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Kristoffer L Egerod, Natalia Petersen, Pascal N Timshel, Jens C Rekling, Yibing Wang, Qinghua Liu, Thue W Schwartz, Laurent Gautron
OBJECTIVES: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) act as transmembrane molecular sensors of neurotransmitters, hormones, nutrients, and metabolites. Because unmyelinated vagal afferents richly innervate the gastrointestinal mucosa, gut-derived molecules may directly modulate the activity of vagal afferents through GPCRs. However, the types of GPCRs expressed in vagal afferents are largely unknown. Here, we determined the expression profile of all GPCRs expressed in vagal afferents of the mouse, with a special emphasis on those innervating the gastrointestinal tract...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Mari L Lund, Kristoffer L Egerod, Maja S Engelstoft, Oksana Dmytriyeva, Elvar Theodorsson, Bhavik A Patel, Thue W Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: 5-HT storing enterochromaffin (EC) cells are believed to respond to nutrient and gut microbial components, and 5-HT receptor-expressing afferent vagal neurons have been described to be the major sensors of nutrients in the GI-tract. However, the molecular mechanism through which EC cells sense nutrients and gut microbiota is still unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: TPH1, the 5-HT generating enzyme, and chromogranin A, an acidic protein responsible for secretory granule storage of 5-HT, were highly enriched in FACS-purified EC cells from both small intestine and colon using a 5-HT antibody-based method...
March 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Jinlin Peng, Yaopeng Zhao, Yulong Hong, Robert S Burkhalter, Carrie L Hogue, Elizabeth Tran, Lai Wei, Lori Romeo, Paula Dolley-Sonneville, Zara Melkoumian, Xinmiao Liang, Ye Fang
This paper reports the chemical identity and mechanism of action and formation of a cell growth inhibitory compound leached from some single-use Erlenmeyer polycarbonate shaker flasks under routine cell culture conditions. Single-use cell culture vessels have been increasingly used for the production of biopharmaceuticals; however, they often suffer from issues associated with leachables that may interfere with cell growth and protein stability. Here, high-performance liquid-chromatography preparations and cell proliferation assays led to identification of a compound from the water extracts of some polycarbonate flasks, which exhibited subline- and seeding density-dependent growth inhibition of CHO cells in suspension culture...
April 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Leandro Z Agudelo, Duarte M S Ferreira, Igor Cervenka, Galyna Bryzgalova, Shamim Dadvar, Paulo R Jannig, Amanda T Pettersson-Klein, Tadepally Lakshmikanth, Elahu G Sustarsic, Margareta Porsmyr-Palmertz, Jorge C Correia, Manizheh Izadi, Vicente Martínez-Redondo, Per M Ueland, Øivind Midttun, Zachary Gerhart-Hines, Petter Brodin, Teresa Pereira, Per-Olof Berggren, Jorge L Ruas
The role of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism in psychiatric disease is well established, but remains less explored in peripheral tissues. Exercise training activates kynurenine biotransformation in skeletal muscle, which protects from neuroinflammation and leads to peripheral kynurenic acid accumulation. Here we show that kynurenic acid increases energy utilization by activating G protein-coupled receptor Gpr35, which stimulates lipid metabolism, thermogenic, and anti-inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue...
February 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Soo-Jin Park, Seung-Jin Lee, So-Yeon Nam, Dong-Soon Im
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: GPR35 has long been considered an orphan GPCR, because no endogenous ligand of GPR35 has been discovered. CXCL17 (a chemokine) has been reported to be an endogenous ligand of GPR35, and it has even been suggested that it be called CXCR8. However, at present there is no supporting evidence that CXCL17 does interact with GPR35. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We applied two assay systems to explore the relationship between CXCL17 and GPR35. An AP-TGF-α shedding assay in GPR35 over-expressing HEK293 cells was used as a gain-of-function assay...
January 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sara Ruiz-Pinto, Guillermo Pita, Ana Patiño-García, Javier Alonso, Antonio Pérez-Martínez, Antonio J Cartón, Federico Gutiérrez-Larraya, María R Alonso, Daniel R Barnes, Joe Dennis, Kyriaki Michailidou, Carmen Gómez-Santos, Deborah J Thompson, Douglas F Easton, Javier Benítez, Anna González-Neira
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric cancer survivors are a steadily growing population; however, chronic anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) is a serious long-term complication leading to considerable morbidity. We aimed to identify new genes and low-frequency variants influencing the susceptibility to AIC for pediatric cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied the association of variants on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip array in 83 anthracycline-treated pediatric cancer patients...
December 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Ya Jie Guo, Yu Jie Zhou, Xiao Li Yang, Zhi Min Shao, Zhou Luo Ou
BACKGROUND: Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 17 (CXCL17) is the latest member of the chemokine family. However, its function in various cancer types is unknown. The G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) was identified as the receptor of CXCL17 and named recently as CXCR8. The function of the CXCL17-CXCR8 (GPR35) biological axis in cancer has not been reported. METHODS: The expression of CXCL17 and CXCR8 (GPR35) in breast cancer cell lines and a tissue microarray (TMA) was detected through western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Graeme Milligan
It is widely appreciated that G protein-coupled receptors have been the most successfully exploited class of targets for the development of small molecule medicines. Despite this, to date, less than 15% of the non-olfactory G protein-coupled receptors in the human genome are the targets of a clinically used medicine. In many cases this is likely to reflect a lack of understanding of the basic underpinning biology of many G protein-coupled receptors that are not currently in the spotlight, as well as a paucity of pharmacological tool compounds and appropriate animal models to test in vivo function of such G protein-coupled receptors in both normal physiology and in the context of disease...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Xiaolong Xu, Yuhong Guo, Jingxia Zhao, Shasha He, Yan Wang, Yan Lin, Ning Wang, Qingquan Liu
Current data have shown that punicalagin (PUN), an ellagitannin isolated from pomegranate, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties; however, its direct targets have not yet been reported. This is the first report that PTP1B serves as a direct target of PUN, with IC50 value of 1.04μM. Results from NPOI further showed that the Kon and Koff of PUN-PTP1B complex were 3.38e2M(-1)s(-1) and 4.13e-3s(-1), respectively. The active site Arg24 of PTP1B was identified as a key binding site of PUN by computation simulation and point mutation...
July 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Takuya Tsukahara, Nahla Hamouda, Daichi Utsumi, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Kikuko Amagase, Shinichi Kato
G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35), a receptor for lysophosphatidic acid, is highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, GPR35 has been implicated in the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but its role in physiological and pathological processes in the colon remains undefined. In this study, we investigated the contribution of GPR35-mediated signalling to mucosal repair of colonic epithelium in IBD. GPR35 function was examined in a wound healing model, using young adult mouse colon epithelium (YAMC) cells, and in a dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Jian K Tan, Craig McKenzie, Eliana Mariño, Laurence Macia, Charles R Mackay
Nutrition and the gut microbiome regulate many systems, including the immune, metabolic, and nervous systems. We propose that the host responds to deficiency (or sufficiency) of dietary and bacterial metabolites in a dynamic way, to optimize responses and survival. A family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) termed the metabolite-sensing GPCRs bind to various metabolites and transmit signals that are important for proper immune and metabolic functions. Members of this family include GPR43, GPR41, GPR109A, GPR120, GPR40, GPR84, GPR35, and GPR91...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
Heidi Haibei Hu, Huayun Deng, Shizhang Ling, Haiyan Sun, Terry Kenakin, Xinmiao Liang, Ye Fang
GPR35, a family A orphan G protein-coupled receptor, has been implicated in inflammatory, neurological, and cardiovascular diseases. However, not much is known about the signaling and functions of GPR35. We performed a label-free kinome short hairpin RNA screen and identified a putative signaling network of GPR35 in HT-29 cells, some of which was validated using gene expression, biochemical and cellular assays. The results showed that GPR35 induced hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, and was involved in synaptic transmission, sensory perception, the immune system, and morphogenetic processes...
May 22, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Muhammad Zahid Khan, Ling He
BACKGROUND: In the central nervous system (CNS), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most fruitful targets for neuropsychopharmacological drug development. Rhodopsin (class A) is the most studied class of GPCR and includes orphan receptors for which the endogenous ligand is not known or is unclear. Characterization of orphan GPCRs has proven to be challenging, and the production pace of GPCR-based drugs has been incredibly slow. OBJECTIVE: Determination of the functions of these receptors may provide unexpected insight into physiological and neuropathological processes...
April 2017: Psychopharmacology
Marcela Hernández-Ruiz, Albert Zlotnik
Several chemokines have important functions in mucosal immunity. While there are many chemokines, 4 of them (CCL25, CCL28, CXCL14, and CXCL17) are especially important in mucosal immunity because they are homeostatically expressed in mucosal tissues. Of these, only CCL25 and CCL28 have been widely recognized as mucosal chemokines. In this study, we review the physiology of these chemokines with specific emphasis on their function in mucosal immunity. CCL25 recruits certain important subsets of T cells that express CCR9 to the small intestine...
February 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Manahil M Abdalhameed, Pingwei Zhao, Dow P Hurst, Patricia H Reggio, Mary E Abood, Mitchell P Croatt
The first structure-activity relationships for a benzothiazole scaffold acting as an antagonist at GPR35 is presented. Analogues were designed based on a lead compound that was previously determined to have selective activity as a GPR35 antagonist. The synthetic route was modular in nature to independently explore the role of the middle and both ends of the scaffold. The activities of the analogues illustrate the importance of all three segments of the compound.
February 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Lai Wei, Jixia Wang, Xiuli Zhang, Ping Wang, Yaopeng Zhao, Jiaqi Li, Tao Hou, Lala Qu, Liying Shi, Xinmiao Liang, Ye Fang
A family of 2H-chromen-2-one derivatives were identified as G protein-coupled receptor-35 (GPR35) agonists using dynamic mass redistribution assays in HT-29 cells. The compounds with 1H-tetrazol-5-yl in 3-substituted position displayed higher potency than the corresponding carboxyl analogs, and the hydroxyl group in the 7-position also played an important role in GPR35 agonistic activity. 6-Bromo-7-hydroxy-8-nitro-3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one (50) was found to be the most potent GPR35 agonist with an EC50 of 5...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xinyang Li, Jun Shen, Zhihua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic, relapsing intestinal inflammation. Autoimmune liver disease (AILD) may be involved in IBD as an extra-intestinal manifestation (EIM). Epidemiologic and anatomic evidence have demonstrated an intimate crosstalk between the gut and the liver. In this review, we briefly introduced nine groups of susceptibility loci shared by inflammatory bowel and autoimmune liver disease for the first time. The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) evidence of pathways involving crosstalk between the gut and the liver is clarified and explained...
February 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Marta Flis, Kinga Szymona, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Anna Urbańska, Paweł Krukow, Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń, Barbara Zdzisińska, Ewa M Urbańska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan formed in the brain and in the periphery, known to block ionotropic glutamate receptors and α7 nicotinic receptors, and to act as a ligand of G protein-coupled GPR35 receptors and human aryl hydrocarbon (AHR) receptors. KYNA seems to modulate a number of mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia including dopaminergic transmission in mesolimbic and mesocortical areas or glutamatemediated neurotransmission. The kynurenine hypothesis of schizophrenia links the occurrence of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and cognitive impairments characteristic for the disease with the disturbances of kynurenine pathway function...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Heidi Hu, Huayun Deng, Ye Fang
D-Luciferin (also known as beetle or firefly luciferin) is one of the most widely used bioluminescent reporters for monitoring in vitro or in vivo luciferase activity. The identification of several natural phenols and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid derivatives as agonists for GPR35, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, had motivated us to examine the pharmacological activity of D-Luciferin, given that it also contains phenol and carboxylic acid moieties. Here, we describe label-free cell phenotypic assays that ascertain D-Luciferin as a partial agonist for GPR35...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yuan Xiao, Xin-Qiong Wang, Yi Yu, Yan Guo, Xu Xu, Ling Gong, Tong Zhou, Xiao-Qin Li, Chun-Di Xu
AIM: To perform sequencing analysis in patients with very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) to determine the genetic basis for VEO-IBD in Chinese pediatric patients. METHODS: A total of 13 Chinese pediatric patients with VEO-IBD were diagnosed from May 2012 and August 2014. The relevant clinical characteristics of these patients were analyzed. Then DNA in the peripheral blood from patients was extracted. Next generation sequencing (NGS) based on an Illumina-Miseq platform was used to analyze the exons in the coding regions of 10 candidate genes: IL-10, IL-10RA, IL-10RB, NOD2, FUT2, IL23R, GPR35, GPR65, TNFSF15, and ADAM30...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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