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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747505/insufficient-innate-immunity-contributes-to-the-susceptibility-of-the-castaneous-mouse-to-orthopoxvirus-infection
#1
Patricia L Earl, Jeffrey L Americo, Bernard Moss
The castaneous (CAST) mouse, a wild-derived inbred strain, is highly susceptible to orthopoxvirus infection by intranasal and systemic routes. The 50% lethal intraperitoneal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) was 3 PFU for CAST mice, whereas BALB/c mice survived 10(6) PFU. At all times and in all organs analyzed, virus titers were higher in CAST than in BALB/c mice. In individual CAST mice, luciferase-expressing VACV was seen to replicate rapidly leading to death, whereas virus levels increased for a few days and then declined in BALB/c mice...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727764/vaccinia-virus-and-cowpox-virus-are-not-susceptible-to-the-interferon-induced-antiviral-protein-mxa
#2
María M Lorenzo, Juana M Sanchez-Puig, Rafael Blasco
MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Here, we investigated if some well characterized DNA viruses belonging to the Poxviridae family are sensitive to human MxA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669644/generalised-cowpox-virus-infection
#3
Lisa-Lena Grönemeyer, Anne Baltzer, Sigrid Broekaert, Livia Schrick, Lars Möller, Andreas Nitsche, Rotraut Mössner, Michael P Schön, Timo Buhl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615415/cutting-edge-the-aging-immune-system-reveals-the-biological-impact-of-direct-antigen-presentation-on-cd8-t-cell-responses
#4
Jennifer L Uhrlaub, Megan J Smithey, Janko Nikolich-Žugich
The vertebrate immune system uses multiple, sometimes redundant, mechanisms to contain pathogenic microorganisms that are always evolving to evade host defenses. Thus, the cowpox virus (CPXV) uses genes encoding CPXV12 and CPXV203 to prevent direct MHC class I presentation of viral peptides by infected cells. However, CD8 T cells are effectively primed against CPXV by cross-presentation of viral Ags in young mice. Old mice accumulate defects in both CD8 T cell activation and cross-presentation. Using a double-deletion mutant (∆12∆203) of CPXV, we show that direct priming of CD8 T cells in old mice yields superior recall responses, establishing a key contribution of this mechanism to host antipoxvirus responses and enhancing our fundamental understanding of how viral manipulation of direct presentation impacts pathogenesis...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604604/classification-of-cowpox-viruses-into-several-distinct-clades-and-identification-of-a-novel-lineage
#5
Annika Franke, Florian Pfaff, Maria Jenckel, Bernd Hoffmann, Dirk Höper, Markus Antwerpen, Hermann Meyer, Martin Beer, Donata Hoffmann
Cowpox virus (CPXV) was considered as uniform species within the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV). Previous phylogenetic analysis indicated that CPXV is polyphyletic and isolates may cluster into different clades with two of these clades showing genetic similarities to either variola (VARV) or vaccinia viruses (VACV). Further analyses were initiated to assess both the genetic diversity and the evolutionary background of circulating CPXVs. Here we report the full-length sequences of 20 CPXV strains isolated from different animal species and humans in Germany...
June 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594571/zmpste24-is-downstream-effector-of-interferon-induced-transmembrane-antiviral-activity
#6
Shitao Li, Bishi Fu, Lingyan Wang, Martin E Dorf
The zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is a constitutively and ubiquitously expressed host restriction factor that is responsible for limiting infection by a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses, including influenza A, vesicular stomatitis, zika, ebola, Sindbis, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. Antiviral function is independent of ZMPSTE24 enzymatic activity. Protein interaction and genetic complementation studies indicate that ZMPSTE24 is a component of a common antiviral pathway that is associated with interferon-induced transmembrane proteins...
July 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486428/cowpox-virus-what-s-in-a-name
#7
Matthew R Mauldin, Markus Antwerpen, Ginny L Emerson, Yu Li, Gudrun Zoeller, Darin S Carroll, Hermann Meyer
Traditionally, virus taxonomy relied on phenotypic properties; however, a sequence-based virus taxonomy has become essential since the recent requirement of a species to exhibit monophyly. The species Cowpox virus has failed to meet this requirement, necessitating a reexamination of this species. Here, we report the genomic sequences of nine Cowpox viruses and, by combining them with the available data of 37 additional genomes, confirm polyphyly of Cowpox viruses and find statistical support based on genetic data for more than a dozen species...
May 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406414/review-of-poxvirus-emergence-of-monkeypox
#8
A Morand, S Delaigue, J J Morand
This article reviews the different types of poxvirus infections. Smallpox, although eradicated, must continue to be monitored because of the potential risk of accidental or voluntary (by bioterrorism) reintroduction. Monkeypox and cowpox viruses are considered to be emergent today ; their high risk of dissemination is due to the increase in international transport as well as trends for new animals as pets and the loss of vaccinal protection against smallpox. Molluscum contagiosum (molluscipoxvirus) causes mild infections, is particularly frequent in children ; in adults it is a marker of the risk of sexually transmitted infections and can, in cases with profuse lesions, reveal AIDS...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403810/transient-dominant-host-range-selection-using-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells-to-generate-marker-free-recombinant-viral-vectors-from-vaccinia-virus
#9
Liang Liu, Tamara Cooper, Preethi Eldi, Pablo Garcia-Valtanen, Kerrilyn R Diener, Paul M Howley, John D Hayball
Recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) are promising antigen-delivery systems for vaccine development that are also useful as research tools. Two common methods for selection during construction of rVACV clones are (i) co-insertion of drug resistance or reporter protein genes, which requires the use of additional selection drugs or detection methods, and (ii) dominant host-range selection. The latter uses VACV variants rendered replication-incompetent in host cell lines by the deletion of host-range genes. Replicative ability is restored by co-insertion of the host-range genes, providing for dominant selection of the recombinant viruses...
April 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368077/cowpox-virus-infection-in-a-child-after-contact-with-a-domestic-cat-a-case-report
#10
Ryszard Żaba, Magdalena Jałowska, Michał J Kowalczyk, Monika Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Zygmunt Adamski, Andrzej Szkaradkiewicz
Human cowpox represents a seldom diagnosed zoonosis but this diagnosis should be considered more frequently as the number of cases has increased in recent years. We describe a case of cowpox in an 11-yearold boy following regular direct daily contact with a domestic cat. The 11-year-old patient, an otherwise healthy boy, demonstrated skin ulceration located at his chin, with enlargement of regional lymph nodes and fever reaching 39°C. The diagnosis of cowpox was made on the basis of PCR involving DNA isolated from a scab covering the skin lesion...
April 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246125/zmpste24-defends-against-influenza-and-other-pathogenic-viruses
#11
Bishi Fu, Lingyan Wang, Shitao Li, Martin E Dorf
Zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (ZMPSTE24) is a transmembrane metalloprotease whose catalytic activity is critical for processing lamin A on the inner nuclear membrane and clearing clogged translocons on the endoplasmic reticulum. We now report ZMPSTE24 is a virus-specific effector that restricts enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including influenza A, Zika, Ebola, Sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, cowpox, and vaccinia, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. ZMPSTE24-mediated antiviral action is independent of protease activity...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216667/a-novel-hrm-assay-for-the-simultaneous-detection-and-differentiation-of-eight-poxviruses-of-medical-and-veterinary-importance
#12
Esayas Gelaye, Lukas Mach, Jolanta Kolodziejek, Reingard Grabherr, Angelika Loitsch, Jenna E Achenbach, Norbert Nowotny, Adama Diallo, Charles Euloge Lamien
Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938377/rapid-and-sensitive-point-of-care-detection-of-orthopoxviruses-by-abicap-immunofiltration
#13
Daniel Stern, Victoria A Olson, Scott K Smith, Marko Pietraszczyk, Lilija Miller, Peter Miethe, Brigitte G Dorner, Andreas Nitsche
BACKGROUND: The rapid and reliable detection of infectious agents is one of the most challenging tasks in scenarios lacking well-equipped laboratory infrastructure, like diagnostics in rural areas of developing countries. Commercially available point-of-care diagnostic tests for emerging and rare diseases are particularly scarce. RESULTS: In this work we present a point-of-care test for the detection of Orthopoxviruses (OPV). The OPV ABICAP assay detects down to 1 × 10(4) plaque forming units/mL of OPV particles within 45 min...
December 9, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917750/cowpox-in-a-human-russia-2015
#14
A Y Popova, R A Maksyutov, O S Taranov, T V Tregubchak, A V Zaikovskaya, A A Sergeev, I V Vlashchenko, S A Bodnev, V A Ternovoi, N S Alexandrova, A L Tarasov, N V Konovalova, A A Koroleva, L E Bulychev, O V Pyankov, Y V Demina, A P Agafonov, S N Shchelkunov, V N Miheev
We investigated the first laboratory-confirmed human case of cowpox virus infection in Russia since 1991. Phylogenetic studies of haemagglutinin, TNF-α receptor-like protein and thymidine kinase regions showed significant differences with known orthopoxviruses, including unique amino-acid substitutions and deletions. The described cowpox virus strain, taking into account differences, is genetically closely related to strains isolated years ago in the same geographical region (European part of Russia and Finland), which suggests circulation of viral strains with common origin in wild rodents without spread over long distances and appearance in other parts of the world...
March 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796621/fatal-disseminated-cowpox-virus-infection-in-an-adolescent-renal-transplant-recipient
#15
Paul Gazzani, Joanna E Gach, Isabel Colmenero, Jeff Martin, Hugh Morton, Kevin Brown, David V Milford
BACKGROUND: A 17-year-old boy on long-term immunosuppression following renal transplantation for chronic kidney disease (CKD), the result of dysplastic kidneys, initially presented with a swelling in his neck while attending hospital for an unrelated problem. A clinical diagnosis of tonsillitis was made, and he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Over a few days, his condition deteriorated, and he developed multiple vesicopustular skin lesions and required an emergency tonsillectomy due to respiratory distress...
October 28, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768891/cross-neutralizing-and-protective-human-antibody-specificities-to-poxvirus-infections
#16
Iuliia Gilchuk, Pavlo Gilchuk, Gopal Sapparapu, Rebecca Lampley, Vidisha Singh, Nurgun Kose, David L Blum, Laura J Hughes, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Michael B Townsend, Ashley V Kondas, Zachary Reed, Zachary Weiner, Victoria A Olson, Erika Hammarlund, Hans-Peter Raue, Mark K Slifka, James C Slaughter, Barney S Graham, Kathryn M Edwards, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Sebastian Joyce, James E Crowe
Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses...
October 20, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650575/selective-targeting-of-il-2-to-nkg2d-bearing-cells-for-improved-immunotherapy
#17
Reza Ghasemi, Eric Lazear, Xiaoli Wang, Saeed Arefanian, Alexander Zheleznyak, Beatriz M Carreno, Ryuji Higashikubo, Andrew E Gelman, Daniel Kreisel, Daved H Fremont, Alexander Sasha Krupnick
Despite over 20 years of clinical use, IL-2 has not fulfilled expectations as a safe and effective form of tumour immunotherapy. Expression of the high affinity IL-2Rα chain on regulatory T cells mitigates the anti-tumour immune response and its expression on vascular endothelium is responsible for life threatening complications such as diffuse capillary leak and pulmonary oedema. Here we describe the development of a recombinant fusion protein comprised of a cowpox virus encoded NKG2D binding protein (OMCP) and a mutated form of IL-2 with poor affinity for IL-2Rα...
September 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637905/protection-of-mice-against-the-highly-pathogenic-vvihd-j-by-dna-and-fowlpox-recombinant-vaccines-administered-by-electroporation-and-intranasal-routes-correlates-with-serum-neutralizing-activity
#18
Massimiliano Bissa, Elena Quaglino, Carlo Zanotto, Elena Illiano, Valeria Rolih, Sole Pacchioni, Federica Cavallo, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Antonia Radaelli
The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that also arise as zoonoses, and the increasing number of unvaccinated or immunocompromised people, a safer and more effective vaccine is still required...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522300/companion-animals-as-a-source-of-viruses-for-human-beings-and-food-production-animals
#19
REVIEW
L A Reperant, I H Brown, O L Haenen, M D de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, A Papa, E Rimstad, J-F Valarcher, T Kuiken
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300695/-cutaneous-infection-with-orthopoxvirus-bovis-in-a-german-spaniel
#20
Kathrin Jäger, Päivi Steinborn, Karola Weider, Peter Wohlsein
A 4-year-old female German Spaniel was presented with anorexia. Clinically, the dog showed papular to ulcerative lesions on the nasal planum and on the tongue. Hematological, bacteriological and mycological examinations did not contribute any evidence for the etiology of the lesions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a proliferative dermatitis and folliculitis with hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes and cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies. Cowpox virus antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy showed pox virus particles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells...
August 17, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
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