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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486428/cowpox-virus-what-s-in-a-name
#1
Matthew R Mauldin, Markus Antwerpen, Ginny L Emerson, Yu Li, Gudrun Zoeller, Darin S Carroll, Hermann Meyer
Traditionally, virus taxonomy relied on phenotypic properties; however, a sequence-based virus taxonomy has become essential since the recent requirement of a species to exhibit monophyly. The species Cowpox virus has failed to meet this requirement, necessitating a reexamination of this species. Here, we report the genomic sequences of nine Cowpox viruses and, by combining them with the available data of 37 additional genomes, confirm polyphyly of Cowpox viruses and find statistical support based on genetic data for more than a dozen species...
May 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406414/review-of-poxvirus-emergence-of-monkeypox
#2
A Morand, S Delaigue, J J Morand
This article reviews the different types of poxvirus infections. Smallpox, although eradicated, must continue to be monitored because of the potential risk of accidental or voluntary (by bioterrorism) reintroduction. Monkeypox and cowpox viruses are considered to be emergent today ; their high risk of dissemination is due to the increase in international transport as well as trends for new animals as pets and the loss of vaccinal protection against smallpox. Molluscum contagiosum (molluscipoxvirus) causes mild infections, is particularly frequent in children ; in adults it is a marker of the risk of sexually transmitted infections and can, in cases with profuse lesions, reveal AIDS...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403810/transient-dominant-host-range-selection-using-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells-to-generate-marker-free-recombinant-viral-vectors-from-vaccinia-virus
#3
Liang Liu, Tamara Cooper, Preethi Eldi, Pablo Garcia-Valtanen, Kerrilyn R Diener, Paul M Howley, John D Hayball
Recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) are promising antigen-delivery systems for vaccine development that are also useful as research tools. Two common methods for selection during construction of rVACV clones are (i) co-insertion of drug resistance or reporter protein genes, which requires the use of additional selection drugs or detection methods, and (ii) dominant host-range selection. The latter uses VACV variants rendered replication-incompetent in host cell lines by the deletion of host-range genes. Replicative ability is restored by co-insertion of the host-range genes, providing for dominant selection of the recombinant viruses...
April 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368077/cowpox-virus-infection-in-a-child-after-contact-with-a-domestic-cat-a-case-report
#4
Ryszard Żaba, Magdalena Jałowska, Michał J Kowalczyk, Monika Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Zygmunt Adamski, Andrzej Szkaradkiewicz
Human cowpox represents a seldom diagnosed zoonosis but this diagnosis should be considered more frequently as the number of cases has increased in recent years. We describe a case of cowpox in an 11-year-old boy following regular direct daily contact with a domestic cat. The 11-year-old patient, an otherwise healthy boy, demonstrated skin ulceration located at his chin, with enlargement of regional lymph nodes and fever reaching 39°C. The diagnosis of cowpox was made on the basis of PCR involving DNA isolated from a scab covering the skin lesion...
April 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246125/zmpste24-defends-against-influenza-and-other-pathogenic-viruses
#5
Bishi Fu, Lingyan Wang, Shitao Li, Martin E Dorf
Zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (ZMPSTE24) is a transmembrane metalloprotease whose catalytic activity is critical for processing lamin A on the inner nuclear membrane and clearing clogged translocons on the endoplasmic reticulum. We now report ZMPSTE24 is a virus-specific effector that restricts enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including influenza A, Zika, Ebola, Sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, cowpox, and vaccinia, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. ZMPSTE24-mediated antiviral action is independent of protease activity...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216667/a-novel-hrm-assay-for-the-simultaneous-detection-and-differentiation-of-eight-poxviruses-of-medical-and-veterinary-importance
#6
Esayas Gelaye, Lukas Mach, Jolanta Kolodziejek, Reingard Grabherr, Angelika Loitsch, Jenna E Achenbach, Norbert Nowotny, Adama Diallo, Charles Euloge Lamien
Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938377/rapid-and-sensitive-point-of-care-detection-of-orthopoxviruses-by-abicap-immunofiltration
#7
Daniel Stern, Victoria A Olson, Scott K Smith, Marko Pietraszczyk, Lilija Miller, Peter Miethe, Brigitte G Dorner, Andreas Nitsche
BACKGROUND: The rapid and reliable detection of infectious agents is one of the most challenging tasks in scenarios lacking well-equipped laboratory infrastructure, like diagnostics in rural areas of developing countries. Commercially available point-of-care diagnostic tests for emerging and rare diseases are particularly scarce. RESULTS: In this work we present a point-of-care test for the detection of Orthopoxviruses (OPV). The OPV ABICAP assay detects down to 1 × 10(4) plaque forming units/mL of OPV particles within 45 min...
December 9, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917750/cowpox-in-a-human-russia-2015
#8
A Y Popova, R A Maksyutov, O S Taranov, T V Tregubchak, A V Zaikovskaya, A A Sergeev, I V Vlashchenko, S A Bodnev, V A Ternovoi, N S Alexandrova, A L Tarasov, N V Konovalova, A A Koroleva, L E Bulychev, O V Pyankov, Y V Demina, A P Agafonov, S N Shchelkunov, V N Miheev
We investigated the first laboratory-confirmed human case of cowpox virus infection in Russia since 1991. Phylogenetic studies of haemagglutinin, TNF-α receptor-like protein and thymidine kinase regions showed significant differences with known orthopoxviruses, including unique amino-acid substitutions and deletions. The described cowpox virus strain, taking into account differences, is genetically closely related to strains isolated years ago in the same geographical region (European part of Russia and Finland), which suggests circulation of viral strains with common origin in wild rodents without spread over long distances and appearance in other parts of the world...
December 5, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796621/fatal-disseminated-cowpox-virus-infection-in-an-adolescent-renal-transplant-recipient
#9
Paul Gazzani, Joanna E Gach, Isabel Colmenero, Jeff Martin, Hugh Morton, Kevin Brown, David V Milford
BACKGROUND: A 17-year-old boy on long-term immunosuppression following renal transplantation for chronic kidney disease (CKD), the result of dysplastic kidneys, initially presented with a swelling in his neck while attending hospital for an unrelated problem. A clinical diagnosis of tonsillitis was made, and he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Over a few days, his condition deteriorated, and he developed multiple vesicopustular skin lesions and required an emergency tonsillectomy due to respiratory distress...
October 28, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768891/cross-neutralizing-and-protective-human-antibody-specificities-to-poxvirus-infections
#10
Iuliia Gilchuk, Pavlo Gilchuk, Gopal Sapparapu, Rebecca Lampley, Vidisha Singh, Nurgun Kose, David L Blum, Laura J Hughes, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Michael B Townsend, Ashley V Kondas, Zachary Reed, Zachary Weiner, Victoria A Olson, Erika Hammarlund, Hans-Peter Raue, Mark K Slifka, James C Slaughter, Barney S Graham, Kathryn M Edwards, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Sebastian Joyce, James E Crowe
Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses...
October 20, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650575/selective-targeting-of-il-2-to-nkg2d-bearing-cells-for-improved-immunotherapy
#11
Reza Ghasemi, Eric Lazear, Xiaoli Wang, Saeed Arefanian, Alexander Zheleznyak, Beatriz M Carreno, Ryuji Higashikubo, Andrew E Gelman, Daniel Kreisel, Daved H Fremont, Alexander Sasha Krupnick
Despite over 20 years of clinical use, IL-2 has not fulfilled expectations as a safe and effective form of tumour immunotherapy. Expression of the high affinity IL-2Rα chain on regulatory T cells mitigates the anti-tumour immune response and its expression on vascular endothelium is responsible for life threatening complications such as diffuse capillary leak and pulmonary oedema. Here we describe the development of a recombinant fusion protein comprised of a cowpox virus encoded NKG2D binding protein (OMCP) and a mutated form of IL-2 with poor affinity for IL-2Rα...
September 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637905/protection-of-mice-against-the-highly-pathogenic-vvihd-j-by-dna-and-fowlpox-recombinant-vaccines-administered-by-electroporation-and-intranasal-routes-correlates-with-serum-neutralizing-activity
#12
Massimiliano Bissa, Elena Quaglino, Carlo Zanotto, Elena Illiano, Valeria Rolih, Sole Pacchioni, Federica Cavallo, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Antonia Radaelli
The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that also arise as zoonoses, and the increasing number of unvaccinated or immunocompromised people, a safer and more effective vaccine is still required...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522300/companion-animals-as-a-source-of-viruses-for-human-beings-and-food-production-animals
#13
REVIEW
L A Reperant, I H Brown, O L Haenen, M D de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, A Papa, E Rimstad, J-F Valarcher, T Kuiken
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300695/-cutaneous-infection-with-orthopoxvirus-bovis-in-a-german-spaniel
#14
Kathrin Jäger, Päivi Steinborn, Karola Weider, Peter Wohlsein
A 4-year-old female German Spaniel was presented with anorexia. Clinically, the dog showed papular to ulcerative lesions on the nasal planum and on the tongue. Hematological, bacteriological and mycological examinations did not contribute any evidence for the etiology of the lesions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a proliferative dermatitis and folliculitis with hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes and cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies. Cowpox virus antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy showed pox virus particles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells...
August 17, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299665/survey-for-zoonotic-pathogens-in-norway-rat-populations-from-europe
#15
Elisa Heuser, Stefan Fischer, René Ryll, Anne Mayer-Scholl, Donata Hoffmann, Carina Spahr, Christian Imholt, Dewi Murni Alfa, Andreas Fröhlich, Dörte Lüschow, Reimar Johne, Bernhard Ehlers, Sandra Essbauer, Karsten Nöckler, Rainer G Ulrich
BACKGROUND: The Norway rat Rattus norvegicus is an important reservoir of various zoonotic pathogens, such as cowpox virus and Leptospira, but also for agents of no or unknown zoonotic potential. We describe a survey of 426 Norway rats originating from five European countries and different habitats for Leptospira spp., rickettsiae, orthopoxvirus (OPV), avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B (aMPV) and rat polyomavirus (rat PyV). RESULTS: Leptospira DNA was detected in 60 out of 420 (14...
June 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291992/histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-studies-of-cowpox-virus-replication-in-a-three-dimensional-skin-model
#16
A Tamošiūnaitė, D Hoffmann, A Franke, J Schluckebier, K Tauscher, B K Tischer, M Beer, R Klopfleisch, N Osterrieder
Human cowpox virus (CPXV) infections are rare, but can result in severe and sometimes fatal outcomes. The majority of recent cases were traced back to contacts with infected domestic cats or pet rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a three-dimensional (3D) skin model as a possible replacement for animal experiments. We monitored CPXV lesion formation, viral gene expression and cell cycle patterns after infection of 3D skin cultures with two CPXV strains of different pathogenic potential: a recent pet rat isolate (RatPox09) and the reference Brighton red strain...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166137/exposure-of-rhesus-monkeys-to-cowpox-virus-brighton-red-by-large-particle-aerosol-droplets-results-in-an-upper-respiratory-tract-disease
#17
Reed F Johnson, Dima A Hammoud, Donna L Perry, Jeffrey Solomon, Ian N Moore, Matthew G Lackemeyer, Jordan K Bohannon, Philip J Sayre, Mahnaz Minai, Amy B Papaneri, Katie R Hagen, Krisztina B Janosko, Catherine Jett, Kurt Cooper, Joseph E Blaney, Peter B Jahrling
We previously demonstrated that small-particle (0.5-3.0 µm) aerosol infection of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with cowpox virus (CPXV)-Brighton Red (BR) results in fulminant respiratory tract disease characterized by severe lung parenchymal pathology but only limited systemic virus dissemination and limited classic epidermal pox-like lesion development (Johnson et al., 2015). Based on these results, and to further develop CPXV as an improved model of human smallpox, we evaluated a novel large-particle aerosol (7...
August 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159333/fatal-cowpox-virus-infection-in-an-aborted-foal
#18
Annika Franke, Olivia Kershaw, Maria Jenckel, Lydia König, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann, Donata Hoffmann
The article describes the isolation of a cowpox virus (CPXV) isolate originating from a horse. The skin of a foal, aborted in the third trimester, displayed numerous cutaneous papules. The histological examination showed A-type inclusion bodies within the lesion, typical for CPXV infections. This suspicion was confirmed by real-time PCR where various organs were analyzed. From skin samples, virus isolation was successfully performed. Afterwards, the whole genome of this new isolate "CPXV Amadeus" was sequenced by next-generation technology...
June 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003336/historical-context-and-the-roots-of-jenner-s-discovery
#19
Andrea A Rusnock
May 2016 marks the 220(th) anniversary of Edward Jenner's first experimental vaccination using cowpox to protect against smallpox. Jenner's discovery, and its rapid adoption around the world, launched a medical revolution that continues to shape how we approach disease prevention. The historical roots of vaccination are found in the popularization of smallpox inoculation during the 18(th) century, part of an Enlightenment culture that fostered scientific inquiry and the global circulation of knowledge. Jenner was part of that culture and his study of cowpox stemmed from his varied interests as a natural historian, his contacts with leading savants in London, and his medical practice in a flourishing dairy area of England...
August 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985679/use-of-vaccinia-virus-smallpox-vaccine-in-laboratory-and-health-care-personnel-at-risk-for-occupational-exposure-to-orthopoxviruses-recommendations-of-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices-acip-2015
#20
Brett W Petersen, Tiara J Harms, Mary G Reynolds, Lee H Harrison
On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e...
March 18, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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