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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913103/ontogeny-aging-and-gender-related-changes-in-hepatic-multidrug-resistant-protein-genes-in-rats
#1
Qiong-Ni Zhu, Wei-Yu Hou, Shang-Fu Xu, Yuan-Fu Lu, Jie Liu
: Multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) are efflux transporters playing important roles in endogenous substances and xenobiotics transport out of the liver. Children, elderly, gender and physio-pathological conditions could influence their expression and result in changes in drug disposition. AIM: This study was aimed to examine the development-, ageing-, and sex-dependent changes in Mrp1-4 and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (Abcg2) gene expressions in livers of rats...
November 29, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891096/systematic-characterization-of-dynamic-parameters-of-intracellular-calcium-signals
#2
Laurent Mackay, Nicholas Mikolajewicz, Svetlana V Komarova, Anmar Khadra
Dynamic processes, such as intracellular calcium signaling, are hallmark of cellular biology. As real-time imaging modalities become widespread, a need for analytical tools to reliably characterize time-series data without prior knowledge of the nature of the recordings becomes more pressing. The goal of this study is to develop a signal-processing algorithm for MATLAB that autonomously computes the parameters characterizing prominent single transient responses (TR) and/or multi-peaks responses (MPR). The algorithm corrects for signal contamination and decomposes experimental recordings into contributions from drift, TRs, and MPRs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856712/rates-of-performance-loss-and-neuromuscular-activity-in-men-and-women-during-cycling-evidence-for-a-common-metabolic-basis-of-muscle-fatigue
#3
Christopher W Sundberg, Sandra K Hunter, Matthew W Bundle
The durations that muscular force and power outputs can be sustained until failure fall predictably on an exponential decline between an individual's 3-s burst maximum to the maximum performance they can sustain aerobically. The exponential time constants describing these rates of performance loss are similar across individuals suggesting that a common metabolically-based mechanism governs muscle fatigue; however, these conclusions come from studies mainly on men. To test whether the same physiological understanding can be applied to women, we compared the performance-duration relationships and neuromuscular activity between 7 men (23...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853868/immune-function-monitoring-in-lung-transplantation-using-adenosine-triphosphate-production-time-trends-and-relationship-to-postoperative-infection
#4
Mamoru Takahashi, Akihiro Ohsumi, Keiji Ohata, Takeshi Kondo, Hideki Motoyama, Kyoko Hijiya, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa
PURPOSE: The ImmuKnow (IK) assay is a comprehensive immune function test that involves measuring adenosine triphosphate produced by the cluster of differentiation 4+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. The aim of this study was to analyze the time trends of IK values and assess the relationship between IK values and infections in lung transplants. METHODS: We prospectively collected 178 blood samples from 22 deceased-donor lung transplant (DDLT) recipients and 17 living-donor lobar lung transplant (LDLLT) recipients...
November 16, 2016: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824313/evidence-of-a-metabolic-reserve-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-elderly-people
#5
Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Corey R Hart, Yann Le Fur, Jacob R Sorensen, Eun-Kee Jeong, Russell S Richardson
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether mitochondrial function is limited by O2 availability or the intrinsic capacity of mitochondria to synthesize ATP in elderly individuals. To this aim, we examined, in comparison to free-flow conditions (FF), the effect of superimposing reactive hyperemia (RH), induced by a period of brief ischemia during the last min of exercise, on O2 availability and mitochondrial function in the calf muscle. 12 healthy, untrained, elderly subjects performed dynamic plantar flexion exercise and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and Doppler ultrasound were used to assess muscle metabolism and peripheral hemodynamics...
November 6, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804230/active-individuals-have-high-mitochondrial-content-and-oxidative-markers-in-their-abdominal-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue
#6
Maria F Pino, Stephanie A Parsons, Steven R Smith, Lauren M Sparks
OBJECTIVE: Exercise training (training) effects on white adipose tissue (WAT) thermogenic and oxidative capacities in humans are inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate whether an active lifestyle is characterized by thermogenic and/or oxidative transcriptional markers in human WAT. METHODS: In vivo maximal muscle ATP synthetic rates (ATPmax) were measured by (31) P-MRS, body composition by DXA, and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) by cycle ergometry in active (n = 7) and sedentary (SED) individuals before and after 3 weeks of training (n = 9, SED only)...
November 2, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803124/rice-aleurone-layer-specific-osnf-yb1-regulates-grain-filling-and-endosperm-development-by-interacting-with-an-erf-transcription-factor
#7
Jing-Jing Xu, Xiao-Fan Zhang, Hong-Wei Xue
Grain yield and quality of rice mainly depend on grain filling and endosperm development. Here we report that a rice NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factor, OsNF-YB1, is specifically expressed in the aleurone layer of developing endosperm and regulates grain filling and endosperm development. Knockdown of OsNF-YB1 expression by RNAi significantly retarded grain filling, leading to small grains with chalky endosperm as well as altered starch quality. Whereas OsNF-YB1 shows subcellular localization in both the cytosol and the nucleus in roots, it was specifically targeted to the nucleus of aleurone layer cells, which was facilitated by interacting with OsNF-YC proteins preferentially expressed in the aleurone layer...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798273/the-rat-cerebral-vasculature-exhibits-time-of-day-dependent-oscillations-in-circadian-clock-genes-and-vascular-function-that-are-attenuated-following-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#8
David J Durgan, Randy F Crossland, Robert M Bryan
Circadian clock components oscillate in cells of the cardiovascular system. Disruption of these oscillations has been observed in cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea, which is associated with cerebrovascular diseases, disrupts the cerebrovascular circadian clock and rhythms in vascular function. Apneas were produced in rats during sleep. Following two weeks of sham or obstructive sleep apnea, cerebral arteries were isolated over 24 h for mRNA and functional analysis. mRNA expression of clock genes exhibited 24-h rhythms in cerebral arteries of sham rats (p < 0...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781340/p2x3-receptor-mediated-visceral-hyperalgesia-and-neuronal-sensitization-following-exposure-to-ptsd-like-stress-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-of-rats
#9
Y-Q He, X-Q Lang, L Lin, L Ji, X-Y Yuan, Q Chen, Y-M Ran, H-S Chen, L Li, J-M Wang, Z-G Wang, H Gregersen, D-W Zou, H-P Liang, M Yang
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often share co-morbidity with chronic pain conditions. Recent studies suggest a role of P2X3 receptors and ATP signaling in pain conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms of visceral hyperalgesia following exposure to PTSD-like stress conditions remain unclarified. METHODS: The behavior and hormones relevant for PTSD were studied. Visceromotor responses (VMR) and the abdominal withdrawal reflexes (AWR) to colorectal distention (CRD) were recorded to determine P2X3-receptor-mediated alteration of hyperalgesia following single-prolonged stress (SPS) exposure...
October 25, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764687/nanomechanical-properties-of-composite-protein-networks-of-erythroid-membranes-at-lipid-surfaces
#10
Mario Encinar, Santiago Casado, Alicia Calzado-Martín, P Natale, Álvaro San Paulo, Montserrat Calleja, Marisela Vélez, Francisco Monroy, Iván López-Montero
Erythrocyte membranes have been particularly useful as a model for studies of membrane structure and mechanics. Native erythroid membranes can be electroformed as giant unilamellar vesicles (eGUVs). In the presence of ATP, the erythroid membrane proteins of eGUVs rearrange into protein networks at the microscale. Here, we present a detailed nanomechanical study of individual protein microfilaments forming the protein networks of eGUVs when spread on supporting surfaces. Using Peak Force tapping Atomic Force Microscopy (PF-AFM) in liquid environment we have obtained the mechanical maps of the composite lipid-protein networks supported on solid surface...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761429/identification-and-characterization-of-a-gene-stp17-located-on-the-linear-plasmid-pbssb1-as-an-enhanced-gene-of-growth-and-motility-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#11
Haifang Zhang, Yunxia Zhu, Xiaofang Xie, Min Wang, Hong Du, Shungao Xu, Ying Zhang, Mingyu Gong, Bin Ni, Huaxi Xu, Xinxiang Huang
The linear plasmid pBSSB1 mediates the flagellar phase variation in H:z66 positive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). The gene named stp17 (S. Typhi plasmid number 17 gene) is located on pBSSB1 and encodes the protein STP17. The expression pattern at the protein-level and function of STP17 remains unknown. In this study, the recombinant protein STP17His6 was expressed, purified and used to prepare the polyclonal anti-STP17 antibody. We detected protein-level expression of stp17 in S. Typhi and further investigated the protein expression characteristics of stp17 in different growth phases by western blot analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751953/photobiomodulation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-using-810nm-and-980nm-lasers-operates-via-different-mechanisms-of-action
#12
Yuguang Wang, Ying-Ying Huang, Yong Wang, Peijun Lyu, Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) using red or near-infrared (NIR) light has been used to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. The use of NIR wavelengths such as 810nm is reasonably well accepted to stimulate mitochondrial activity and ATP production via absorption of photons by cytochrome c oxidase. However, the mechanism of action of 980nm is less well understood. Here we study the effects of both wavelengths (810nm and 980nm) on adipose-derived stem cells in vitro. Both wavelengths showed a biphasic dose response, but 810nm had a peak dose response at 3J/cm(2) for stimulation of proliferation at 24h, while the peak dose for 980nm was 10-100 times lower at 0...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716939/tibetan-firefly-luciferase-with-low-temperature-adaptation
#13
Yasuo Mitani, Ryo Futahashi, Zichao Liu, Xingcai Liang, Yoshihiro Ohmiya
Fireflies are widespread all over the world and a numerous numbers of luciferases have been isolated and characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized the luciferase and luciferase-like genes from a Tibetan firefly collected in Shangri-La, China. The altitude of this area is more than 3,300 meters. We saw this Tibetan firefly flying with strong luminescence after sunset at ~10°C. We analyzed the transcriptome of Tibetan firefly using head, thorax, abdomen (without light organ), and light organ tissue by RNA sequencing...
September 26, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696002/modelling-zinc-changes-at-the-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synaptic-cleft
#14
M E Quinta-Ferreira, F D S Sampaio Dos Aidos, C M Matias, P J Mendes, J C Dionísio, R M Santos, L M Rosário, R M Quinta-Ferreira
Zinc, a transition metal existing in very high concentrations in the hippocampal mossy fibers from CA3 area, is assumed to be co-released with glutamate and to have a neuromodulatory role at the corresponding synapses. The synaptic action of zinc is determined both by the spatiotemporal characteristics of the zinc release process and by the kinetics of zinc binding to sites located in the cleft area, as well as by their concentrations. This work addresses total, free and complexed zinc concentration changes, in an individual synaptic cleft, following single, short and long periods of evoked zinc release...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678510/the-cooperative-expression-of-heat-shock-protein-70-kd-and-90-kd-gene-in-juvenile-larimichthys-crocea-under-vibrio-alginolyticus-stress
#15
Jianyu He, Junru Wang, Mengshan Xu, Changwen Wu, Huihui Liu
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play significant roles in the immune response of fish in defending against diverse environmental threats or stresses. In this study, two complete HSP70 and HSP90 genes of Larimichthys crocea (designated as LycHSP70 and LycHSP90) were identified and characterized (GenBank accession no. KT456551 and KT456552). The complete open reading frame (ORF) fragments of LycHSP70 and LycHSP90 were 1917 bp and 2151 bp, encoding 638 and 716 amino acids residues respectively. Many significant functional domains and motifs were found, such as Hsp70 family signatures, Hsp90 family signatures, ATP-GTP binding site and EEVD motif regions, and they were associated with relative functions...
September 24, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663059/exercise-training-in-metabolic-myopathies
#16
J Vissing
Metabolic myopathies encompass muscle glycogenoses (GSD) and disorders of muscle fat oxidation (FAOD). FAODs and GSDs can be divided into two main clinical phenotypes; those with static symptoms related to fixed muscle weakness and atrophy, and those with dynamic, exercise-related symptoms that are brought about by a deficient supply of ATP. Together with mitochondrial myopathies, metabolic myopathies are unique among muscle diseases, as the limitation in exercise performance is not solely caused by structural damage of muscle, but also or exclusively related to energy deficiency...
October 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630135/lone-atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-impaired-left-ventricular-energetics-that-persists-despite-successful-catheter-ablation
#17
Rohan S Wijesurendra, Alexander Liu, Christian Eichhorn, Rina Ariga, Eylem Levelt, William T Clarke, Christopher T Rodgers, Theodoros D Karamitsos, Yaver Bashir, Matthew Ginks, Kim Rajappan, Tim Betts, Vanessa M Ferreira, Stefan Neubauer, Barbara Casadei
BACKGROUND: Lone atrial fibrillation (AF) may reflect a subclinical cardiomyopathy that persists after sinus rhythm (SR) restoration, providing a substrate for AF recurrence. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of restoring SR by catheter ablation on left ventricular (LV) function and energetics in patients with AF but no significant comorbidities. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with symptomatic paroxysmal or persistent AF and without significant valvular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, coronary artery disease, uncontrolled thyroid disease, systemic inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, or obstructive sleep apnea (ie, lone AF) undergoing ablation and 25 matched control subjects in SR were investigated...
October 11, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619319/development-of-a-high-throughput-method-for-real-time-assessment-of-cellular-metabolism-in-intact-long-skeletal-muscle-fibre-bundles
#18
Rui Li, Frederik J Steyn, Michael B Stout, Kevin Lee, Tanya R Cully, Juan C Calderón, Shyuan T Ngo
Metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle contributes to the aetiology and development of muscle diseases and metabolic diseases. As such, assessment of skeletal muscle cellular bioenergetics provides a powerful means to understand the role of skeletal muscle metabolism in disease and to identify possible therapeutic targets. Here, we developed a method that allows for the real-time assessment of cellular respiration in intact skeletal muscle fibre bundles obtained from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult mice...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615440/lactate-produced-during-labor-modulates-uterine-inflammation-via-gpr81%C3%A2-hca1
#19
Ankush Madaan, Mathieu Nadeau-Vallée, Jose Carlos Rivera, Dima Obari, Xin Hou, Estefania Marin Sierra, Sylvie Girard, David M Olson, Sylvain Chemtob
BACKGROUND: Uterine inflammatory processes trigger prolabor pathways and orchestrate on-time labor onset. Although essential for successful labor, inflammation needs to be regulated to avoid uncontrolled amplification and resolve postpartum. During labor, myometrial smooth muscle cells generate ATP mainly via anaerobic glycolysis, resulting in accumulation of lactate. Aside from its metabolic function, lactate has been shown to activate a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR81, reported to regulate inflammation...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600458/relation-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-to-risk-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-men-with-cardiometabolic-syndrome
#20
Sae Young Jae, Barry A Franklin, Arno Schmidt-Trucksass, Do Kyung Kim, Yoon-Ho Choi, Jeong Bae Park
We tested the hypothesis that cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and that moderate-to-high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) attenuate this relation. Our study population (n = 2,107 men) participated in a health screening program that included measures of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) as surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a CAC score >0 and a mean CIMT more than the seventy-fifth percentile...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
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