S Klein
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major worldwide public health concern. Despite a large armamentarium of T2D medications, a large proportion of patients fail to achieve recommended treatment goals for glycemic control. Weight loss has profound beneficial effects on the metabolic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Accordingly, bariatric surgery, which is the most effective available weight loss therapy, is also the most effective therapy for treating patients with T2D. Surgical procedures that bypass the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract are particularly effective in achieving partial and even complete remission of T2D, suggesting that UGI bypass has weight loss-independent effects on glycemic control...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Seong-Hwan Park, Juil Kim, Dongwook Kim, Yuseok Moon
Deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent mycotoxin worldwide, leads to economic losses for animal food production. Swine is a most sensitive domestic animal to DON due to rapid absorption and low detoxification by gut microbiota. Specifically, DON can severely damage pig intestinal tissue by disrupting the intestinal barrier and inducing inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effects of several mycotoxin detoxifiers including bentonites, yeast cell wall components, and mixture-typed detoxifier composed of mineral, microorganisms, and phytogenic substances on DON-insulted intestinal barrier and pro-inflammatory responses using in vitro porcine enterocyte culture model...
October 10, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Anna Slawinska, John C Hsieh, Carl J Schmidt, Susan J Lamont
Acute heat stress requires immediate adjustment of the stressed individual to sudden changes of ambient temperatures. Chickens are particularly sensitive to heat stress due to development of insufficient physiological mechanisms to mitigate its effects. One of the symptoms of heat stress is endotoxemia that results from release of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the guts. Heat-related cytotoxicity is mitigated by the innate immune system, which is comprised mostly of phagocytic cells such as monocytes and macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Jie Zhang, Alan R Light, Charles L Hoppel, Caitlin Campbell, Carol J Chandler, Dustin J Burnett, Elaine C Souza, Gretchen A Casazza, Ronald W Hughen, Nancy L Keim, John W Newman, Gary R Hunter, Jose R Fernandez, W Timothy Garvey, Mary-Ellen Harper, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams
With insulin-resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives (markers of incomplete long-chain fatty acid oxidation [FAO]). We reasoned that incomplete FAO in muscle would be ameliorated concurrent with improved insulin sensitivity and fitness following a ∼14 wk training and weight loss intervention in obese, sedentary, insulin-resistant women...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Robert A Moran, Niloofar Y Jalaly, Ayesha Kamal, Sandesh Rao, Robert Klapheke, Theodore W James, Swetha Kambhampati, Martin A Makary, Kenzo Hirose, Vivek Kumbhari, Ellen M Stein, Mouen A Khashab, Anne Marie Lennon, Anthony N Kalloo, Atif Zaheer, Ruben Hernaez, Vikesh K Singh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Gut barrier dysfunction has been shown to increase the risk of bacterial translocation from the gut into the pancreatic bed. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate if ileus, a clinical marker of gut barrier dysfunction, can predict the development of IPN. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) was conducted from 2000 to 2014...
October 3, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
William L Hasler
Chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting (CUNV) refers to a symptom complex defined by nausea and/or vomiting with normal diagnostic testing, including anatomic assessments (including upper endoscopy) and measures of upper gut function (e.g., gastric emptying testing). Nausea and vomiting in this condition are postulated to result from aberrant peripheral or central neurohumoral activity. A substantial subset of patients satisfies this diagnosis as more than half of individuals referred for scintigraphic testing exhibit normal gastric emptying rates...
October 10, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
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