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Peak Atp

Corey R Hart, Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Yann Le Fur, Jayson R Gifford, Heather L Clifton, Russell S Richardson
Evidence suggests that peak skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate (Vmax ) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) may be attenuated due to disease-related impairments in oxygen (O2 ) supply. However, in vitro assessments suggest intrinsic deficits in mitochondrial respiration despite ample O2 availability. To address this conundrum, Doppler ultrasound, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31 P-MRS), and high-resolution respirometry were combined to assess convective O2 delivery, tissue oxygenation, Vmax , and skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity (Complex I+II, State 3 respiration), respectively, in the gastrocnemius muscle of 10 patients with early-stage PAD and 11 physical activity-matched healthy controls (HC)...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Pei-Ying Hao, Ya-Lin Feng, Yi-Shen Zhou, Xin-Mi Song, Hong-Liang Li, Yan Ma, Cheng-Long Ye, Xiao-Ping Yu
Brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens Stål is a serious insect pest of rice in Asian countries. Active compounds have close relationship with rice resistance against BPH. In this study, HPLC, MS/MS, and NMR techniques were used to identify active compounds in total flavonoids of rice. As a result, a BPH resistance-associated compound, Peak 1 in HPLC chromatogram of rice flavonoids, was isolated and identified as schaftoside. Feeding experiment with artificial diet indicated that schaftoside played its role in a dose dependent manner, under the concentration of 0...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Song Shi, Hongliang Zuo, Lu Gao, Xin Yi, Guohua Zhong
Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) is a key protein subunit of mitochondrial complex III which plays an important role in the respiratory electron transport chain. The complete cDNA of RISP was cloned from Spodoptera exigua by real time quantitative PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology and named as SeRISP (GenBank Accession Number: JN992290). Multiple alignments and the creation of a phylogenetic tree revealed that RISPs are highly conserved among different insects, and the highly conserved region of RISPs is mainly located at the C-terminal which serves as the functional domain...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Chin-Wei Huang, Kao-Min Lin, Te-Yu Hung, Yao-Chung Chuang, Sheng-Nan Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rotenone (Rot) is known to suppress the activity of complex I in the mitochondrial chain reaction; however, whether this compound has effects on ion currents in neurons remains largely unexplored. METHODS: With the aid of patch-clamp technology and simulation modeling, the effects of Rot on membrane ion currents present in mHippoE-14 cells were investigated. RESULTS: Addition of Rot produced an inhibitory action on the peak amplitude of INa with an IC50 value of 39...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
G A Nagana Gowda
Coenzymes of cellular redox reactions and cellular energy, as well as antioxidants mediate biochemical reactions fundamental to the functioning of all living cells. Conventional analysis methods lack the opportunity to evaluate these important redox and energy coenzymes and antioxidants in a single step. Major coenzymes include redox coenzymes: NAD⁺ (oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), NADP⁺ (oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate); energy coenzymes: ATP (adenosine triphosphate), ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and AMP (adenosine monophosphate); and antioxidants: GSSG (oxidized glutathione) and GSH (reduced glutathione)...
May 14, 2018: Metabolites
Katherine Cumnock, Avni S Gupta, Michelle Lissner, Victoria Chevee, Nicole M Davis, David S Schneider
Pathologic infections are accompanied by a collection of short-term behavioral perturbations collectively termed sickness behaviors [1, 2]. These include changes in body temperature, reduced eating and drinking, and lethargy and mimic behaviors of animals in torpor and hibernation [1, 3-6]. Sickness behaviors are important, pathogen-specific components of the host response to infection [1, 3, 7-9]. In particular, host anorexia has been shown to be beneficial or detrimental depending on the infection [7, 8]...
May 4, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Xiaomei Gu, Qing Xiao, Qian Ruan, Yuezhong Shu, Ashok Dongre, Ramaswamy Iyer, W Griffith Humphreys, Yurong Lai
In the present study, total membrane proteins from tumor cell lines including HepG2, Hep3B2, H226, Ovcar3 and N87 were extracted and digested with γ LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide lysate were pre-fractionated and subjected to untargeted quantitative proteomics analysis using a high resolution mass spectrometer. The mass spectra were processed by the MaxQuant and the protein abundances were estimated using total peak area (TPA) method. A total of 6037 proteins were identified, and the analysis resulted in the identification of 2647 membrane proteins...
March 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Vincenzo Lariccia, Salvatore Amoroso
Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers (NCX) mediate bidirectional Ca2+ fluxes across cell membranes and contribute to Ca2+ homeostasis in many cell types. Exchangers are regulated by gating reactions that depend on Na+ and Ca2+ binding to transport and regulatory sites. A Na+ i -dependent inactivation is prominent in all isoforms, whereas Ca2+ i -dependent regulation varies among isoforms. Here we characterize new details of NCX operation and describe differences and similarities between NCX3 and NCX1 regulation by intracellular Ca2+ and ATP...
July 2018: Cell Calcium
Melissa Cano, Steven C Holland, Juliana Artier, Rob L Burnap, Maria Ghirardi, John A Morgan, Jianping Yu
Understanding how living cells manage high-energy metabolites such as ATP and NADPH is essential for understanding energy transformations in the biosphere. Using light as the energy input, we find that energy charge (ratio of ATP over ADP+ATP) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 varies in different growth stages, with a peak upon entry into the rapid growth phase, as well as a positive correlation with light intensity. In contrast, a mutant that can no longer synthesize the main carbon storage compound glycogen showed higher energy charge...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
Yugo Tsuchiya, Alexander Zhyvoloup, Jovana Bakovic, Naam Thomas, Bess Yi Kun Yu, Sayoni Das, Christine Orengo, Clare Newell, John Ward, Giorgio Saladino, Federico Comitani, Francesco L Gervasio, Oksana M Malanchuk, Antonina I Khoruzhenko, Valeriy Filonenko, Sew Yeu Peak-Chew, Mark Skehel, Ivan Gout
In all living organisms, Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential cofactor with a unique design allowing it to function as an acyl group carrier and a carbonyl-activating group in diverse biochemical reactions. It is synthesized in a highly conserved process in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that requires pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), cysteine and ATP. CoA and its thioester derivatives are involved in major metabolic pathways, allosteric interactions and the regulation of gene expression. A novel unconventional function of CoA in redox regulation has been recently discovered in mammalian cells and termed protein CoAlation...
April 6, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Sissel Beate Rønning, Mona Elisabeth Pedersen, Ragnhild Stenberg Berg, Bente Kirkhus, Rune Rødbotten
Skeletal muscle function is highly dependent on the ability to regenerate, however, during ageing or disease, the proliferative capacity is reduced, leading to loss of muscle function. We have previously demonstrated the presence of vitamin K2 in bovine skeletal muscles, but whether vitamin K has a role in muscle regulation and function is unknown. In this study, we used primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, cultured in monolayers in vitro, to assess a potential effect of vitamin K2 (MK-4) during myogenesis of muscle cells...
2018: PloS One
S Haga, M Miyaji, M Nakano, H Ishizaki, H Matsuyama, K Katoh, S G Roh
Blood α-tocopherol (α-Toc) concentrations decline gradually throughout the prepartum period, reaching the nadir after calving in dairy cows. The 6 α-Toc-related molecules [α-Toc transfer protein (TTPA); afamin; scavenger receptor class B, Type I; ATP-binding cassette transporter A1; tocopherol-associated protein (SEC14L2); and cytochrome P450 family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 2 (CYP4F2)] are expressed in liver and other peripheral tissues. These molecules could regulate α-Toc transport, blood concentrations, and metabolism of α-Toc...
June 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Kaina Zhang, Ke Zeng, Congcong Shen, Shiyu Tian, Minghui Yang
The authors describe a fluorometric method for the determination of the activity and inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA). In the presence of ATP, PKA catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to a peptide, and the generated phosphorylated peptide quenches the fluorescence (measured at excitation/emission peaks of 340/440 nm) of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP-NPs). A linear logarithmic relationship of PKA concentrations with fluorescence intensity in the range from 1 to 50 U·L-1 was obtained, and the lower limit of detection (LOD) is 0...
March 16, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Corey R Hart, Yann Le Fur, Jia Zhao, Van Reese, Eun-Kee Jeong, Russell S Richardson
Muscle weakness in the elderly has been linked to recurrent falls and morbidity, therefore, elucidating the mechanisms contributing to the loss of muscle function and mobility with advancing age is critical. To this aim, we comprehensively examined skeletal muscle metabolic function and hemodynamics in 11 young (23±2 yrs), 11 old (68±2 yrs), and 10 oldest-old (84±2 yrs) physical activity-matched subjects. Specifically, oxidative stress markers, mitochondrial function and the ATP cost of contraction as well as peripheral hemodynamics were assessed during dynamic plantar flexion exercise at 40% of maximal work rate (WRmax)...
March 23, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Eva Skiöldebrand, Anna Thorfve, Ulrika Björklund, Pegah Johansson, Ruth Wickelgren, Anders Lindahl, Elisabeth Hansson
Chondrocytes are effectively involved in the pathophysiological processes of inflammation in joints. They form cellular processes in the superficial layer of the articular cartilage and form gap junction coupled syncytium to facilitate cell-to-cell communication. However, very little is known about their physiological cellular identity and communication. The aim with the present work is to evaluate the physiological behavior after stimulation with the inflammatory inducers interleukin-1β and lipopolysaccharide...
January 2018: Heliyon
Irena Svobodova, Anirban Bhattaracharya, Milorad Ivetic, Zdenka Bendova, Hana Zemkova
The circadian rhythms in physiological and behavioral functions are driven by a pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The rhythms continue in constant darkness and depend on cell-cell communication between neurons and glia. The SCN astrocytes generate also a circadian rhythm in extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) accumulation, but molecular mechanisms that regulate ATP release are poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATP is released via the plasma membrane purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) and P2Y receptors (P2YRs) which have been previously shown to be expressed in the SCN tissue at transcriptional level...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fang Qiu, Xia Zhao
PURPOSE: To study the sensitivity of primary tumor cells from patients with cervical cancer to frequently used chemotherapeutic combinations. METHODS: 54 samples from cervical cancer patients were collected and used to develop cell culture in vitro. Eight frequently used chemotherapeutic combinations (taxol, taxol+cisplatin, taxol+carboplatin, topotecan+cisplatin, gemcitabine+cisplatin, docetaxel, gemcitabine, cisplatin+c yclophosphamide+doxorubicin) were prepared in different concentrations [200,100,50,25, and 12...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Zhenhua Ji, Yuting Xie, Yu Guan, Yujian Zhang, Kin-Sang Cho, Min Ji, Yongping You
Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of P2X7 receptors (P2X7 R) results in the proliferation and migration of some types of tumor. Here, we asked whether and how the activated P2X7 R contribute to proliferation and migration of human glioma cells. Results showed that the number of P2X7 R positive cells was increasing with grade of tumor. In U87 and U251 human glioma cell lines, both expressed P2X7 R and the expression was enhanced by 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) ATP (BzATP), the agonist of P2X7 R, and siRNA...
2018: BioMed Research International
Katarzyna A Cieslik, Rajagopal V Sekhar, Alejandro Granillo, Anilkumar Reddy, Guillermo Medrano, Celia Pena Heredia, Mark L Entman, Dale J Hamilton, Shumin Li, Erin Reineke, Anisha A Gupte, Aijun Zhang, George E Taffet
Metabolic, inflammatory and functional changes occur in cardiovascular aging which may stem from oxidative stress and be remediable with antioxidants. Glutathione, an intracellular antioxidant, declines with aging, and supplementation with glutathione precursors, N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and Glycine (Gly), increases tissue glutathione. Thirty month-old mice were fed diets supplemented with NAC or NAC+Gly and, after seven weeks, cardiac function and molecular studies were performed.The NAC+Gly supplementation improved diastolic function, increasing peak early filling velocity, and reducing relaxation time, left atrial volume, and left ventricle end diastolic pressure...
March 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Agnese Secondo, Alba Esposito, Tiziana Petrozziello, Francesca Boscia, Pasquale Molinaro, Valentina Tedeschi, Anna Pannaccione, Roselia Ciccone, Natascia Guida, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato
Nuclear envelope (NE) is a Ca2+ -storing organelle controlling neuronal differentiation through nuclear Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]n ). However, how [Ca2+ ]n regulates this important function remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the nuclear form of the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger 1(nuNCX1) during the different stages of neuronal differentiation and the involvement of PTEN/PI3'K/Akt pathway. In neuronal cells, nuNCX1 was detected on the inner membrane of the NE where protein expression and activity of the exchanger increased during NGF-induced differentiation...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
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