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Bishi Fu, Lingyan Wang, Shitao Li, Martin E Dorf
Zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (ZMPSTE24) is a transmembrane metalloprotease whose catalytic activity is critical for processing lamin A on the inner nuclear membrane and clearing clogged translocons on the endoplasmic reticulum. We now report ZMPSTE24 is a virus-specific effector that restricts enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including influenza A, Zika, Ebola, Sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, cowpox, and vaccinia, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. ZMPSTE24-mediated antiviral action is independent of protease activity...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Esayas Gelaye, Lukas Mach, Jolanta Kolodziejek, Reingard Grabherr, Angelika Loitsch, Jenna E Achenbach, Norbert Nowotny, Adama Diallo, Charles Euloge Lamien
Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel Stern, Victoria A Olson, Scott K Smith, Marko Pietraszczyk, Lilija Miller, Peter Miethe, Brigitte G Dorner, Andreas Nitsche
BACKGROUND: The rapid and reliable detection of infectious agents is one of the most challenging tasks in scenarios lacking well-equipped laboratory infrastructure, like diagnostics in rural areas of developing countries. Commercially available point-of-care diagnostic tests for emerging and rare diseases are particularly scarce. RESULTS: In this work we present a point-of-care test for the detection of Orthopoxviruses (OPV). The OPV ABICAP assay detects down to 1 × 10(4) plaque forming units/mL of OPV particles within 45 min...
December 9, 2016: Virology Journal
A Y Popova, R A Maksyutov, O S Taranov, T V Tregubchak, A V Zaikovskaya, A A Sergeev, I V Vlashchenko, S A Bodnev, V A Ternovoi, N S Alexandrova, A L Tarasov, N V Konovalova, A A Koroleva, L E Bulychev, O V Pyankov, Y V Demina, A P Agafonov, S N Shchelkunov, V N Miheev
We investigated the first laboratory-confirmed human case of cowpox virus infection in Russia since 1991. Phylogenetic studies of haemagglutinin, TNF-α receptor-like protein and thymidine kinase regions showed significant differences with known orthopoxviruses, including unique amino-acid substitutions and deletions. The described cowpox virus strain, taking into account differences, is genetically closely related to strains isolated years ago in the same geographical region (European part of Russia and Finland), which suggests circulation of viral strains with common origin in wild rodents without spread over long distances and appearance in other parts of the world...
December 5, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Paul Gazzani, Joanna E Gach, Isabel Colmenero, Jeff Martin, Hugh Morton, Kevin Brown, David V Milford
BACKGROUND: A 17-year-old boy on long-term immunosuppression following renal transplantation for chronic kidney disease (CKD), the result of dysplastic kidneys, initially presented with a swelling in his neck while attending hospital for an unrelated problem. A clinical diagnosis of tonsillitis was made, and he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Over a few days, his condition deteriorated, and he developed multiple vesicopustular skin lesions and required an emergency tonsillectomy due to respiratory distress...
October 28, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Iuliia Gilchuk, Pavlo Gilchuk, Gopal Sapparapu, Rebecca Lampley, Vidisha Singh, Nurgun Kose, David L Blum, Laura J Hughes, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Michael B Townsend, Ashley V Kondas, Zachary Reed, Zachary Weiner, Victoria A Olson, Erika Hammarlund, Hans-Peter Raue, Mark K Slifka, James C Slaughter, Barney S Graham, Kathryn M Edwards, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Sebastian Joyce, James E Crowe
Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Reza Ghasemi, Eric Lazear, Xiaoli Wang, Saeed Arefanian, Alexander Zheleznyak, Beatriz M Carreno, Ryuji Higashikubo, Andrew E Gelman, Daniel Kreisel, Daved H Fremont, Alexander Sasha Krupnick
Despite over 20 years of clinical use, IL-2 has not fulfilled expectations as a safe and effective form of tumour immunotherapy. Expression of the high affinity IL-2Rα chain on regulatory T cells mitigates the anti-tumour immune response and its expression on vascular endothelium is responsible for life threatening complications such as diffuse capillary leak and pulmonary oedema. Here we describe the development of a recombinant fusion protein comprised of a cowpox virus encoded NKG2D binding protein (OMCP) and a mutated form of IL-2 with poor affinity for IL-2Rα...
September 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Massimiliano Bissa, Elena Quaglino, Carlo Zanotto, Elena Illiano, Valeria Rolih, Sole Pacchioni, Federica Cavallo, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Antonia Radaelli
The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that also arise as zoonoses, and the increasing number of unvaccinated or immunocompromised people, a safer and more effective vaccine is still required...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
L A Reperant, I H Brown, O L Haenen, M D de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, A Papa, E Rimstad, J-F Valarcher, T Kuiken
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Kathrin Jäger, Päivi Steinborn, Karola Weider, Peter Wohlsein
A 4-year-old female German Spaniel was presented with anorexia. Clinically, the dog showed papular to ulcerative lesions on the nasal planum and on the tongue. Hematological, bacteriological and mycological examinations did not contribute any evidence for the etiology of the lesions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a proliferative dermatitis and folliculitis with hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes and cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies. Cowpox virus antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy showed pox virus particles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells...
August 17, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Elisa Heuser, Stefan Fischer, René Ryll, Anne Mayer-Scholl, Donata Hoffmann, Carina Spahr, Christian Imholt, Dewi Murni Alfa, Andreas Fröhlich, Dörte Lüschow, Reimar Johne, Bernhard Ehlers, Sandra Essbauer, Karsten Nöckler, Rainer G Ulrich
BACKGROUND: The Norway rat Rattus norvegicus is an important reservoir of various zoonotic pathogens, such as cowpox virus and Leptospira, but also for agents of no or unknown zoonotic potential. We describe a survey of 426 Norway rats originating from five European countries and different habitats for Leptospira spp., rickettsiae, orthopoxvirus (OPV), avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B (aMPV) and rat polyomavirus (rat PyV). RESULTS: Leptospira DNA was detected in 60 out of 420 (14...
June 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
A Tamošiūnaitė, D Hoffmann, A Franke, J Schluckebier, K Tauscher, B K Tischer, M Beer, R Klopfleisch, N Osterrieder
Human cowpox virus (CPXV) infections are rare, but can result in severe and sometimes fatal outcomes. The majority of recent cases were traced back to contacts with infected domestic cats or pet rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a three-dimensional (3D) skin model as a possible replacement for animal experiments. We monitored CPXV lesion formation, viral gene expression and cell cycle patterns after infection of 3D skin cultures with two CPXV strains of different pathogenic potential: a recent pet rat isolate (RatPox09) and the reference Brighton red strain...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Reed F Johnson, Dima A Hammoud, Donna L Perry, Jeffrey Solomon, Ian N Moore, Matthew G Lackemeyer, Jordan K Bohannon, Philip J Sayre, Mahnaz Minai, Amy B Papaneri, Katie R Hagen, Krisztina B Janosko, Catherine Jett, Kurt Cooper, Joseph E Blaney, Peter B Jahrling
We previously demonstrated that small-particle (0.5-3.0 µm) aerosol infection of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with cowpox virus (CPXV)-Brighton Red (BR) results in fulminant respiratory tract disease characterized by severe lung parenchymal pathology but only limited systemic virus dissemination and limited classic epidermal pox-like lesion development (Johnson et al., 2015). Based on these results, and to further develop CPXV as an improved model of human smallpox, we evaluated a novel large-particle aerosol (7...
August 2016: Journal of General Virology
Annika Franke, Olivia Kershaw, Maria Jenckel, Lydia König, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann, Donata Hoffmann
The article describes the isolation of a cowpox virus (CPXV) isolate originating from a horse. The skin of a foal, aborted in the third trimester, displayed numerous cutaneous papules. The histological examination showed A-type inclusion bodies within the lesion, typical for CPXV infections. This suspicion was confirmed by real-time PCR where various organs were analyzed. From skin samples, virus isolation was successfully performed. Afterwards, the whole genome of this new isolate "CPXV Amadeus" was sequenced by next-generation technology...
June 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Andrea A Rusnock
May 2016 marks the 220(th) anniversary of Edward Jenner's first experimental vaccination using cowpox to protect against smallpox. Jenner's discovery, and its rapid adoption around the world, launched a medical revolution that continues to shape how we approach disease prevention. The historical roots of vaccination are found in the popularization of smallpox inoculation during the 18(th) century, part of an Enlightenment culture that fostered scientific inquiry and the global circulation of knowledge. Jenner was part of that culture and his study of cowpox stemmed from his varied interests as a natural historian, his contacts with leading savants in London, and his medical practice in a flourishing dairy area of England...
August 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Brett W Petersen, Tiara J Harms, Mary G Reynolds, Lee H Harrison
On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e...
March 18, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Daniel Stern, Diana Pauly, Martin Zydek, Lilija Miller, Janett Piesker, Michael Laue, Fred Lisdat, Martin B Dorner, Brigitte G Dorner, Andreas Nitsche
Orthopoxvirus species like cowpox, vaccinia and monkeypox virus cause zoonotic infections in humans worldwide. Infections often occur in rural areas lacking proper diagnostic infrastructure as exemplified by monkeypox, which is endemic in Western and Central Africa. While PCR detection requires demanding equipment and is restricted to genome detection, the evidence of virus particles can complement or replace PCR. Therefore, an easily distributable and manageable antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of orthopoxviruses was developed to facilitate particle detection...
2016: PloS One
Christopher J Nirschl, Niroshana Anandasabapathy
Since Edward Jenner's discovery that intentional exposure to cowpox could provide lifelong protection from smallpox, vaccinations have been a major focus of medical research. However, while the protective benefits of many vaccines have been successfully translated into the clinic, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that differentiate effective vaccines from sub-optimal ones are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the gatekeepers of the immune system, and are ultimately responsible for the generation of adaptive immunity and lifelong protective memory through interactions with T cells...
2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
L Valeyrie-Allanore
Significant advances have been performed in cutaneous adverse reactions leading to primary prevention strategy and implication of new signaling pathways. Histological features of DRESS and methotrexate toxicity are detailed. New emerging infectious agents are reported including Zika Virus, an arbovirus which can be confused with dengue or chikungunya, a new cowpox virus transmitted by domestic cat leading to lymphadenitis, Spirurina type X larva transmitted in Japan by eating raw squid or fish. Malignancies in pemphigus and pemphigoid are emphasized...
December 2015: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Isaac G Sakala, Geeta Chaudhri, Anthony A Scalzo, Preethi Eldi, Timothy P Newsome, Robert M Buller, Gunasegaran Karupiah
Orthopoxviruses (OPV), including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV), the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice...
December 2015: PLoS Pathogens
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