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Sports compression

Duarte Araújo, Keith Davids
Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
James E Leone, Steve Middleton
OBJECTIVE:  To discuss the case of a 49-year-old man who presented to the sports medicine staff with pelvic pain of 10 years' duration consistent with pudendal neuralgia. BACKGROUND:  Testicular pain in men is often provoked by direct trauma or may indicate an oncologic process. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:  Epididymitis, athletic pubalgia, testicular tumor, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy. TREATMENT:  The patient responded positively to treatment and rehabilitation to restore normal mechanics to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
B Tettenborn, S Mehnert, I Reuter
Peripheral nerve injuries due to sports are relatively rare but the exact incidence is not known due to a lack of epidemiological studies. Particular sports activities tend to cause certain peripheral nerve injuries including direct acute compression or stretching, repetitive compression and stretching over time, or another mechanism such as ischemia or laceration. These nerve lesions may be severe and delay or preclude the athlete's return to sports, especially in cases with delayed diagnosis. Repetitive and vigorous use or overuse makes the athlete vulnerable to disorders of the peripheral nerves, and sports equipment may cause compression of the nerves...
September 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Yoann Blache, Thomas Creveaux, Raphaël Dumas, Laurence Chèze, Isabelle Rogowski
The primary role of the shoulder joint in tennis forehand drive is at the expense of the loadings undergone by this joint. Nevertheless, few studies investigated glenohumeral (GH) contact forces during forehand drives. The aim of this study was to investigate GH compressive and shearing forces during the flat and topspin forehand drives in advanced tennis players. 3D kinematics of flat and topspin forehand drives of 11 advanced tennis players were recorded. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow musculoskeletal model was implemented to assess the magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces during the forehand drives...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Pavlos Panteliadis, Navraj S Nagra, Kimberley L Edwards, Eyal Behrbalk, Bronek Boszczyk
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to critically review the outcomes associated with the surgical repair or conservative management of spondylolysis in athletes. METHODS: The English literature listed in MEDLINE/PubMed was reviewed to identify related articles using the term "spondylolysis AND athlete." The criteria for studies to be included were management of spondylolysis in athletes, English text, and no year, follow-up, or study design restrictions...
September 2016: Global Spine Journal
Andrew D Franklin, G Bennett Cierny, Twila R Luckett
Meralgia paresthetica is a chronic pain syndrome that is extremely rare in the pediatric population. It is manifested by hypesthesia or pain in the distribution of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) and is typically caused by entrapment as the nerve passes deep to the inguinal ligament. This sensory mononeuropathy is rare in children and diagnosis is typically delayed, often leading to prolonged functional impairment and unnecessary medical testing. A 9-year-old girl presented to the pain clinic with a 6-week history of right anterolateral thigh pain first noticed after a nontraumatic cheerleading practice...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Morgana A de Britto, Andressa L Lemos, Christielen S Dos Santos, Darren J Stefanyshyn, Felipe P Carpes
During jump-landing tasks, knee kinematics such as excessive valgus have been linked to knee injury in females. Here we determine the influence of a compressive garment on knee valgus during landing. Physically active women (n=27, mean age 23 years) performed four different jump-landing tasks with two apparel conditions (compressive garment and regular sports shorts). Kinematic data were collected to determine knee flexion and valgus angles, and the maximum jump height. Results showed that the compressive garment decreased knee flexion and knee valgus range of motion, without significant changes in the maximum jump height...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Shashank Ghai, Matthew W Driller, Rich S W Masters
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of below-knee compression garments on proprioception accuracy under, information processing constraints designed to cause high or low conscious attention to the task. METHODS: In a counterbalanced, single-blinded, crossover trial, 44 healthy participants (26 male/18 female) with a mean age of 22.7±6.9 years performed an active joint repositioning task using their nondominant and their dominant leg, with and without below-knee compression and with and without conducting a secondary task...
August 9, 2016: Gait & Posture
Marcus R Bair, Michael T Gross, Jennifer R Cooke, Carla H Hill
Study Design Resident's case problem. Background Entrapment neuropathies represent a diagnostic challenge and require a comprehensive understanding of the nerve's path and the anatomical structures that may cause compression of the nerve. This resident's case problem details the evaluation and differential diagnosis process for median nerve entrapment resulting from forceful and repetitive pronation/supination motions. Diagnosis Median nerve compression syndromes include pronator syndrome, anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and carpal tunnel syndrome...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Alison Shmerling, Jonathan T Bravman, Morteza Khodaee
Traumatic swelling/effusion in the knee region is a relatively common presenting complaint among athletes and nonathletes. Due to its broad differential diagnosis, a comprehensive evaluation beginning with history and physical examination are recommended. Knee joint effusion can be differentiated from other types of swelling by careful physical examination. Imaging, including plain radiography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is preferred modality. Aspiration of a local fluctuating mass may help with the diagnosis and management of some of these conditions...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Anand Kaul, Ahmed Abbas, Gabriel Smith, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan Pace, Michael Steinmetz
Fatal craniovertebral junction (CVJ) injuries were the most common cause of death in high-speed motor sports prior to 2001. Following the death of a mutual friend and race car driver, Patrick Jacquemart (1946-1981), biomechanical engineer Dr. Robert Hubbard, along with race car driver and brother-in-law Jim Downing, developed the concept for the Head and Neck Support (HANS) device to prevent flexion-distraction injuries during high-velocity impact. Biomechanical testing showed that neck shear and loading forces experienced during collisions were 3 times the required amount for a catastrophic injury...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Gregory D Myer, Weihong Yuan, Kim D Barber Foss, David Smith, Mekibib Altaye, Amit Reches, James Leach, Adam W Kiefer, Jane C Khoury, Michal Weiss, Staci Thomas, Chris Dicesare, Janet Adams, Paul J Gubanich, Amir Geva, Joseph F Clark, William P Meehan, Jason P Mihalik, Darcy Krueger
OBJECTIVES: Utilize a prospective in vivo clinical trial to evaluate the potential for mild neck compression applied during head impact exposure to reduce anatomical and physiological biomarkers of brain injury. METHODS: This project utilized a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate effects of mild jugular vein (neck) compression (collar) relative to controls (no collar) during a competitive hockey season (males; 16.3 ± 1.2 years). The collar was designed to mildly compress the jugular vein bilaterally with the goal to increase intracranial blood volume to reduce risk of brain slosh injury during head impact exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
P Behrendt, A Preusse-Prange, T Klüter, M Haake, B Rolauffs, A J Grodzinsky, S Lippross, B Kurz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether anti-inflammatory interleukine-10 (IL-10) exerts chondroprotective effects in an in vitro model of a single mechanical injury of mature articular cartilage. METHOD: Articular cartilage was harvested from the femoro-patellar groove of adult cows (Bos taurus) and cultured w/o bovine IL-10. After 24 h of equilibration explants were subjected to an axial unconfined compression (50 % strain, velocity 2 mm/s, held for 10 s)...
June 24, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Elif Turgut, Øyvind Pedersen, Irem Duzgun, Gul Baltaci
The combination of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises is commonly recommended in shoulder rehabilitation, aiming at improving strength and sport-specific performance. This study aimed to investigate the three-dimensional (3-D) scapular kinematics and bilateral symmetry of scapular motion during dynamic OKC and CKC movements in asymptomatic and symptomatic shoulders. Fifty subjects with unilateral shoulder pain (symptomatic subjects diagnosed with subacromial impingement syndrome, n=20) or without shoulder pain during active shoulder elevation (asymptomatic subjects, n=30) participated in the study...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Gregory D Myer, Weihong Yuan, Kim D Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, David Smith, James Leach, Adam W Kiefer, Chris Dicesare, Janet Adams, Paul J Gubanich, Katie Kitchen, Daniel K Schneider, Daniel Braswell, Darcy Krueger, Mekibib Altaye
BACKGROUND: Historical approaches to protect the brain from outside the skull (eg, helmets and mouthpieces) have been ineffective in reducing internal injury to the brain that arises from energy absorption during sports-related collisions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a neck collar, which applies gentle bilateral jugular vein compression, resulting in cerebral venous engorgement to reduce head impact energy absorption during collision. Specifically, we investigated the effect of collar wearing during head impact exposure on brain microstructure integrity following a competitive high school American football season...
June 15, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
William J Kraemer, David R Hooper, Brian R Kupchak, Catherine Saenz, Lee E Brown, Jakob L Vingren, Hui Ying Luk, William H DuPont, Tunde K Szivak, Shawn D Flanagan, Lydia K Caldwell, Daniela Eklund, Elaine C Lee, Keijo Häkkinen, Jeff S Volek, Steven J Fleck, Carl M Maresh
The purpose was to examine the effects of a round trip trans-American jet travel on performance, hormonal alterations, and recovery. Ten matched pairs of recreationally trained men were randomized to either a compression group (COMP) (n = 10; age: 23.1 ± 2.4 yr; height: 174.8 ± 5.3 cm; body mass: 84.9 ± 10.16 kg; body fat: 15.3 ± 6.0%) or control group (CONT) (n = 9; age: 23.2 ± 2.3 yr; height: 177.5 ± 6.3 cm; weight: 84.3 ± 8.99 kg; body fat: 15.1 ± 6.4%). Subjects flew directly from Hartford, CT to Los Angeles, CA 1 day before a simulated sport competition (SSC) designed to create muscle damage and returned the next morning on an overnight flight back home...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Lindsay N Ramey, Kelly C McInnis, William E Palmer
BACKGROUND: Limited research is available regarding return-to-running (RTR) time after femoral neck stress fractures. While studies have shown the prognostic value of image-based grading scales for stress fractures at other sites, few have included femoral neck stress fractures. PURPOSE: To determine if the grade of femoral neck stress fractures based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics correlates with RTR time. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3...
August 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Olivier Girard, Franck Brocherie, Jean-Benoit Morin, Grégoire P Millet
OBJECTIVES: To examine mechanical alterations during interval-training treadmill runs in high-level team-sport players. DESIGN: Within-participants repeated measures. METHODS: Twenty high-level male field-hockey players performed six 30-s runs at 5.53±0.19ms(-1) corresponding to 115% of their velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) with 30-s passive recovery on an instrumented treadmill. Continuous measurement of running kinetics/kinematics and spring-mass characteristics were performed and values were subsequently averaged over 20s (8th-28ths) for comparison...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Yuntong Zhang, Panfeng Wang, Yan Xia, Panyu Zhou, Yang Xie, Shuogui Xu, Chuncai Zhang
Background Operative treatment is usually recommended in displaced patella fractures. Several techniques have been advocated for internal fixation of patella fractures. Despite the relatively good clinical outcomes that have been demonstrated in many studies, postoperative morbidities such as fixation failure, nonunion, infection, and knee stiffness are not uncommon. We present a new alternative treatment technique for displaced patellar fractures. Methods Between April 1995 and May 2005, we used the Nitinol Patella Concentrator (NTPC) to treat 156 consecutive patients with displaced patellar fractures...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Ferdinando Draghi, Salvatore Gitto
Tears in the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle belly are rare injuries with one single case reported in the literature. In this article, we describe the first case of muscle tear of the flexor digitorum superficialis resulting from a wakeboarding trauma. The wakeboarder presented with pain localized in the anterior forearm, and early symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Ultrasonography demonstrated an intramuscular hematoma of the flexor digitorum superficialis myotendinous junction, which compressed the median nerve...
May 17, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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