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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859780/decision-making-in-chronic-ecstasy-users-a-systematic-review
#1
Felix Betzler, Leonard Viohl, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
Different cognitive impairments have been reported as a result of long-term MDMA/ecstasy use. Increased impulsivity and altered decision-making have been shown to be associated with the development and maintenance of addictive disorders pointing towards the necessity to understand a potential impairment of decision-making due to MDMA use. Thus, assessing the long-term effects of MDMA is crucial in order to evaluate its controversially discussed therapeutic use. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the scientific literature on potential effects of chronic MDMA use on higher order decision-making processes in humans...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849416/implications-of-eligibility-criteria-on-the-generalizability-of-alcohol-and-drug-treatment-outcome-research-a-study-of-real-world-treatment-seekers-in-sweden-and-in-australia
#2
Jessica Storbjörk, Joshua B B Garfield, Andrew Larner
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies of alcohol and drug treatment outcomes frequently apply participant eligibility criteria (EC), which may exclude real-world treatment seekers, impairing the representativeness of studied samples. Some research exists on the impact of EC on alcohol treatment seekers. Little is known about drug treatment and country differences. OBJECTIVES: We tested and compared the degree to which commonly used EC exclude real-world treatment seekers with problem alcohol and drug use in Sweden and Australia, and compared the impact of EC on outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768057/light-mediated-formation-and-patterning-of-hydrogels-for-cell-culture-applications
#3
Lisa A Sawicki, April M Kloxin
Click chemistries have been investigated for use in numerous biomaterials applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cell culture. In particular, light-mediated click reactions, such as photoinitiated thiol-ene and thiol-yne reactions, afford spatiotemporal control over material properties and allow the design of systems with a high degree of user-directed property control. Fabrication and modification of hydrogel-based biomaterials using the precision afforded by light and the versatility offered by these thiol-X photoclick chemistries are of growing interest, particularly for the culture of cells within well-defined, biomimetic microenvironments...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736679/prevalence-of-driving-under-the-influence-of-psychoactive-substances-and-road-traffic-crashes-among-brazilian-crack-using-drivers
#4
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Roberta Silvestrin, Felipe Ornell, Vinícius Roglio, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are associated with the increased risk of driving under the influence (DUI), but little is known about crack-cocaine and its relationship with road traffic crashes (RTC). METHOD: A multicenter sample of 765 crack-cocaine users was recruited in six Brazilian capitals in order to estimate the prevalence of DUI and RTC involvement. Legal, psychiatric, and drug-use aspects related with traffic safety were evaluated using the Addiction Severity Index - 6th version (ASI-6) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730759/bongs-and-baby-boomers-trends-in-cannabis-use-among-older-australians
#5
Victoria Kostadinov, Ann Roche
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and predictors of cannabis use among older Australians and discuss implications for service provision. METHOD: Secondary analyses were conducted on the 2004 and 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a large and nationally representative data set. Frequency analyses explored the distribution of demographic characteristics and cannabis use. Logistic regression explored the predictors of cannabis use. RESULTS: Cannabis use among Australians aged 50 years and over increased significantly (P < 0...
October 12, 2016: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613889/little-cigars-and-cigarillos-use-among-young-adult-cigarette-smokers-in-the-united-states-understanding-risk-of-concomitant-use-subtypes
#6
Kymberle Landrum Sterling, Craig S Fryer, Ian Pagano, Pebbles Fagan
INTRODUCTION: In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration announced that it would regulate little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs) and expressed concern about the concomitant use of combustible tobacco products. To understand LCC use among socially-disadvantaged cigarette smokers, we assessed (1) the prevalence of concomitant use of subtypes of LCCs: LCC-tobacco, LCC-blunt, and LCC- poly use, which includes use of both LCC-tobacco and LCC-blunt and (2) and its association with sociodemographic factors and substance use behaviors using race/ethnicity and gender stratified models...
December 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602185/pattern-of-substance-use-study-in-a-de-addiction-clinic
#7
Mohammad Muntasir Maruf, Muhammad Zillur Rahman Khan, Nasim Jahan
OBJECTIVES: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. We sought to assess the pattern of substance use and related factors among hospitalized patients. METHODS: This was a descriptive study that included 105 patients. All patients who were admitted to a private drug de-addiction clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, between 1 July and 31 December 2013 and diagnosed with substance use disorder were enrolled in the study. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes...
September 2016: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599522/serotonergic-neurotransmission-in-emotional-processing-new-evidence-from-long-term-recreational-poly-drug-ecstasy-use
#8
Helle Ruff Laursen, Susanne Henningsson, Julian Macoveanu, Terry L Jernigan, Hartwig R Siebner, Klaus K Holst, Arnold Skimminge, Gitte M Knudsen, Thomas Z Ramsoy, David Erritzoe
The brain's serotonergic system plays a crucial role in the processing of emotional stimuli, and several studies have shown that a reduced serotonergic neurotransmission is associated with an increase in amygdala activity during emotional face processing. Prolonged recreational use of ecstasy (3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) induces alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission that are comparable to those observed in a depleted state. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the responsiveness of the amygdala to emotional face stimuli in recreational ecstasy users as a model of long-term serotonin depletion...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586507/using-respondent-driven-sampling-rds-to-recruit-illegal-poly-substance-users-in-cape-town-south-africa-implications-and-future-directions
#9
Nadine Harker Burnhams, Ria Laubscher, Simon Howell, Mark Shaw, Jodilee Erasmus, Loraine Townsend
BACKGROUND: South Africa continues to witness an increase in illicit poly-substance use, although a precise measurement continues to be compounded by difficulties in accessing users. In a pilot attempt to use respondent-driven sampling (RDS)-a chain referral sampling method used to access populations of individuals who are 'hard-to-reach'-this article documents the feasibility of the method as recorded in a simultaneously run, multisite, poly-substance study in Cape Town. Here we aim to a) document the piloting of RDS among poly-substance users in the three socio-economic disparate communities targeted; b) briefly document the results; and c) review the utility of RDS as a research tool...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544812/development-and-in-vivo-safety-assessment-of-tenofovir-loaded-nanoparticles-in-film-as-a-novel-vaginal-microbicide-delivery-system
#10
Alexandra Machado, Cassilda Cunha-Reis, Francisca Araújo, Rute Nunes, Vítor Seabra, Domingos Ferreira, José das Neves, Bruno Sarmento
UNLABELLED: Topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs holds promise in preventing vaginal transmission of HIV. However, significant biomedical and social issues found in multiple past clinical trials still need to be addressed in order to optimize protection and users' adherence. One approach may be the development of improved microbicide products. A novel delivery platform comprising drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into a thin polymeric film base (NPs-in-film) was developed in order to allow the vaginal administration of the microbicide drug candidate tenofovir...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494436/the-co-occurrence-of-nicotine-and-other-substance-use-and-addiction-among-youth-and-adults-in-the-united-states-implications-for-research-practice-and-policy
#11
Linda Richter, Brandie S Pugh, Philip H Smith, Samuel A Ball
BACKGROUND: The increasing popularity of non-cigarette nicotine products, especially among youth, highlights the need for greater attention to their potential risks, including nicotine addiction and other substance use and addiction. OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which nicotine product use co-occurs with other substance use and addiction among youth and adults, describe the demographic groups and types of nicotine products associated with an increased risk of such co-occurrence, and discuss implications for research, prevention, clinical practice, and policy...
August 5, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348169/dynamics-of-opioid-substitution-treatmentin-different-initial-substance-user-opioid-dependent-patients
#12
Kh Todadze, S Mosia
Injecting drug user size estimation studies carried out in 2009, 2012 and 2015 revealed growing trends of drug abuse in Georgia:estimated number of people who inject drugs (PWID) have been increased from 40000 and 45000 to 50000. Since Soviet period the most popular injective narcotics have been opioids: home-made opium, heroine, buprenorphine and home-made desomorphine ("Krokodile") replacing each other on the black market. Self-made desomorphine typically contains big amounts of different toxic substances and causes significant somatic disorders, especially skin, bone, blood infections, liver and kidney failure; is highly addictive, associates with frequent injections that enhance injecting-related harm, including the risk of HIV transmission, in comparison with typical opioids...
May 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247604/factors-that-affect-adolescent-drug-users-suicide-attempts
#13
Subin Park, Hokwang Song
Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3...
May 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127630/enhanced-user-control-of-small-molecule-drug-release-from-a-poly-ethylene-glycol-hydrogel-via-azobenzene-cyclodextrin-complex-tethers
#14
E M Nehls, A M Rosales, K S Anseth
We present a versatile and facile method to enhance user-control of small molecule drug release from a poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel using the host/guest complex formed between an azobenzene derivative guest and a β-cyclodextrin host. A model drug is formed from a short peptide containing a fluorophore and an azobenzene functional group on one terminus. Upon irradiation with UV light, azobenzene isomerization leads to decreased complex formation and an on-demand acceleratation of the release rate of an entrapped model drug...
2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049581/non-cigarette-tobacco-and-poly-tobacco-use-among-persons-living-with-hiv-drawn-from-a-nationally-representative-sample
#15
Lauren R Pacek, Maggie M Sweitzer, F Joseph McClernon
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is more prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLWH) than the general population. Little is known about the prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco and poly-tobacco use (PTU; using multiple tobacco products) among this population, which, in the general population is associated with poor health and cessation outcomes. We aimed to characterize the prevalence of cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco use, PTU, and correlates of tobacco use status among a nationally-representative sample of PLWH...
May 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017376/improvements-in-health-related-quality-of-life-among-methadone-maintenance-clients-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#16
Omary Ubuguyu, Olivia C Tran, Robert Douglas Bruce, Frank Masao, Cassian Nyandindi, Norman Sabuni, Sheryl McCurdy, Jessie Mbwambo, Barrot H Lambdin
BACKGROUND: Injection of heroin has become widespread in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and is spreading throughout the country. To prevent potential bridging of HIV epidemics, the Tanzanian government established a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic in February 2011. We assess the effect of MMT on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and examine factors, particularly HIV infection and methadone dose, associated with changes in HRQOL. METHODS: This study utilized routine data on clients enrolling in methadone from February 2011 to April 2012 at Muhimbili National Hospital...
April 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014841/erectile-dysfunction-among-people-who-use-ketamine-and-poly-drugs
#17
Batumalai Suppiah, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan
Despite the rise in recreational use of ketamine in Malaysia, there have been no studies of users or of the health-related consequences they face. This study was initiated to examine ketamine use and its health consequences. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information. A final sample of 127 males was divided into persons who used only ketamine and those who were poly-drug users. Each group was further divided into long-period and short-period users. Urine toxicology screening for ketamine and other illicit drugs commonly used in Malaysia was also done...
April 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880592/new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-regular-psychostimulant-users-in-australia-2010-2015
#18
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Elizabeth Whittaker, Amanda Roxburgh, Simon Lenton, Allison Matthews, Kerryn Butler, Marina Nelson, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
OBJECTIVE: To examine the rates and patterns of new psychoactive substance (NPS) use amongst regular psychostimulant users (RPU) in Australia. METHOD: Data were obtained from the 2010-2015 Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS), which comprised a total cross-sectional sample of 4122RPU. RESULTS: Recent use of 'any' NPS increased from 33% in 2010 to 40% in 2015, although trends of use differed significantly across NPS classes. The correlates associated with NPS use also varied across NPS classes: frequent (i...
April 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876401/dual-diagnosis-and-suicide-probability-in-poly-drug-users
#19
Ismail M Youssef, Magda T Fahmy, Wafaa L Haggag, Khalid A Mohamed, Amany A Baalash
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of suicidal thoughts and suicidal probability among poly-substance abusers in Saudi population, and to examine the relation between dual diagnosis and suicidal thoughts. STUDY DESIGN: Case control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Al-Baha Psychiatric Hospital, Saudi Arabia, from May 2011 to June 2012. METHODOLOGY: Participants were 239 subjects, aged 18 - 45 years. We reviewed 122 individuals who fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria of substance abuse for two or more substances, and their data were compared with that collected from 117 control persons...
February 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26837635/patterns-of-drug-use-and-drug-related-hospital-admissions-in-hiv-positive-and-negative-gay-and-bisexual-men
#20
Cecilia L Moore, Heather F Gidding, Fengyi Jin, Limin Mao, Kathy Petoumenos, Iryna B Zablotska, I Mary Poynten, Garrett Prestage, Matthew G Law, Andrew E Grulich, Janaki Amin
We aimed to compare rates of illicit drug-related hospitalisations in HIV-negative (HIV-ve) (n = 1325) and HIV-positive (HIV+ve) (n = 557) gay and bisexual men (GBM) with rates seen in the general male population and to examine the association between self-reported illicit drug use and drug-related hospitalisation. Participants were asked how often they used a range of illicit drugs in the previous 6 months at annual interviews. Drug-related hospital admissions were defined as hospital admissions for mental or behavioural disorders due to illicit drug use (ICD 10: F11-16, F18, F19), drug poisoning (T40-T45, T50) or toxic effect of gases (T53, T59, T65)...
October 2016: AIDS and Behavior
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