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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534819/ginsenoside-rb2-alleviates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-by-restoring-autophagy-via-induction-of-sirt1-and-activation-of-ampk
#1
Qi Huang, Ting Wang, Liu Yang, He-Yao Wang
Although Panax ginseng is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used to treat a variety of metabolic diseases including hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatosteatosis, the effective mediators and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study we found that ginsenoside Rb2, one of the major ginsenosides in Panax ginseng, was able to prevent hepatic lipid accumulation through autophagy induction both in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of male db/db mice with Rb2 significantly improved glucose tolerance, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation, and restored hepatic autophagy...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530408/authentication-markers-for-five-major-panax-species-developed-via-comparative-analysis-of-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequences
#2
Van Binh Nguyen, Hyun-Seung Park, Sang-Choon Lee, Junki Lee, Jee Young Park, Tae-Jin Yang
Ginseng represents a set of high-value medicinal plants of different species: Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng), P. notoginseng (Chinese ginseng), P. japonicus (Bamboo ginseng), and P. vietnamensis (Vietnamese ginseng). Each species is pharmacologically and economically important, with differences in efficacy and price. Accordingly, an authentication system is needed to combat economically motivated adulteration of Panax products. We conducted comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome sequences of these five species, identifying 34-124 indels and 141-560 SNPs...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527763/aluminium-resistant-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-induce-overexpression-of-aluminium-stress-related-genes-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-increase-the-ginseng-tolerance-against-aluminium-stress
#3
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Johan Sukweenadhi, Priyanka Singh, Deok-Chun Yang
Panax ginseng is an important cash crop in the Asian countries due to its pharmaceutical effects, however the plant is exposed to various abiotic stresses, lead to reduction of its quality. One of them is the Aluminum (Al) accumulation. Plant growth promoting bacteria which able to tolerate heavy metals has been considered as a new trend for supporting the growth of many crops in heavy metal occupied areas. In this study, twelve bacteria strains were isolated from rhizosphere of diseased Korean ginseng roots located in Gochang province, Republic of Korea and tested for their ability to grow in Al-embedded broth media...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522391/polysaccharides-from-ginseng-leaves-inhibit-tumor-metastasis-via-macrophage-and-nk-cell-activation
#4
Myoung-Sook Shin, Su-Hyun Hwang, Taek-Joon Yoon, Kwang-Soon Shin
In this study, we purified the polysaccharide fraction (GS-P) from the leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and analyzed its monosaccharide composition and antitumor and antimetastatic activity in vitro and in vivo. GS-P is a 10.2kDa pectic polysaccharide consisting of 15 different monosaccharides. GS-P treatment significantly inhibited metastasis in mice, in a dose-dependent manner. GS-P was not cytotoxic to colon 26-M3.1 cells and increased mouse splenocyte proliferation. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12 was enhanced in the peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs) of GS-P-treated mice...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505549/intramammary-inoculation-of-panax-ginseng-plays-an-immunoprotective-role-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-a-murine-model
#5
P Silvestrini, C Beccaria, E A L Pereyra, M S Renna, H H Ortega, L F Calvinho, B E Dallard, C Baravalle
The immunoprotective effect of Panax ginseng (Pg) extract was investigated in a mouse mastitis model. Lactating female mice were intramammarily inoculated with Pg or placebo, and then were challenged with S. aureus, while other group was inoculated with S. aureus alone. The number of bacteria recovered from mammary glands was significantly lower in Pg-treated S. aureus-infected mice (group I) compared with placebo-treated S. aureus-infected mice (group II) and S. aureus-infected mice (group III). The mRNA expression of TLR2, TLR4, IL-1α and TNF-α was influenced by treatment; being the transcript levels for all genes higher in group I compared with group II and III...
May 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505464/treatment-of-the-cardiac-hypertrophic-response-and-heart-failure-with-ginseng-ginsenosides-and-ginseng-related-products
#6
Morris Karmazyn, Tracey Gan
Heart failure is a major medical as well as economic burden throughout the world. Although various treatment options are available to treat heart failure, death rates in both men and women remain high. Potential adjunctive therapies may lie with use of herbal medications many of which possess potent pharmacological properties. Among the most widely studied is ginseng, a member of the genus Panax which is grown in many parts of the world and which has been used as a medical treatment for a variety of conditions for thousands of years, particularly in Asian societies...
May 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479731/simultaneous-determination-of-multiple-ginsenosides-in-panax-ginseng-herbal-medicines-with-one-single-reference-standard
#7
Chunwei Wu, Qingxiao Guan, Shumei Wang, Yueying Rong
BACKGROUND: Root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (Renseng in Chinese) is a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ginsenosides are the major bioactive components. However, the shortage and high cost of some ginsenoside reference standards make it is difficult for quality control of P. ginseng. OBJECTIVE: A method, single standard for determination of multicomponents (SSDMC), was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine ginsenosides in P. ginseng (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd)...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471389/dynamic-changes-in-neutral-and-acidic-ginsenosides-with-different-cultivation-ages-and-harvest-seasons-identification-of-chemical-characteristics-for-panax-ginseng-quality-control
#8
Zhi Liu, Chong-Zhi Wang, Xing-You Zhu, Jin-Yi Wan, Jing Zhang, Wei Li, Chang-Chun Ruan, Chun-Su Yuan
In this study, dynamic changes in ginsenoside content and ratios in the Panax ginseng root were investigated with different cultivation ages and different collection months, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our data indicate that changes in ginsenoside Ro and malonyl ginsenosides content were dependent on the ginseng cultivation age (p < 0.05); especially, the Ro content varied from 0.16 to 4.91 mg/g, with a difference about 30-fold. Further, we found that the samples of 5 and 6-year-old P...
May 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469657/fermented-chinese-formula-shuan-tong-ling-attenuates-ischemic-stroke-by-inhibiting-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#9
Zhi-Gang Mei, Ling-Jing Tan, Jin-Feng Wang, Xiao-Li Li, Wei-Feng Huang, Hua-Jun Zhou
The fermented Chinese formula Shuan-Tong-Ling is composed of radix puerariae (Gegen), salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), radix curcuma (Jianghuang), hawthorn (Shanzha), salvia chinensis (Shijianchuan), sinapis alba (Baijiezi), astragalus (Huangqi), panax japonicas (Zhujieshen), atractylodes macrocephala koidz (Baizhu), radix paeoniae alba (Baishao), bupleurum (Chaihu), chrysanthemum (Juhua), rhizoma cyperi (Xiangfu) and gastrodin (Tianma), whose aqueous extract was fermented with lactobacillus, bacillus aceticus and saccharomycetes...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462122/rg3-enriched-korean-red-ginseng-enhances-blood-pressure-stability-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#10
Harsha Nagar, Sujeong Choi, Saet-Byel Jung, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Cuk-Seong Kim
BACKGROUND: Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) has been shown to exert antihypertensive effects. In particular, ginsenoside Rg3 is thought to be a potent modulator of vascular function. The present study was performed to examine the antihypertensive efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) extract and Rg3-enriched KRG (REKRG) extract. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) were divided into six groups (WKY control, WKY-KRG, WKY-REKRG, SHR control, SHR-KRG, and SHR-REKRG), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at the carotid artery, followed by injection of 3 mg/kg KRG or 3 mg/kg REKRG...
September 2016: Integr Med Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450921/research-on-the-effect-of-ginseng-polysaccharide-on-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-of-human-leukemia-cell-line-k562-and-its-molecular-mechanisms
#11
Wei Xiong, Jing Li, Rong Jiang, Danyang Li, Zehong Liu, Dilong Chen
Ginseng polysaccharide (GPS), a polymer of glucose and the primary constituent extracted from panax ginseng, has been documented to exert various pharmacological properties, including anti-tumor properties. To provide further insights into the anti-tumor functions of GPS, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of GPS on apoptosis and the cell cycle of human leukemia cell line K562 cells, and its underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that GPS could inhibit K562 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in vitro in a concentration- and time-dependent manner...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441767/inhibitory-effect-of-triterpenoids-from-panax-ginseng-on-coagulation-factor-x
#12
Lingxin Xiong, Zeng Qi, Bingzhen Zheng, Zhuo Li, Fang Wang, Jinping Liu, Pingya Li
Enzymes involved in the coagulation process have received great attention as potential targets for the development of oral anti-coagulants. Among these enzymes, coagulation factor Xa (FXa) has remained the center of attention in the last decade. In this study, 16 ginsenosides and two sapogenins were isolated, identified and quantified. To determine the inhibitory potential on FXa, the chromogenic substrates method was used. The assay suggested that compounds 5, 13 and 18 were mainly responsible for the anti-coagulant effect...
April 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440448/modified-panax-ginseng-extract-regulates-autophagy-by-ampk-signaling-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cells
#13
Hwa-Seung Yoo, Jung Min Kim, Eunbi Jo, Chong-Kwan Cho, Seung-Yeul Lee, Hwan Su Kang, Min-Goo Lee, Pei-Ying Yang, Ik-Soon Jang
Panax ginseng has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The antiproliferative activity of ginseng has been increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin, which may result in the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh2, Rg3, compound K and protopanaxatriol type (PPT) in modified regular ginseng extract (MRGX). In the present study, the anticancer activity and the associated mechanisms of MRGX were investigated using A549 human lung cancer cells...
April 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440415/udp-and-ntf2-are-the-most-consistently-expressed-genes-in-panax-ginseng-roots-at-different-growth-stages
#14
Meichen Liu, Qun Wang, Hongmei Xie, Shichao Liu, Siming Wang, Hui Zhang, Yu Zhao
Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) analysis relies on normalization against a consistently expressed reference gene. However, it has been reported that reference gene expression levels often vary markedly between samples as they are usually selected based solely on convention. The advent of RNA sequencing technology offers the opportunity to select reference genes with the least variability in steady‑state transcript levels. To identify the most consistently stable genes, which are a prerequisite for obtaining reliable gene expression data, the present study analyzed transcriptomes from six Panax ginseng transcriptome data sets, representing six growth stages, and selected 21 candidate reference genes for screening using RT‑qPCR...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440403/ginsenoside-rh2-and-rg3-inhibit-cell-proliferation-and-induce-apoptosis-by-increasing-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-in-human-leukemia-jurkat-cells
#15
Ting Xia, Ying-Nan Wang, Chuan-Xin Zhou, Li-Mei Wu, Yong Liu, Qian-Hong Zeng, Xiang-Long Zhang, Jia-Hui Yao, Min Wang, Jian-Pei Fang
Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) and ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) are primary bioactive components in Panax ginseng. The present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of apoptotic cell‑death induced by GRh2 and GRg3 in human leukemia Jurkat cells. The Cell Counting kit‑8 assay was used to determine cell proliferation. Apoptosis was detected by nuclear morphologic observation by Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-allophycocyanin and 7-amino-actinomycin D assay. mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, was used to examine the effects of mitochondrial ROS on cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430162/ameliorative-effects-and-possible-molecular-mechanism-of-action-of-black-ginseng-panax-ginseng-on-acetaminophen-mediated-liver-injury
#16
Jun-Nan Hu, Zhi Liu, Zi Wang, Xin-Dian Li, Lian-Xue Zhang, Wei Li, Ying-Ping Wang
Background: Frequent overdosing of acetaminophen (APAP) has become the major cause of acute liver injury (ALI). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of black ginseng (BG) on APAP-induced mice liver injuries and the underlying mechanisms of action were further investigated for the first time. Methods: Mice were treated with BG (300, 600 mg/kg) by oral gavage once a day for seven days. On the 7th day, all mice were treated with 250 mg/kg APAP which caused severe liver injury after 24 h and hepatotoxicity was assessed...
April 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429935/saponins-ginsenosides-from-the-leaves-of-panax-quinquefolius-ameliorated-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#17
Xing-Yue Xu, Jun-Nan Hu, Zhi Liu, Rui Zhang, Yu-Fang He, Wei Hou, Zhi-Qing Wang, Ge Yang, Wei Li
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is one of the most common inducements of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in the world. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the liver protection activity of saponins (ginsenosides) from the leaves of Panax quinquefolius (PQS) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and the involved mechanisms were demonstrated for the first time. Mice were pretreated with PQS (150 and 300 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 7 days before being treated with 250 mg/kg APAP. Severe liver injury was exerted at 24 h post-APAP, and hepatotoxicity was assessed...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428445/pectinase-treated-panax-ginseng-protects-heat-stress-induced-testicular-damage-in-rats
#18
Min Kyoung Kim, Kyu-Min Cha, Seock-Yeon Hwang, Un-Kyu Park, Seok Kyo Seo, Sang-Ho Lee, Min-Sik Jeong, SiHyun Cho, Spandana Rajendra Kopalli, Si-Kwan Kim
Testicular hyperthermia is well studied to cause impaired spermatogenesis. In the present study, the protective effect of enzymatically modified (pectinase-treated) Panax ginseng (GINST) against intermittent sub-chronic heat stress-induced testicular damage in rats was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: normal control (NC), heat-stressed control (HC), heat-stressed plus GINST-100 mg/kg/day (HG100) and heat-stressed plus GINST-200 mg/kg/day (HG200) treatment groups. GINST (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) was mixed separately with a regular pellet diet and was administered orally for 8 weeks starting from 1 week before heat exposure...
June 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427912/hepataprotective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Yan Gao, Shifeng Chu, Zhao Zhang, Naihong Chen
BACKGROUND AND ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginseng has been used as efficient tonic and for the treatment of various diseases including hepatic disorders. Ginseng saponins, also known as ginsenosides, are principal constituents and have been treated to be responsible for disparate ginseng health benefits. The current review mainly focuses on ginsenoside Rg1, a compound isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Panax ginseng Meyer. AIMS: To summary the hepataprotective effects and related mechanisms of ginsenoside Rg1, we conclude this review by combining the literature and our own researches...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425043/innovative-development-path-of-ethnomedicines-a-case-study
#20
Zhaoyun Zhu, Yali Gui, Li Wang, Ting Wang, Yang Yang, Yunzhuang Niu, Dehuan Fu, Jingkun Wang, Tao Cui
Innovative development extends the vitality of ethnomedicines. Developing ethnomedicines is not only beneficial to the public but also to the related industry and transforms economic growth, driving local social and economic development further. Its economic benefit can be used to optimize and promote the hardware and software of the platform, as well as support the sustainable development of ethnomedicines. Apart from research and discussion on the innovative development of ethnomedicines on the basis of theory and regulations, this series of articles also summarizes cases that are conducive to the overall understanding of the necessity and feasibility of the innovative development...
April 19, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
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