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Hai-Cheng Dou, Jun-Yu Chen, Tang-Fei Ran, Wei-Min Jiang
The treatment goal in spinal cord injury (SCI) is to repair neurites and suppress cell apoptosis. Panax quinquefolius saponin (PQS) is the major active ingredient of American ginseng and has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic roles in various diseases. However, the potential effect of PQS on the pathological process of acute SCI remains unknown. This work tested the effects of PQS on acute SCI and clarified its potential mechanisms. PQS treatment ameliorated the damage to spinal tissue and improved the functional recovery after SCI...
March 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Dong-Gyu Leem, Ji-Sun Shin, Kyung-Tack Kim, Sang Yoon Choi, Myung-Hee Lee, Kyung-Tae Lee
A previous study reported that a novel dammarane-type triterpene saponin, ginsenoside-Rg18, derived from the root of Panax ginseng , displayed hydroxyl radical scavenging, anti-bacterial and cytotoxic activities. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of its anti-proliferative effect on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells remains unclear. In the present study, it was determined that Rg18 inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 150 µM. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cell cycle progression was blocked by Rg18 at G1 phase in A549 cells, which was accompanied by downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin E and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein expression at the protein level...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Hao Tu, Qin Zhou, Xun Zhang, Ting Wang, Cheng-Fu Yuan, Chang-Cheng Zhang, Ding Yuan, Zhao-Qi Liu
This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism and protective effect of total saponins of Panax japonicas (TSPJ) on HepG2 cells apoptosis induced by palmitic acid (PA).The HepG2 cells were cultured in vitro , and divided into five groups: the control group, the model group, the high-dose group (50 mg·L⁻¹), the middle-dose group (25 mg·L⁻¹) and the low-dose group (12.5 mg·L⁻¹).The cells of the five groups were cultured continuously for 24 hours. The cell viability was measured with MTT. HepG2 cells apoptosis was detected by Hoechest staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Kang-Yu Wang, Wei-Can Liu, Mei-Ping Zhang, Ming-Zhu Zhao, Yan-Fang Wang, Li Li, Chun-Yu Sun, Ke-Xin Hu, Yue-Yi Cong, Yi Wang
The relationship between saponin content of Panax quinquefolius in different parts of the organization and expression of ginsenoside biosynthesis related gene was obtained by the correlation analysis between saponin content and gene expression. The 14 tissue parts of P. quinquefolius were studied, six saponins in P. quinquefolius. Samples (ginsenoside Rg₁, Re, Rb₁, Rc, Rb₂ and Rd), group saponins and total saponins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and vanillin-sulfuric acid colorimetric method...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ting-Bo Chen, Yi-Han Zuo, Geng-Ting Dong, Liang Liu, Hua Zhou
BACKGROUND: Guanxin Kangtai preparation (GXKT), consisting of Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Ilex pubescens, is a new proprietary Chinese medicines under development for treating coronary heart disease. Like other Chinese medicines, the components of GXKT were complex and the bioactive compounds remained unclear. PURPOSE: To discover bioactive compounds as quality markers (Q-markers) for better quality control of GXKT. STUDY DESIGN: Chinese medicines was separated into fractions...
March 6, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Bao-Ming Huang, Qing-Lin Zha, Ting-Bo Chen, Sheng-Yuan Xiao, Ying Xie, Pei Luo, Ying-Ping Wang, Liang Liu, Hua Zhou
BACKGROUND: Ginseng (Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is gaining more publicity in modern society due to its health benefit and huge value in market. In the practice of grading and pricing of ginseng, the age is one of the major factor influencing the price and grade of ginseng. Therefore, the age discrimination is an important task for the quality control of ginseng. However, the traditional morphological methods are too subjective to be reproductive in discrimination...
March 7, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ji Ye, Yanxia Gao, Saisai Tian, Juan Su, Weidong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng (PG) is one of the most valuable and frequently used phytomedicine in Asia. In the current Chinese Pharmacopeia, only three ginsenosides, Rg1, Re and Rb1, were set as standard compounds for the quality evaluation of PG. However, only these three compounds could hardly reflect the quality and therapeutic efficacy of this traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PURPOSE: Quantification analysis of quality markers (Q-markers) in PG is meaningful for determining the quality of this herbal medicine...
February 28, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Min Yang, Youcong Chuan, Cunwu Guo, Jingjing Liao, Yanguo Xu, Xinyue Mei, Yixiang Liu, Huichuan Huang, Xiahong He, Shusheng Zhu
Panax notoginseng is a highly valuable medicinal herb, but its culture is strongly hindered by replant failure, mainly due to autotoxicity. Deciphering the response mechanisms of plants to autotoxins is critical for overcoming the observed autotoxicity. Here, we elucidated the response of P. notoginseng to the autotoxic ginsenoside Rg1 via transcriptomic and cellular approaches. Cellular analyses demonstrated that Rg1 inhibited root growth by disrupting the cell membrane and wall. Transcriptomic analyses confirmed that genes related to the cell membrane, cell wall decomposition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism were up-regulated by Rg1 stress...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wei Huang, Ying-Jie Yang, Shi-Bao Zhang, Tao Liu
In higher plants, moderate photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) leads to a stimulation of cyclic electron flow (CEF) at low light, which is accompanied by an increase in the P700 oxidation ratio. However, the specific role of CEF stimulation at low light is not well known. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying this increase in P700 oxidation ratio at low light is unclear. To address these questions, intact leaves of the shade-adapted plant Panax notoginseng were treated at 2258 μmol photons m-2 s-1 for 30 min to induce PSII photoinhibition...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jianjian Zhuang, Juxin Yin, Chaojian Xu, Ying Mu, Shaowu Lv
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are common leukemia in adults. 20(S)-GRh2 is an important bioactive substance that is present in Panax ginseng. However, there are no investigations that deal with the comparison of apoptosis, the occurrence of autophagy, and the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy after being treated with 20(S)-GRh2 in AML and CML. In this study, we explored the effect of 20(S)-GRh2 on the AML and CML (U937 and K562). Fluorescence microscopy, CCK-8, Quantitative realtime PCR, Western blot, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and flow cytometric analysis were used to detect the occurrence of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and autophagy...
March 8, 2018: Nutrients
Jin-Bo Li, Rui Zhang, Xiao Han, Chun-Li Piao
Obesity and its consequent type 2 diabetes are significant threats to global health. Emerging evidence indicates that ginsenosides from ginseng (Panax ginseng) have anti-diabetic activity. We hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 could suppress dietary-induced obesity and improve obesity-related glucose metabolic disorders. Our results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 attenuated dietary-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in white adipocyte tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, we found that ginsenosides Rg1 not only decreased fasting glucose concentration and the 2-h postprandial glucose concentration, but also improved insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in those mice...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Zi-Ling Wang, Lin-Bo Chen, Zhu Qiu, Xiong-Bin Chen, Ying Liu, Jing Li, Lu Wang, Ya-Ping Wang
With the growing population, aging, extended lifespans and anti-aging have become popular areas of research in the life and social sciences. With increasing age, the structure and function of the testes, the spermatogenetic and androgen‑producing organ in the male reproductive system, gradually declines. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an extract of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine. The extract facilitates anti‑aging through its anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, it has not been reported whether ginsenoside Rg1 delays testicular aging...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jin-Ling Yang, Zong-Feng Hu, Ting-Ting Zhang, An-Di Gu, Ting Gong, Ping Zhu
As the main bioactive constituents of Panax species, ginsenosides possess a wide range of notable medicinal effects such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, antiaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective activities. However, the increasing medical demand for ginsenosides cannot be met due to the limited resource of Panax species and the low contents of ginsenosides. In recent years, biotechnological approaches have been utilized to increase the production of ginsenosides by regulating the key enzymes of ginsenoside biosynthesis, while synthetic biology strategies have been adopted to produce ginsenosides by introducing these genes into yeast...
March 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yadong Zhai, Xiangbao Meng, Yun Luo, Yongmei Wu, Tianyuan Ye, Ping Zhou, Shilan Ding, Min Wang, Senbao Lu, Lili Zhu, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Numerous researches supported that oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the development of diabetic encephalopathy (DEP). Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1), one major component of Panax notoginseng , is believed to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, its neuroprotective effects against DEP and underlying mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, db/db mice as well as high-glucose (HG)-treated HT22 hippocampal neurons were used as in vivo and in vitro models to estimate NGR1 neuroprotection...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Yi-Tian Yan, Shu-De Li, Chen Li, Yun-Xia Xiong, Xue-Hai Lu, Xin-Fu Zhou, Liu-Qing Yang, Li-Jin Pu, Hai-Yun Luo
Panax notoginsenoside saponins Rb1 (PNS-Rb1) is an important active ingredient of panax notoginseng for effective treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. However, the mechanism underlying its actions in the state of cerebral ischemia is still unclear. We asked whether the potential neuroprotection of PNS-Rb1 on the brain is due to, at least partially, its modulation of AkT/mTOR/PTEN signalling pathway along with down-regulation of caspase-3 in rats subjected to phototrombic stroke. To test this hypothesis, rats with induced photothrombotic stroke were treated with PNS-Rb1 (applied in three different doses, 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, respectively) or saline, while sham operated rats injected with saline were used as the control...
February 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ying Peng, Su-Ning Li, Xuexue Pei, Kun Hao
Amultivariate regression statisticstrategy was developed to clarify multi-components content-effect correlation ofpanaxginseng saponins extract and predict the pharmacological effect by components content. In example 1, firstly, we compared pharmacological effects between panax ginseng saponins extract and individual saponin combinations. Secondly, we examined the anti-platelet aggregation effect in seven different saponin combinations of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1, Rh, Rd, Ra3 and notoginsenoside R1. Finally, the correlation between anti-platelet aggregation and the content of multiple components was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm...
March 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ai-Hua Zhang, Feng-Jie Lei, Jun-Fan Fu, Ru-Jun Zhou, Lian-Xue Zhang
Ginsenosides are the main active ingredient and allelochemicals of Panax ginseng, and they play an important role in ginseng growth and in ecological adaptation. To study the influence of ginsenosides on soil microbial communities, the method of given exogenous total ginsenosides of different concentrations were used to study the influence of ginsenosides on new forest soil microbial community, evaluate the change of metabolic activity of microbial community and investigate the ecological effect of ginsenosides on soil microbial community...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Longhai Dai, Can Liu, Jiao Li, Caixia Dong, Jiangang Yang, Zhubo Dai, Xueli Zhang, Yuanxia Sun
Ginsenosides, the major effective ingredients of Panax ginseng, exhibit various biological properties. UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated glycosylation is the last biosynthetic step of ginsenosides and contributes to their immense structural and functional diversity. In this study, UGT Bs-YjiC from Bacillus subtilis 168 was demonstrated can transfer a glucosyl moiety to the free C3-OH and C12-OH of protopanaxadiol (PPD) and PPD-type ginsenosides to synthesize natural and unnatural ginsenosides. In vitro assays showed that unnatural ginsenoside F12 (3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-12-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol) exhibited remarkable activity against diverse human cancer cell lines...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tae-Kyun Hong, Haribalan Perumalsamy, Kyoung-Hwa Jang, Eun-Shik Na, Young-Joon Ahn
Bradysia procera is a serious insect pest of Panax ginseng plants. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and mechanism of action of three phenylpropanoids, three terpenoids, and a ketone from Syzygium aromaticum bud methanol extract and hydrodistillate against third-instar larvae and eggs of B. procera. In a filter-paper mortality bioassay, methyl salicylate (LC50 , 5.26μg/cm2 ) was the most toxic compound, followed by 2-nonanone, eugenol, and eugenyl acetate (8.77-15.40μg/cm2 ). These compounds were significantly less toxic than either thiamethoxam, clothianidin, or cypermethrin...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Vladimir Vuksan, Zenith Zheng Xu, Elena Jovanovski, Alexandra L Jenkins, Uljana Beljan-Zdravkovic, John L Sievenpiper, P Mark Stavro, Andreea Zurbau, Lea Duvnjak, Michael Z C Li
PURPOSE: Despite the lack of evidence, a growing number of people are using herbal medicine to attenuate the burden of diabetes. There is an urgent need to investigate the clinical potential of herbs. Preliminary observations suggest that American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius [AG]) may reduce postprandial glycemia. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AG as an add-on therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) controlled by conventional treatment. METHODS: 24 individuals living with T2DM completed the study (F:M = 11:13; age = 64 ± 7 year; BMI = 27...
February 24, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
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