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Lars Bossen, Alessio Gerussi, Vasiliki Lygoura, George F Mells, Marco Carbone, Pietro Invernizzi
Autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) are complex conditions, which arise from the interaction between a genetic susceptibility and unknown environmental triggers. They represent a relevant cause of liver failure and liver transplantation worldwide. As a testimony of our progress in understanding the biology of AILDs and the disease progression is the overall median survival which has increased over the last decade. However, there are still major challenges such as the lack of therapies and surveillance strategies in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), the management and treatment of non-responders to first-line therapies in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and the need for tailoring immunosuppressive drugs in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)...
July 10, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Andrea E Spencer, Natalie Plasencia, Ying Sun, Cara Lucke, Haregnesh Haile, Rebecca Cronin, Stephen V Faraone, Michael Jellinek, J Michael Murphy, Joseph Biederman
We tested the accuracy of 2 parent-report tools, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-35) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), to identify attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and distinguish complex (highly comorbid) cases in an urban, largely Latino pediatric practice. Spanish- and English-speaking parents of children aged 6 to 10 years completed a PSC-35 and CBCL at well visits. Those with CBCL Attention Problems Subscale (CBCL-APS) T scores ≥60 plus controls completed the diagnostic MINI-KID (Miniature International Neuropsychiatric Interview) for Children...
July 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
Emma Jones, Anna Kawalek
Although therapeutic jurisprudence ("TJ") is increasingly well-established internationally, particularly within the United States of America ("US"), to date it remains relatively unacknowledged within the United Kingdom ("UK"). This article will explore the opportunities presented within contemporary UK society for the greater promotion, and eventual mainstreaming, of TJ. It will also consider the challenges faced during this process and how best to overcome these. Its first key area of focus will be upon the potential role of legal education in the UK in educating law students (and academics) about TJ, considering which approaches are likely to be most effective in incorporating TJ perspectives, at what stage this should occur and to what extent TJ is likely to impact on the existing curricula at a time when proposed changes relating to entry into the legal profession are heavily influencing the work of Law Schools...
July 8, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Seul-Gi Kim, Jiangzhao Chen, Ja-Young Seo, Dong-Ho Kang, Nam-Gyu Park
Surface passivation of perovskite grains is one of promising methods to reduce recombination and improve stability of perovskite solar cell (PSC). We report here effect of melaminium iodide additive on photovoltaic performance of PSC based on (FAPbI3)0.875(CsPbBr3)0.125 perovskite. Cyclic -C=N- and primary amine in melamine are good hydrogen bond acceptor and Lewis base, which can interact with both organic cation and Lewis acidic lead iodide in perovskite film. Melaminium iodide is synthesized and added in the precursor solution, which is directly spin-coated to form the perovskite film...
July 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
James H Tabibian, Ahmad H Ali, Keith D Lindor
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, idiopathic cholangiopathy that can progress to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, hepatobiliary cancer, and/or colorectal cancer. The course of PSC is often complicated by portal hypertension, symptoms of cholestasis, and recurrent bacterial cholangitis, among other conditions, with a consequent decrease in survival (median, approximately 20 years) and quality of life. The etiopathogenesis of PSC remains poorly understood, and, as such, pharmacotherapy has yet to be definitively established...
May 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yong Eun Park, Jae Hee Cheon, Jae Jun Park, Yoon Jae Kim, Chang Hwan Choi, Yehyun Park, Soo Jung Park, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare progressive cholestatic liver disease of unknown causes, but is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), particularly ulcerative colitis (UC). However, studies comparing risk factors and clinical courses of patients with concomitant UC and PSC with those of patients with PSC alone are lacking. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with PSC diagnosed between 2005 and 2017 in four tertiary hospitals in Korea...
July 9, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
M E Joosse, M A Aardoom, P Kemos, D Turner, D C Wilson, S Koletzko, J Martin-de-Carpi, U L Fagerberg, C Spray, C Tzivinikos, M Sladek, R Shaoul, E Roma-Giannikou, J Bronsky, D E Serban, F M Ruemmele, H Garnier-Lengline, G Veres, I Hojsak, K L Kolho, I H Davies, M Aloi, P Lionetti, S Hussey, G Veereman, C P Braegger, E Trindade, A V Wewer, A C Hauer, A C H de Vries, R Sigall Boneh, C Sarbagili Shabat, A Levine, L de Ridder
BACKGROUND: Risk benefit strategies in managing inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are dependent upon understanding the risks of uncontrolled inflammation vs those of treatments. Malignancy and mortality in IBD have been associated with disease-related inflammation and immune suppression, but data are limited due to their rare occurrence. AIM: To identify and describe the most common causes of mortality, types of cancer and previous or current therapy among children and young adults with paediatric-onset IBD...
July 8, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sunny Sun-Kin Chan, Robert W Arpke, Antonio Filareto, Ning Xie, Matthew P Pappas, Jacqueline S Penaloza, Rita C R Perlingeiro, Michael Kyba
Derivation of functional skeletal muscle stem cells from pluripotent cells without genetic modification has proven elusive. Here we show that teratomas formed in adult skeletal muscle differentiate in vivo to produce large numbers of α7-Integrin+ VCAM-1+ myogenic progenitors. When FACS-purified and transplanted into diseased muscles, mouse teratoma-derived myogenic progenitors demonstrate very high engraftment potential. As few as 40,000 cells can reconstitute ∼80% of the tibialis anterior muscle volume...
July 5, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Suvarna Patil, Charudatta Joglekar, Maruti Desai, Arvind Yadav, Swati Sonawane, Rupali Chavan, Rachana Mohite
Background: Adolescence is a period during which psychological foundations are laid down as well as consolidated. Not much information is available on rural Indian adolescent girls and their psychological health. Methods: We did a pilot survey of psychological health of 80 adolescent girls residing at KOKAN region of western India. Psychological health was evaluated using Youth Paediatric Symptom Checklist (Y-PSC) consisting of 35 items with maximum score of 70. Girls with a score >30 were classified as psychologically impaired...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
James H Tabibian, Christopher L Bowlus
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare, chronic, cholestatic liver disease of uncertain etiology characterized biochemically by cholestasis and histologically and cholangiographically by fibro-obliterative inflammation of the bile ducts. In a clinically significant proportion of patients, PSC progresses to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and/or hepatobiliary cancer, though the disease course can be highly variable. Despite clinical trials of numerous pharmacotherapies over several decades, safe and effective medical therapy remains to be established...
December 2017: Liver Research
Binrui Xu, Gopalan Sai-Anand, Hyun-Min Jeong, Sae-Wan Kim, Ju-Seong Kim, Jin-Beom Kwon, Shin-Won Kang
In bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ-PSCs), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is the most commonly used hole selective interlayer (HSIL). However, its acidity, hygroscopic nature, and the use of indium tin oxide (ITO) etching can degrade the overall photovoltaic performance and the air-stability of BHJ-PSCs. Solvent engineering is considered as a facile approach to overcome these issues. In this work, we engineered the HSIL using ethanol (ET) treated PEDOT:PSS to simultaneously enhance the photovoltaic performance properties and air-stability of the fabricated devices...
July 5, 2018: Materials
Fatima Isa, Grace M Turner, Geetinder Kaur, Derek Kyte, Anita Slade, Tanya Pankhurst, Larissa Kerecuk, Thomas Keeley, James Ferguson, Melanie Calvert
BACKGROUND: Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a rare chronic, cholestatic liver condition in which patients can experience a range of debilitating symptoms. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) could provide a valuable insight into the impact of PSC on patient quality of life and symptoms. A previous review has been conducted on the quality of life instruments used in liver transplant recipients. However, there has been no comprehensive review evaluating PROM use or measurement properties in PSC patients' to-date...
July 5, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Marinos Pericleous, Claire Kelly, Aftab Ala, Simon De Lusignan
INTRODUCTION: The chronic care model (CCM) provides a holistic approach for managing chronic illnesses. Patients with rare liver diseases (RLD) have complex needs, impaired quality of life and often life-threatening complications. Most RLD meet the criteria for a long-term chronic condition and should be viewed through the prism of CCM. We aimed to ascertain whether the CCM has been considered for the frequently-encountered RLD. METHODS: MEDLINE®/PubMed®/Cochrane/EMBASE were searched to identify publications relating to the use of the CCM for the management of six RLD...
July 13, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jianhua Han, Songping Luo, Xuewen Yin, Yu Zhou, Hui Nan, Jianbao Li, Xin Li, Dan Oron, Heping Shen, Hong Lin
In this study, a facile and effective approach to synthesize high-quality perovskite-quantum dots (QDs) hybrid film is demonstrated, which dramatically improves the photovoltaic performance of a perovskite solar cell (PSC). Adding PbS QDs into CH3 NH3 PbI3 (MAPbI3 ) precursor to form a QD-in-perovskite structure is found to be beneficial for the crystallization of perovskite, revealed by enlarged grain size, reduced fragmentized grains, enhanced characteristic peak intensity, and large percentage of (220) plane in X-ray diffraction patterns...
July 4, 2018: Small
Minerva H Zhou, Akash P Kansagra
OBJECTIVE: To compare performance of routing paradigms for patients with acute ischemic stroke using clinical outcomes. METHODS: We simulated different routing paradigms in a system comprising one primary stroke center (PSC) and onecomprehensive stroke center (CSC), separated by distances representative of urban, suburban, and rural environments. In the Nearest Center paradigm, patients are initially sent to the nearest center, while in CSC First, patients are sent to the CSC...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Fu-Gang Zhao, Cheng-Min Hu, Yu-Ting Kong, Bingyige Pan, Xiang Yao, Jian Chu, Zi-Wen Xu, Biao Zuo, Wei-Shi Li
In this contribution, we describe a novel, facile and scalable methodology for high-degree functionalization towards graphene by the reaction between bulk graphite fluoride and in-situ generated amine anion. Using this, the rationally-designed sulfanilic acid pending on graphene scaffold (G-SO3H), a 2D pi-conjugated counterpart of poly(styrenesulfonate), is available. Combined reliable characterizations demonstrate that a very large quantity of sulfanilic blocks are linked to graphene through the foreseen substitution of carbon-fluorine units and an unexpected reductive defluorination simultaneously proceeds during the one-step reaction, endowing the resultant G-SO3H with splendid dispersity in various solvents and film-forming property via the former, and with recovered 2D pi-conjugation via the latter...
July 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ran Xue, Kai Jia, Jianxin Wang, Lixin Yang, Yanbin Wang, Lingyun Gao, Jianyu Hao
Pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) is a type of pluripotent cell located between pancreatic lobules and the surrounding area of acinars. When activated, PSC can be transformed into myofibroblast-like cell. A number of evidences suggest that activated PSC is the main source of the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein under the pathological conditions, which lead to pancreatic fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Recent studies have found that PSC also plays an important role in the endocrine cell function, islet fibrosis and diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lucas Rischka, Gregor Gryglewski, Sarah Pfaff, Thomas Vanicek, Marius Hienert, Manfred Klöbl, Markus Hartenbach, Alexander Haug, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger, Andreas Hahn
INTRODUCTION: The brain's energy budget can be non-invasively assessed with different imaging modalities such as functional MRI (fMRI) and PET (fPET), which are sensitive to oxygen and glucose demands, respectively. The introduction of hybrid PET/MR systems further enables the simultaneous acquisition of these parameters. Although a recently developed method offers the quantification of task-specific changes in glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in a single measurement, direct comparison of the two imaging modalities is still difficult because of the different temporal resolutions...
June 29, 2018: NeuroImage
Rajkumar Baldeosingh, Hongjuan Gao, Xiaorong Wu, Nancy Fossett
Hematopoietic progenitor choice between multipotency and differentiation is tightly regulated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic signals from the surrounding microenvironment. The Drosophila melanogaster hematopoietic lymph gland has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate mechanisms that regulate hematopoietic progenitor choice in vivo. The lymph gland contains progenitor cells, which share key characteristics with mammalian hematopoietic progenitors such as quiescence, multipotency and niche-dependence...
June 29, 2018: Developmental Biology
Yunping Tang, Shujie Jin, Xiaoyan Li, Xiaojuan Li, Xuyang Hu, Yan Chen, Fangfang Huang, Zuisu Yang, Fangmiao Yu, Guofang Ding
Collagen and collagen peptides are widely used as cosmetic ingredients. In the present study, acid-solubilized collagen (ASC) and pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) were extracted from giant croaker ( Nibea japonica ) skin. The proline hydroxylation rates of ASC and PSC were 38.1% and 39.3%. The denaturation temperatures (Td ) were approximately 34.5 °C for both ASC and PSC. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fourier transform infrared spetroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated that ASC and PSC were mainly type I collagen...
June 29, 2018: Marine Drugs
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