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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441767/inhibitory-effect-of-triterpenoids-from-panax-ginseng-on-coagulation-factor-x
#1
Lingxin Xiong, Zeng Qi, Bingzhen Zheng, Zhuo Li, Fang Wang, Jinping Liu, Pingya Li
Enzymes involved in the coagulation process have received great attention as potential targets for the development of oral anti-coagulants. Among these enzymes, coagulation factor Xa (FXa) has remained the center of attention in the last decade. In this study, 16 ginsenosides and two sapogenins were isolated, identified and quantified. To determine the inhibitory potential on FXa, the chromogenic substrates method was used. The assay suggested that compounds 5, 13 and 18 were mainly responsible for the anti-coagulant effect...
April 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440448/modified-panax-ginseng-extract-regulates-autophagy-by-ampk-signaling-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cells
#2
Hwa-Seung Yoo, Jung Min Kim, Eunbi Jo, Chong-Kwan Cho, Seung-Yeul Lee, Hwan Su Kang, Min-Goo Lee, Pei-Ying Yang, Ik-Soon Jang
Panax ginseng has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The antiproliferative activity of ginseng has been increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin, which may result in the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh2, Rg3, compound K and protopanaxatriol type (PPT) in modified regular ginseng extract (MRGX). In the present study, the anticancer activity and the associated mechanisms of MRGX were investigated using A549 human lung cancer cells...
April 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440415/udp-and-ntf2-are-the-most-consistently-expressed-genes-in-panax-ginseng-roots-at-different-growth-stages
#3
Meichen Liu, Qun Wang, Hongmei Xie, Shichao Liu, Siming Wang, Hui Zhang, Yu Zhao
Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) analysis relies on normalization against a consistently expressed reference gene. However, it has been reported that reference gene expression levels often vary markedly between samples as they are usually selected based solely on convention. The advent of RNA sequencing technology offers the opportunity to select reference genes with the least variability in steady‑state transcript levels. To identify the most consistently stable genes, which are a prerequisite for obtaining reliable gene expression data, the present study analyzed transcriptomes from six Panax ginseng transcriptome data sets, representing six growth stages, and selected 21 candidate reference genes for screening using RT‑qPCR...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440403/ginsenoside-rh2-and-rg3-inhibit-cell-proliferation-and-induce-apoptosis-by-increasing-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-in-human-leukemia-jurkat-cells
#4
Ting Xia, Ying-Nan Wang, Chuan-Xin Zhou, Li-Mei Wu, Yong Liu, Qian-Hong Zeng, Xiang-Long Zhang, Jia-Hui Yao, Min Wang, Jian-Pei Fang
Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) and ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) are primary bioactive components in Panax ginseng. The present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of apoptotic cell‑death induced by GRh2 and GRg3 in human leukemia Jurkat cells. The Cell Counting kit‑8 assay was used to determine cell proliferation. Apoptosis was detected by nuclear morphologic observation by Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-allophycocyanin and 7-amino-actinomycin D assay. mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, was used to examine the effects of mitochondrial ROS on cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430162/ameliorative-effects-and-possible-molecular-mechanism-of-action-of-black-ginseng-panax-ginseng-on-acetaminophen-mediated-liver-injury
#5
Jun-Nan Hu, Zhi Liu, Zi Wang, Xin-Dian Li, Lian-Xue Zhang, Wei Li, Ying-Ping Wang
Background: Frequent overdosing of acetaminophen (APAP) has become the major cause of acute liver injury (ALI). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of black ginseng (BG) on APAP-induced mice liver injuries and the underlying mechanisms of action were further investigated for the first time. Methods: Mice were treated with BG (300, 600 mg/kg) by oral gavage once a day for seven days. On the 7th day, all mice were treated with 250 mg/kg APAP which caused severe liver injury after 24 h and hepatotoxicity was assessed...
April 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429935/saponins-ginsenosides-from-the-leaves-of-panax-quinquefolius-ameliorated-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#6
Xing-Yue Xu, Jun-Nan Hu, Zhi Liu, Rui Zhang, Yu-Fang He, Wei Hou, Zhi-Qing Wang, Ge Yang, Wei Li
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is one of the most common inducements of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in the world. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the liver protection activity of saponins (ginsenosides) from the leaves of Panax quinquefolius (PQS) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and the involved mechanisms were demonstrated for the first time. Mice were pretreated with PQS (150 and 300 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 7 days before being treated with 250 mg/kg APAP. Severe liver injury was exerted at 24 h post-APAP, and hepatotoxicity was assessed...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428445/pectinase-treated-panax-ginseng-protects-heat-stress-induced-testicular-damage-in-rats
#7
Min Kyoung Kim, Kyu-Min Cha, Seock-Yeon Hwang, Un-Kyu Park, Seok Kyo Seo, Sang-Ho Lee, Min-Sik Jeong, SiHyun Cho, Spandana Rajendra Kopalli, Si-Kwan Kim
Testicular hyperthermia is well studied to cause impaired spermatogenesis. In the present study, the protective effect of enzymatically modified (pectinase-treated) Panax ginseng (GINST) against intermittent sub-chronic heat stress-induced testicular damage in rats was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: normal control (NC), heat-stressed control (HC), heat-stressed plus GINST-100 mg/kg/day (HG100) and heat-stressed plus GINST-200 mg/kg/day (HG200) treatment groups. GINST (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) was mixed separately with a regular pellet diet and was administered orally for 8 weeks starting from 1 week before heat exposure...
June 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427912/hepataprotective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Yan Gao, Shifeng Chu, Zhao Zhang, Naihong Chen
BACKGROUND AND ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginseng has been used as efficient tonic and for the treatment of various diseases including hepatic disorders. Ginseng saponins, also known as ginsenosides, are principal constituents and have been treated to be responsible for disparate ginseng health benefits. The current review mainly focuses on ginsenoside Rg1, a compound isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Panax ginseng Meyer. AIMS: To summary the hepataprotective effects and related mechanisms of ginsenoside Rg1, we conclude this review by combining the literature and our own researches...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425043/innovative-development-path-of-ethnomedicines-a-case-study
#9
Zhaoyun Zhu, Yali Gui, Li Wang, Ting Wang, Yang Yang, Yunzhuang Niu, Dehuan Fu, Jingkun Wang, Tao Cui
Innovative development extends the vitality of ethnomedicines. Developing ethnomedicines is not only beneficial to the public but also to the related industry and transforms economic growth, driving local social and economic development further. Its economic benefit can be used to optimize and promote the hardware and software of the platform, as well as support the sustainable development of ethnomedicines. Apart from research and discussion on the innovative development of ethnomedicines on the basis of theory and regulations, this series of articles also summarizes cases that are conducive to the overall understanding of the necessity and feasibility of the innovative development...
April 19, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421197/ginsenoside-rg1-ameliorates-cigarette-smoke-induced-airway-fibrosis-by-suppressing-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-pathway-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Sibin Guan, Qian Liu, Fengfeng Han, Wen Gu, Lin Song, Yue Zhang, Xuejun Guo, Weiguo Xu
Small airway fibrosis is a key pathological process accompanying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and includes fibroblast/myofibroblast transdifferentiation and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the main active ingredients of Panax ginseng, has been shown to exert an antifibrotic effect in many tissues. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism and whether ginsenoside Rg1 can exert an effect on small airway fibrosis. We investigated the anti-small airway fibrosis effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in human embryonic lung fibroblasts and in COPD rats...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417089/demographic-and-medication-characteristics-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-users-among-colorectal-cancer-survivors-a-nationwide-database-study-in-taiwan
#11
Chien-Tung Wu, Yueh-Ting Tsai, Jung-Nien Lai
Chinese herbal product (CHP) is the major type of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and widely used to relief the symptom of colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to analyze the utilization of CHP for treating patients with colorectal cancer in Taiwan. The usage of CHP, frequency of services, and prescription pattern for colorectal cancer were analyzed from a randomly sampled cohort of 1 million beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The odds ratios for utilization of CHP were estimated with logistic regression model...
April 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415686/chikusetsu-saponin-iva-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-inflammation-in-adipose-tissue-of-mice-through-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#12
Chengfu Yuan, Chaoqi Liu, Ting Wang, Yumin He, Zhiyong Zhou, Yaoyan Dun, Haixia Zhao, Dongming Ren, Junjie Wang, Changcheng Zhang, Ding Yuan
Chronic metabolic inflammation in adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of obesity-associated diseases. Our previous study indicated that total saponins of Panax japonicus (SPJ) rhizoma and Chikusetsu saponin V, one main component of SPJ, could exert the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo and Ex vivo anti-inflammatory activities of another main component of SPJ, namely Chikusetsu saponin IVa (CS). CS could significantly inhibited HFD-induced lipid homeostasis, and inhibited inflammation in adipose tissue, as reflected by the decreased mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes and secretion of the chemokines/cytokines, inhibited the accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and shifted their polarization from M1 to M2, suppressed HFD-induced expression of NLRP3 inflammasome component genes and decreased IL-1β and Caspase-1 production in mice...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413329/protective-effect-of-ginsenoside-rh3-against-anticancer-drug-induced-apoptosis-in-llc-pk1-kidney-cells
#13
Hye Lim Lee, Ki Sung Kang
BACKGROUND: Ginsenosides are active components of Panax ginseng that exert various health benefits including kidney protection effect. The medicinal activity of ginsenosides can be enhanced by modulating their stereospecificity by heat processing. Ginsenosides Rk2 and Rh3 represent positional isomers of the double bond at C-20(21) or C-20(22). METHODS: The present study investigated the kidney-protective effects of ginsenosides Rk2 and Rh3 against cisplatin, a platinum based anticancer drug, induced apoptotic damage in renal proximal LLC-PK1 cells...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413328/effect-of-korean-red-ginseng-intake-on-the-survival-duration-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-patients
#14
Young-Keol Cho, Jung-Eun Kim
BACKGROUND: Long-term ginseng intake can increase longevity in healthy individuals. Here, we examined if long-term treatment with Panax ginseng Meyer (Korean Red Ginseng, KRG) can also enhance survival duration (SD) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 252 HIV-1 patients diagnosed from 1986 to 2013 prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Overall, 162 patients were treated with KRG (3,947 ± 4,943 g) for 86 ± 63 mo...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413325/the-psychopharmacological-activities-of-vietnamese-ginseng-in-mice-characterization-of-its-psychomotor-sedative-hypnotic-antistress-anxiolytic-and-cognitive-effects
#15
Irene Joy I Dela Peña, Hee Jin Kim, Chrislean Jun Botanas, June Bryan de la Peña, Thi Hong Van Le, Minh Duc Nguyen, Jeong Hill Park, Jae Hoon Cheong
BACKGROUND: Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. or Vietnamese ginseng (VG) is a recently discovered ginseng species. Studies on its chemical constituents have shown that VG is remarkably rich in ginseng saponins, particularly ocotillol saponins. However, the psychopharmacological effects of VG have not been characterized. Thus, in the present study we screened the psychopharmacological activities of VG in mice. METHODS: VG extract (VGE) was orally administered to mice at various dosages to evaluate its psychomotor (open-field and rota-rod tests), sedative-hypnotic (pentobarbital-induced sleeping test), antistress (cold swimming test), anxiolytic (elevated plus-maze test), and cognitive (Y-maze and passive-avoidance tests) effects...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413322/improved-antimicrobial-effect-of-ginseng-extract-by-heat-transformation
#16
Peng Xue, Yang Yao, Xiu-Shi Yang, Jia Feng, Gui-Xing Ren
BACKGROUND: The incidence of halitosis has a prevalence of 22-50% throughout the world and is generally caused by anaerobic oral microorganisms, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Clostridium perfringens, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Previous investigations on the structure-activity relationships of ginsenosides have led to contrasting results. Particularly, the antibacterial activity of less polar ginsenosides against halitosis-related bacteria has not been reported. METHODS: Crude saponins extracted from the Panax quinquefolius leaf-stem (AGS) were treated at 130°C for 3 h to obtain heat-transformed saponins (HTS)...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413321/the-beneficial-effect-of-ginsenosides-extracted-by-pulsed-electric-field-against-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-in-hek-293-cells
#17
Di Liu, Ting Zhang, Zhifei Chen, Ying Wang, Shuang Ma, Jiyun Liu, Jingbo Liu
BACKGROUND: Ginsenosides are the main pharmacological components of Panax ginseng root, which are thought to be primarily responsible for the suppressing effect on oxidative stress. METHODS: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorption capacity were applied to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the ginsenosides. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells were incubated with ginsenosides extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF) and solvent cold soak extraction (SCSE) for 24 h and then the injury was induced by 40μM H2O2...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413320/panax-ginseng-meyer-prevents-radiation-induced-liver-injury-via-modulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#18
Hyeong-Geug Kim, Seong-Soon Jang, Jin-Seok Lee, Hyo-Seon Kim, Chang-Gue Son
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is one of the most important modalities in cancer treatment; however, normal tissue damage is a serious concern. Drug development for the protection or reduction of normal tissue damage is therefore a clinical issue. Herein, we evaluated the protective properties of Panax ginseng Meyer and its corresponding mechanisms. METHODS: C56BL/6 mice were orally pretreated with P. ginseng water extract (PGE; 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, or 100 mg/kg) or intraperitoneally injected melatonin (20 mg/kg) for 4 d consecutively, then exposed to 15-Gy X-ray radiation 1 h after the last administration...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413317/korean-red-ginseng-improves-atopic-dermatitis-like-skin-lesions-by-suppressing-expression-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-chemokines-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro
#19
Ji-Ye Kee, Yong-Deok Jeon, Dae-Seung Kim, Yo-Han Han, Jinbong Park, Dong-Hyun Youn, Su-Jin Kim, Kwang Seok Ahn, Jae-Young Um, Seung-Heon Hong
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergic inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, and allergic rhinitis worldwide has increased and complete recovery is difficult. Korean Red Ginseng, which is the heat-processed root of Panax ginseng Meyer, is widely and frequently used as a traditional medicine in East Asia. In this study, we investigated whether Korean Red Ginseng water extract (RGE) regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines via the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in allergic inflammation...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413316/ginsenoside-rc-from-panax-ginseng-exerts-anti-inflammatory-activity-by-targeting-tank-binding-kinase-1-interferon-regulatory-factor-3-and-p38-atf-2
#20
Tao Yu, Yanyan Yang, Yi-Seong Kwak, Gwan Gyu Song, Mi-Yeon Kim, Man Hee Rhee, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Rc (G-Rc) is one of the major protopanaxadiol-type saponins isolated from Panax ginseng, a well-known medicinal herb with many beneficial properties including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and antidiabetic effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of G-Rc on inflammatory responses in vitro and examined the mechanisms of these effects. METHODS: The in vitro inflammation system used lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages, tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ-treated synovial cells, and HEK293 cells transfected with various inducers of inflammation...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
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