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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846942/co-occurrence-of-tobacco-product-use-substance-use-and-mental-health-problems-among-youth-findings-from-wave-1-2013-2014-of-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-path-study
#1
Kevin P Conway, Victoria R Green, Karin A Kasza, Marushka L Silveira, Nicolette Borek, Heather L Kimmel, James D Sargent, Cassandra A Stanton, Elizabeth Lambert, Nahla Hilmi, Chad J Reissig, Kia J Jackson, Susanne E Tanski, David Maklan, Andrew J Hyland, Wilson M Compton
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette use is associated with substance use and mental health problems among youth, but associations are unknown for non-cigarette tobacco product use, as well as the increasingly common poly-tobacco use. METHODS: The current study examined co-occurrence of substance use and mental health problems across tobacco products among 13,617 youth aged 12-17years from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study...
August 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797967/multipurpose-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-electrospun-fibers-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-1-and-hsv-2-infections-in-vitro
#2
Kevin M Tyo, Hung R Vuong, Danial A Malik, Lee B Sims, Houda Alatassi, Jinghua Duan, Walter H Watson, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Sexually transmitted infections affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and -2) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) remain incurable, urging the development of new prevention strategies. While current prophylactic technologies are dependent on strict user adherence to achieve efficacy, there is a dearth of delivery vehicles that provide discreet and convenient administration, combined with prolonged-delivery of active agents. To address these needs, we created electrospun fibers (EFs) comprised of FDA-approved polymers, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL), to provide sustained-release and in vitro protection against HIV-1 and HSV-2...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754611/transdermal-delivery-of-gentamicin-using-dissolving-microneedle-arrays-for-potential-treatment-of-neonatal-sepsis
#3
Patricia González-Vázquez, Eneko Larrañeta, Maelíosa T C McCrudden, Courtney Jarrahian, Annie Rein-Weston, Manjari Quintanar-Solares, Darin Zehrung, Helen McCarthy, Aaron J Courtenay, Ryan F Donnelly
Neonatal infections are a leading cause of childhood mortality in low-resource settings. World Health Organization guidelines for outpatient treatment of possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) in neonates and young infants when referral for hospital treatment is not feasible include intramuscular gentamicin (GEN) and oral amoxicillin. GEN is supplied as an aqueous solution of gentamicin sulphate in vials or ampoules and requires health care workers to be trained in dose calculation or selection of an appropriate dose based on the patient's weight band and to have access to safe injection supplies and appropriate sharps disposal...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724038/sexual-addiction-in-drug-addicts-the-impact-of-drug-of-choice-and-poly-addiction
#4
Nelson Antonio, Alessandra Diehl, Marcelo Niel, Sandra Pillon, Lilian Ratto, Maria Carolina Pinheiro, Dartiu Silveira, Thais Zelia Otani, Victor Otani, Quirino Cordeiro, Ricardo Ushida
Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699018/polydrug-use-and-heterogeneity-in-hiv-risk-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-estonia-and-russia-a-latent-class-analysis
#5
Isabel Tavitian-Exley, Marie-Claude Boily, Robert Heimer, Anneli Uusküla, Olga Levina, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux
Non-medical drug injection is a major risk factor for HIV infection in Russia and Estonia. Multiple drug use (polydrug) has further been associated with increased harms. We compared HIV, injecting and sexual risk associated with polydrug use among people who injected drugs (PWID) in 2012-2013 in Kohtla-Järve (Estonia, n = 591) and St Petersburg (Russia, n = 811). Using latent class analysis, we identified five (poly)drug classes, the largest consisting of single-drug injectors among whom an opioid was the sole drug injected (56% of PWID)...
July 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695160/recent-advances-in-nonbiofouling-pdms-surface-modification-strategies-applicable-to-microfluidic-technology
#6
Aslihan Gokaltun, Martin L Yarmush, Ayse Asatekin, O Berk Usta
In the last decade microfabrication processes including rapid prototyping techniques have advanced rapidly and achieved a fairly mature stage. These advances have encouraged and enabled the use of microfluidic devices by a wider range of users with applications in biological separations and cell and organoid cultures. Accordingly, a significant current challenge in the field is controlling biomolecular interactions at interfaces and the development of novel biomaterials to satisfy the unique needs of the biomedical applications...
March 2017: Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666636/high-hepatitis-c-incidence-in-relation-to-prescription-opioid-injection-and-poly-drug-use-assessing-barriers-to-hepatitis-c-prevention
#7
Svetlana Puzhko, Élise Roy, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Andreea Adelina Artenie, Emmanuel Fortier, Geng Zang, Julie Bruneau
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid (PO) injection and poly-drug use have been associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). Poly-drug use is often a barrier to key HCV preventive programmes including opioid agonist treatment. The contribution of specific drug combinations to high HCV incidence in poly-drug users has not been assessed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap could enhance HCV treatment and prevention efforts. We examined the association between specific drugs and number of drugs used in addition to injected POs, and HCV seroconversion...
September 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493329/risk-to-heroin-users-of-polydrug-use-of-pregabalin-or-gabapentin
#8
Abigail Lyndon, Suzanne Audrey, Claudia Wells, Erica S Burnell, Suzanne Ingle, Rob Hill, Matthew Hickman, Graeme Henderson
AIM: To examine the risk to heroin users of also using gabapentin or pregabalin (gabapentoids). DESIGN: Multi-disciplinary study: we (a) examined trends in drug-related deaths and gabapentoid prescription data in England and Wales to test for evidence that any increase in deaths mentioning gabapentin or pregabalin is associated with trends in gabapentoid prescribing and is concomitant with opioid use; (b) interviewed people with a history of heroin use about their polydrug use involving gabapentin and pregabalin; and (c) studied the respiratory depressant effects of pregabalin in the absence and presence of morphine in mice to determine whether concomitant exposure increased the degree of respiratory depression observed...
September 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444484/effectiveness-of-drug-camps-in-treatment-of-substance-abuse-in-thailand
#9
Manop Kanato, Poonrut Leyatikul
Various drug camps have been introduced in Thailand since the 2000s. This study explored the effects of drug camps in Thailand. Four provinces were selected to represent different region throughout Thailand. Assessments of 2679 drug users were carried out longitudinally, age ranging from 11 to 67 years old; assessments occurred before camp, after camps, and after a 1 year follow-up. Two hundred twenty-six camps organizers, community leaders, and lay people were selected as key informants. Twenty communities were observed prospectively and 400 lay people were studied...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324815/gender-and-race-ethnic-differences-in-the-persistence-of-alcohol-drug-and-poly-substance-use-disorders
#10
Elizabeth A Evans, Christine E Grella, Donna L Washington, Dawn M Upchurch
AIMS: To examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) type on SUD persistence. METHODS: Data were provided by 1025 women and 1835 men from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender and race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic) moderate the effects of DSM-IV defined past-12 month SUD type (alcohol, drug, poly-substance) on SUD persistence at 3-year follow-up, controlling for covariates...
March 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027812/new-psychoactive-substances-nps-on-cryptomarket-fora-an-exploratory-study-of-characteristics-of-forum-activity-between-nps-buyers-and-vendors
#11
Marie Claire Van Hout, Evelyn Hearne
BACKGROUND: The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. METHODS: This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS...
December 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859780/decision-making-in-chronic-ecstasy-users-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Felix Betzler, Leonard Viohl, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
Different cognitive impairments have been reported as a result of long-term MDMA/ecstasy use. Increased impulsivity and altered decision-making have been shown to be associated with the development and maintenance of addictive disorders pointing toward the necessity to understand a potential impairment of decision-making due to MDMA use. Thus, assessing the long-term effects of MDMA is crucial in order to evaluate its controversially discussed therapeutic use. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the scientific literature on potential effects of chronic MDMA use on higher order decision-making processes in humans...
January 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849416/implications-of-eligibility-criteria-on-the-generalizability-of-alcohol-and-drug-treatment-outcome-research-a-study-of-real-world-treatment-seekers-in-sweden-and-in-australia
#13
Jessica Storbjörk, Joshua B B Garfield, Andrew Larner
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies of alcohol and drug treatment outcomes frequently apply participant eligibility criteria (EC), which may exclude real-world treatment seekers, impairing the representativeness of studied samples. Some research exists on the impact of EC on alcohol treatment seekers. Little is known about drug treatment and country differences. OBJECTIVES: We tested and compared the degree to which commonly used EC exclude real-world treatment seekers with problem alcohol and drug use in Sweden and Australia, and compared the impact of EC on outcomes...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768057/light-mediated-formation-and-patterning-of-hydrogels-for-cell-culture-applications
#14
Lisa A Sawicki, April M Kloxin
Click chemistries have been investigated for use in numerous biomaterials applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cell culture. In particular, light-mediated click reactions, such as photoinitiated thiol-ene and thiol-yne reactions, afford spatiotemporal control over material properties and allow the design of systems with a high degree of user-directed property control. Fabrication and modification of hydrogel-based biomaterials using the precision afforded by light and the versatility offered by these thiol-X photoclick chemistries are of growing interest, particularly for the culture of cells within well-defined, biomimetic microenvironments...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736679/prevalence-of-driving-under-the-influence-of-psychoactive-substances-and-road-traffic-crashes-among-brazilian-crack-using-drivers
#15
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Roberta Silvestrin, Felipe Ornell, Vinícius Roglio, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa, Lisia Von Diemen, Felix Henrique Paim Kessler, Flavio Pechansky
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are associated with the increased risk of driving under the influence (DUI), but little is known about crack-cocaine and its relationship with road traffic crashes (RTC). METHOD: A multicenter sample of 765 crack-cocaine users was recruited in six Brazilian capitals in order to estimate the prevalence of DUI and RTC involvement. Legal, psychiatric, and drug-use aspects related with traffic safety were evaluated using the Addiction Severity Index - 6th version (ASI-6) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
November 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730759/bongs-and-baby-boomers-trends-in-cannabis-use-among-older-australians
#16
Victoria Kostadinov, Ann Roche
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and predictors of cannabis use among older Australians and discuss implications for service provision. METHODS: Secondary analyses were conducted on the 2004 and 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a large and nationally representative data set. Frequency analyses explored the distribution of demographic characteristics and cannabis use. Logistic regression explored the predictors of cannabis use. RESULTS: Cannabis use among Australians aged 50 years and over increased significantly (P < 0...
March 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613889/little-cigars-and-cigarillos-use-among-young-adult-cigarette-smokers-in-the-united-states-understanding-risk-of-concomitant-use-subtypes
#17
Kymberle Landrum Sterling, Craig S Fryer, Ian Pagano, Pebbles Fagan
INTRODUCTION: In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration announced that it would regulate little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs) and expressed concern about the concomitant use of combustible tobacco products. To understand LCC use among socially-disadvantaged cigarette smokers, we assessed (1) the prevalence of concomitant use of subtypes of LCCs: LCC-tobacco, LCC-blunt, and LCC- poly use, which includes use of both LCC-tobacco and LCC-blunt and (2) and its association with sociodemographic factors and substance use behaviors using race/ethnicity and gender stratified models...
December 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602185/pattern-of-substance-use-study-in-a-de-addiction-clinic
#18
Mohammad Muntasir Maruf, Muhammad Zillur Rahman Khan, Nasim Jahan
OBJECTIVES: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. We sought to assess the pattern of substance use and related factors among hospitalized patients. METHODS: This was a descriptive study that included 105 patients. All patients who were admitted to a private drug de-addiction clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, between 1 July and 31 December 2013 and diagnosed with substance use disorder were enrolled in the study. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes...
September 2016: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599522/serotonergic-neurotransmission-in-emotional-processing-new-evidence-from-long-term-recreational-poly-drug-ecstasy-use
#19
Helle Ruff Laursen, Susanne Henningsson, Julian Macoveanu, Terry L Jernigan, Hartwig R Siebner, Klaus K Holst, Arnold Skimminge, Gitte M Knudsen, Thomas Z Ramsoy, David Erritzoe
The brain's serotonergic system plays a crucial role in the processing of emotional stimuli, and several studies have shown that a reduced serotonergic neurotransmission is associated with an increase in amygdala activity during emotional face processing. Prolonged recreational use of ecstasy (3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) induces alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission that are comparable to those observed in a depleted state. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the responsiveness of the amygdala to emotional face stimuli in recreational ecstasy users as a model of long-term serotonin depletion...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586507/using-respondent-driven-sampling-rds-to-recruit-illegal-poly-substance-users-in-cape-town-south-africa-implications-and-future-directions
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Nadine Harker Burnhams, Ria Laubscher, Simon Howell, Mark Shaw, Jodilee Erasmus, Loraine Townsend
BACKGROUND: South Africa continues to witness an increase in illicit poly-substance use, although a precise measurement continues to be compounded by difficulties in accessing users. In a pilot attempt to use respondent-driven sampling (RDS)-a chain referral sampling method used to access populations of individuals who are 'hard-to-reach'-this article documents the feasibility of the method as recorded in a simultaneously run, multisite, poly-substance study in Cape Town. Here we aim to a) document the piloting of RDS among poly-substance users in the three socio-economic disparate communities targeted; b) briefly document the results; and c) review the utility of RDS as a research tool...
September 1, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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