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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904327/pregabalin-misuse-and-abuse-in-jordan-a-qualitative-study-of-user-experiences
#1
Amneh Al-Husseini, Mayyada Wazaify, Marie Claire Van Hout
Pregabalin is currently approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. A qualitative study was undertaken in Jordan, where concerns have been raised about its unprescribed availability in community pharmacies and thereby its abuse. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all patients with a history of pregabalin use in two Jordanian addiction treatment centers. All were male patients aged 21-30 years ( n  = 11). The majority was poly-drug abusers and had a previous history of substance abuse (tramadol, Captagon, synthetic cannabinoids, and marijuana) ...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889648/exploration-of-associations-between-early-maladaptive-schemas-impaired-emotional-regulation-coping-strategies-and-resilience-in-opioid-dependent-poly-drug-users
#2
Emma Mc Donnell, David Hevey, Mathew McCauley, Kevin Noel Ducray
BACKGROUND: Early Maladaptive Schema (EMS) are self-beliefs regarding oneself, others and the world, developed in childhood as the result of cumulative negative experiences (Young, 1993). High levels of EMS are present in the opioid using population along with high levels of emotional dysregulation and maladaptive coping alongside traits of resilience. OBJECTIVES: The study explored the associations between EMS in relation to emotional dysregulation, maladaptive coping, adaptive coping and resilience between a clinical group composed of opioid dependent polydrug users attending a facility for opioid substitution treatment (n = 52) and a healthy comparison group (n = 70)...
June 11, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771680/factors-associated-with-time-between-using-a-drug-and-injection-initiation-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-kermanshah-iran
#3
Mehdi Noroozi, Mohammad Hassan Farhadi, Bahram Armoon, Ali Farhoudian, Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Asaad Sharhani, Salah Eddin Karimi, Mohammad Sayadnasiri, Omid Rezaei, Hesam Ghiasvand
Background The transition from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically increases the risk of transmitting HIV and other blood borne infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the transition from first illicit drug use to first injection among drug users. Methods Using snowball sampling and convenience sampling through needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), we recruited 500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kermanshah, between September and December 2014...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706469/what-drives-intentional-overdose-with-non-prescription-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
K A Al Kubaisi, M D SteCroix, D Vinson, M N Hassan, M R Baig, S L Sharif, A R Abduelkarem
BACKGROUND: Use of overdosage of Non-Prescription Drugs (NPD) among university students is a serious public health issue. However, there are no extensive studies that measured the prevalence of taking more than the recommended dose of NPD and/or identified the risk associated with this behavior among university students. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and associated risks of self-overdosage with NPDs in university students in United Arab Emirates (UAE)...
April 26, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700352/epidemics-of-hiv-hcv-and-syphilis-infection-among-synthetic-drugs-only-users-heroin-only-users-and-poly-drug-users-in-southwest-china
#5
Shu Su, Limin Mao, Jinxian Zhao, Liang Chen, Jun Jing, Feng Cheng, Lei Zhang
The number of poly-drug users who mix use heroin and synthetic drugs (SD) is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to measure the risk factors for being infected with hepatitis C (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis among SD-only users, heroin-only users and poly-drug users. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 from a national HIV surveillance site in Southwest China, 447 poly-drug, 526 SD-only and 318 heroin-only users were recruited. Poly-drug users have higher drug-use frequency, higher rates of drug-sharing and unsafe sexual acts than other users (p < 0...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668421/factors-associated-with-unplanned-early-discharges-from-a-dual-diagnosis-inpatient-detoxification-unit-in-israel
#6
Menachem M Sofer, Alexander Kaptsan, Jonathan Anson
OBJECTIVES: Currently, Israel has a single governmental inpatient dual diagnosis detoxification unit. We provide a cross-section of patient profiles in this study as well as explore possible associations between clinical/demographic factors and the unplanned early discharge of patients from the unit, aiming at improving rehabilitation success rates. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records of all patients admitted to the unit between January 1, 2012, and July 1, 2013, were examined (N = 323)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549052/urethane-based-low-temperature-curing-highly-customized-and-multifunctional-poly-glycerol-sebacate-co-poly-ethylene-glycol-copolymers
#7
Zihao Wang, Yifan Ma, YanXiang Wang, Yutong Liu, Kai Chen, Zihan Wu, Shuang Yu, Yuan Yuan, Changsheng Liu
Poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS), a tough elastomer, has been widely explored in tissue engineering due to the desirable mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, the complex curing procedure (high temperature and vacuum) and limited hydrophilicity (∼90° of wetting angle) greatly impede its functionalities. To address these challenges, a urethane-based low-temperature setting, PEGylated PGS bioelastomer was developed with and without solvent. By simultaneously tailoring PEG and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) contents, the elastomers X-P-mUs (X referred to the PEG content and m referred to HDI content) with a broad ranging mechanical properties and customized hydrophilicity were constructed...
April 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474390/transcriptomes-of-trypanosoma-brucei-rhodesiense-from-sleeping-sickness-patients-rodents-and-culture-effects-of-strain-growth-conditions-and-rna-preparation-methods
#8
Julius Mulindwa, Kevin Leiss, David Ibberson, Kevin Kamanyi Marucha, Claudia Helbig, Larissa Melo do Nascimento, Eleanor Silvester, Keith Matthews, Enock Matovu, John Enyaru, Christine Clayton
All of our current knowledge of African trypanosome metabolism is based on results from trypanosomes grown in culture or in rodents. Drugs against sleeping sickness must however treat trypanosomes in humans. We here compare the transcriptomes of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with those of trypanosomes from culture and rodents. The data were aligned and analysed using new user-friendly applications designed for Kinetoplastid RNA-Seq data. The transcriptomes of trypanosomes from human blood and cerebrospinal fluid did not predict major metabolic differences that might affect drug susceptibility...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408341/composite-films-for-vaginal-delivery-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-emtricitabine
#9
Mafalda Pereira Cautela, Hen Moshe, Alejandro Sosnik, Bruno Sarmento, José das Neves
Prevention of male-to-female HIV transmission remains a huge challenge and topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using microbicides may help overcoming the problem. In this work, different types of films containing the antiretroviral drugs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) were developed. Formulations based in poly(vinyl alcohol) and pectin were produced as single- or double-layered films. Films containing TDF/FTC or TDF/FTC-loaded Eudragit® L 100 nanoparticles (NPs) obtained by nano spray-drying were tested for physicochemical, technological and biological properties relevant to microbicide development...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370197/changes-in-opiate-and-stimulant-use-through-10-years-the-role-of-contextual-factors-mental-health-disorders-and-psychosocial-factors-in-a-prospective-sud-treatment-cohort-study
#10
Grethe Lauritzen, Trond Nordfjærn
AIM: To examine temporal changes in opiate and stimulant use among patients in substance abuse treatment over a ten-year observation period and to explore the role of contextual factors, mental health disorders and psychosocial factors on these changes. METHODS: A cohort of 481 patients was prospectively interviewed at admission to treatment and after 1, 2, 7 and 10 years. The sample was recruited from 20 facilities in the Greater Oslo region, Norway. RESULTS: The majority of patients were poly-drug users and 80% had used both opiates and stimulants the last 30 days prior to treatment admission...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355687/key-acceptability-attributes-of-orodispersible-films
#11
Mariagiovanna Scarpa, Amrit Paudel, Frank Kloprogge, Wen Kai Hsiao, Massimo Bresciani, Simon Gaisford, Mine Orlu
The features rendering orodispersible films (ODFs) patient-centric formulations are widely discussed in the scientific literature. However there is a lack of research studies exploring ODF characteristics with a potential impact on end-user acceptability. The aim of this study was to identify the key ODF characteristics affecting end-user acceptability by developing in vitro test methods for the prediction of ODFs acceptability and correlate these formulation characteristics with the data obtained from a human panel study...
April 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294803/are-polydrug-users-more-physically-and-verbally-aggressive-an-assessment-of-aggression-among-mono-versus-polydrug-users-in-a-university-sample
#12
Jennifer L Steele, Robert L Peralta
Early research has revealed that patterns of aggression and antisocial behavior are present among polydrug users. Often missing from this discourse is the examination of whether polydrug users are quantitatively different from monodrug users in their use of aggression. Theoretical perspectives are often centered on the psychopharmacological effects of substance use on behavior. Consideration of possible poly- versus monodrug use differences and their impact on aggression has not been investigated. Data from this study were derived from a sample of Midwestern university students ( N = 793)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284546/medical-emergencies-related-to-ethanol-and-illicit-drugs-at-an-annual-nocturnal-indoor-electronic-dance-music-event
#13
Paul Calle, Nora Sundahl, Kristof Maudens, Sarah Mr Wille, Diederik Van Sassenbroeck, Koen De Graeve, Stefan Gogaert, Peter De Paepe, Dieter Devriese, Geert Arno, Peter Blanckaert
Introduction Medical problems are frequently encountered during electronic dance music (EDM) events. Problem There are uncertainties about the frequencies and severity of intoxications with different types of recreational drugs: ethanol, "classical" illicit party drugs, and new psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: Statistical data on the medical problems encountered during two editions of an indoor electronic dance event with around 30,000 attendants were retrieved from the Belgian Red Cross (Mechelen, Belgium) database...
February 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282091/gender-differences-in-patterns-of-drug-use-and-sexual-risky-behaviour-among-crack-cocaine-users-in-central-brazil
#14
Rafael Alves Guimarães, Vivianne de Oliveira Landgraf de Castro, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira, Andréa Cristina Stabile, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Lyriane Apolinário Araujo, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Marcos André de Matos, Sheila Araujo Teles
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare sociodemographic characteristics, patterns of drug use, and risky sexual behaviour among female and male users of crack cocaine. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 919 crack cocaine users (783 men and 136 women) in Central Brazil using face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected to test for syphilis. The Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was used to explore the differences between genders...
December 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281497/poly-drug-use-of-prescription-medicine-among-people-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Tongyu Wang, Jun Ma, Rujia Wang, Zhimin Liu, Jie Shi, Lin Lu, Yanping Bao
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder (OUD) causes substantial public health and social problems worldwide. Poly-drug use is common in people with OUD and increases morbidity and mortality. Investigation of the patterns and characteristics of poly-drug use of prescription medicine among opioid users is needed to develop appropriate prevention and intervention strategies. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of poly-drug use of prescription medicine among people with OUD in China using meta-analysis...
June 7, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275216/mdpv-in-forensic-routine-cases-psychotic-and-aggressive-behavior-in-relation-to-plasma-concentrations
#16
Marco Diestelmann, Anna Zangl, Inge Herrle, Eva Koch, Matthias Graw, Liane D Paul
The new psychoactive substance 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) belongs to the group of synthetic cathinones and is purchased mainly as "research chemical" or "bath salt" on the illegal drug market, also in South Bavaria. MDPV was detected in blood and urine samples from 2010 on in 50 authentic routine cases in a forensic setting. Plasma concentrations in 46 cases with available blood specimens ranged from approximately 1.0 to 301μg/L (median 23.7; mean 47.9μg/L), detected by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method...
February 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199901/an-evaluation-of-practitioner-s-experience-of-service-users-seeking-community-detoxification-from-benzodiazepines
#17
Marianne Wall, Sharon Lambert, Aidan Horan
A recent report in Ireland identified that two-thirds of poisoning deaths involved poly drug use with an average of four different drugs involved. Of these, benzodiazepines were the most common drug group involved. Concern has been expressed regarding high levels of benzodiazepine prescriptions globally. Community-based detoxification programs are required, but detoxification is complex with associated high risks, such as overdose. This study utilized a survey to gather the experiences of a range of drug workers in addiction settings in the southern region of Ireland who are tasked with the management of supporting service users who wish to detoxify from benzodiazepines...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172826/testing-nursing-sensitive-outcomes-in-out-patient-drug-addicts-with-nursing-role-effectiveness-model
#18
Paulo Rosário Carvalho Seabra, José Joaqui Penedos Amendoeira, Luis Octávio Sá
Our aim was to identify factors that contribute to a better outcome in drug users and to understand the effectiveness of nursing interventions, by applying "Nursing Role Effectiveness Model" (NREM). It's a correlational, cross-sectional study with 180 drug users in a methadone program, randomly selected from three community services. We identified that treatment time, lower co-morbidities, less poly-drug use, family support and being employed contribute to a better quality of life, better mental health, less substance addiction consequences and more satisfaction with nursing care (p < 0...
March 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122012/drug-target-ontology-to-classify-and-integrate-drug-discovery-data
#19
Yu Lin, Saurabh Mehta, Hande Küçük-McGinty, John Paul Turner, Dusica Vidovic, Michele Forlin, Amar Koleti, Dac-Trung Nguyen, Lars Juhl Jensen, Rajarshi Guha, Stephen L Mathias, Oleg Ursu, Vasileios Stathias, Jianbin Duan, Nooshin Nabizadeh, Caty Chung, Christopher Mader, Ubbo Visser, Jeremy J Yang, Cristian G Bologa, Tudor I Oprea, Stephan C Schürer
BACKGROUND: One of the most successful approaches to develop new small molecule therapeutics has been to start from a validated druggable protein target. However, only a small subset of potentially druggable targets has attracted significant research and development resources. The Illuminating the Druggable Genome (IDG) project develops resources to catalyze the development of likely targetable, yet currently understudied prospective drug targets. A central component of the IDG program is a comprehensive knowledge resource of the druggable genome...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846942/co-occurrence-of-tobacco-product-use-substance-use-and-mental-health-problems-among-youth-findings-from-wave-1-2013-2014-of-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-path-study
#20
Kevin P Conway, Victoria R Green, Karin A Kasza, Marushka L Silveira, Nicolette Borek, Heather L Kimmel, James D Sargent, Cassandra A Stanton, Elizabeth Lambert, Nahla Hilmi, Chad J Reissig, Kia J Jackson, Susanne E Tanski, David Maklan, Andrew J Hyland, Wilson M Compton
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette use is associated with substance use and mental health problems among youth, but associations are unknown for non-cigarette tobacco product use, as well as the increasingly common poly-tobacco use. METHODS: The current study examined co-occurrence of substance use and mental health problems across tobacco products among 13,617 youth aged 12-17years from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study...
August 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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