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Sugar addiction

Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
Nadine Schweizer, Thomas Viereckel, Casey J A Smith-Anttila, Karin Nordenankar, Emma Arvidsson, Souha Mahmoudi, André Zampera, Hanna Wärner Jonsson, Jonas Bergquist, Daniel Lévesque, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Malin Andersson, Sylvie Dumas, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and affective behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is the most common surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and STN has lately gained attention as target for DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and addiction. Animal studies using STN-DBS, lesioning, or inactivation of STN neurons have been used extensively alongside clinical studies to unravel the structural organization, circuitry, and function of the STN...
September 2016: ENeuro
Meike Paschke, Christoph Hutzler, Frank Henkler, Andreas Luch
According to European legislation, tobacco additives may not increase the toxicity or the addictive potency of the product, but there is an ongoing debate on how to reliably characterize and measure such properties. Further, too little is known on pyrolysis patterns of tobacco additives to assume that no additional toxicological risks need to be suspected. An on-line pyrolysis technique was used and coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the pattern of chemical species formed upon thermal decomposition of 19 different tobacco additives like raw cane sugar, licorice or cocoa...
September 4, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Jane L Franklin, Mehdi Mirzaei, Travis A Wearne, Judi Homewood, Ann K Goodchild, Paul A Haynes, Jennifer L Cornish
Caffeine is a psychostimulant commonly consumed with high levels of sugar. The increased availability of highly caffeinated, high sugar energy drinks could put some consumers at risk of being exposed to high doses of caffeine and sugar. Notably, research that has examined the consequences of this combination is limited. Here, we explored the effect of chronic exposure to caffeine and/or sugar on behavior and protein levels in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of rats. The OFC brain region has been implicated in neuropsychiatric conditions, including obesity and addiction behaviors...
September 2, 2016: Proteomics
Melissa Ochoa, Charles-Henri Malbert, Paul Meurice, David Val-Laillet
Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36...
2016: PloS One
Jorien L Treur, Dorret I Boomsma, Lannie Ligthart, Gonneke Willemsen, Jacqueline M Vink
BACKGROUND: High sugar consumption contributes to the rising prevalence of obesity. Sugar can have rewarding effects that are similar to, but less strong than, the effects of addictive substances. People who consume large amounts of sugar also tend to use more addictive substances, but it is unclear whether this is due to shared genetic or environmental risk factors. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether there are genetic influences on the consumption of sugar-containing drinks and whether genetic factors can explain the association with substance use...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
E Kalon, J Y Hong, C Tobin, T Schulte
Food addiction (FA) is loosely defined as hedonic eating behavior involving the consumption of highly palatable foods (ie, foods high in salt, fat, and sugar) in quantities beyond homeostatic energy requirements. FA shares some common symptomology with other pathological eating disorders, such as binge eating. Current theories suggest that FA shares both behavioral similarities and overlapping neural correlates to other substance addictions. Although preliminary, neuroimaging studies in response to food cues and the consumption of highly palatable food in individuals with FA compared to healthy controls have shown differing activation patterns and connectivity in brain reward circuits including regions such as the striatum, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and nucleus accumbens...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Azam Raoofi, Maryam Ghavami, Maryam Shahhamzeh, Mahmood Ghasemi, Rostam Hedartabar, Leili Salehi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the most serious metabolic disorders to affect different organs in the body. Patients with diabetes are hence at risk of developing other problems. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the problems that occur more commonly in diabetic patients than in others. There are several risk factors that lead to the incidence of UTI in diabetic patients. OBJECTIVES: We conducted this study to determine the effect of different factors on the incidence of UTI in diabetic patients in order to decrease the incidence of this problem...
May 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Margaret L Westwater, Paul C Fletcher, Hisham Ziauddeen
PURPOSE: As obesity rates continue to climb, the notion that overconsumption reflects an underlying 'food addiction' (FA) has become increasingly influential. An increasingly popular theory is that sugar acts as an addictive agent, eliciting neurobiological changes similar to those seen in drug addiction. In this paper, we review the evidence in support of sugar addiction. METHODS: We reviewed the literature on food and sugar addiction and considered the evidence suggesting the addictiveness of highly processed foods, particularly those with high sugar content...
July 2, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Yan-Qing Li, Qiu-Min LE, Xiang-Chen Yu, Lan Ma, Fei-Fei Wang
Caloric diet, such as fat and sugar intake, has rewarding effects, and has been indicated to affect the responses to addictive substances in animal experiments. However, the possible association between sucrose reward and the motivation for addictive drugs remains to be elucidated. Thus, we carried out behavioral tests after sucrose self-administration training to determine the effects of sucrose experience on rats' motivation for cocaine, locomotor sensitivity to cocaine, basal locomotor activity, anxiety level, and associative learning ability...
June 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
George A Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Diabetes
Alyssa Moran, Aviva Musicus, Jackie Soo, Ashley N Gearhardt, Sarah E Gollust, Christina A Roberto
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that certain foods may be addictive. Although evidence that nicotine is addictive generated support for anti-tobacco policies, little research has examined whether beliefs about the addictiveness of food are associated with support for policies to address overconsumption of nutritionally poor foods. METHODS: U.S. adults (n=999) recruited from an online marketplace in February 2015 completed a survey. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between beliefs about the addictiveness of certain foods and support for twelve obesity-related policies while controlling for demographics, health status, political affiliation and ideology, beliefs about obesity, and attitudes towards food companies...
September 2016: Preventive Medicine
Adrian Carter, Joshua Hendrikse, Natalia Lee, Murat Yücel, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Zane Andrews, Wayne Hall
There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Joanna Yeh, Amy Trang, Susanne M Henning, Holly Wilhalme, Catherine Carpenter, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine- resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among Asian Americans. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sarah Cathelain, Paul Brunault, Nicolas Ballon, Christian Réveillère, Robert Courtois
Addictions, which are characterized by the inability to control a behavior despite existence of physical or psychological consequences, have biological, psychological and social determinants. Although the possibility of developing an addiction to some psychoactive substances (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, cannabis) and to gambling (i.e., gambling disorder) is now well demonstrated, the possibility to develop a non-drug addiction (i.e., behavioral addiction) to certain behaviors which provide pleasure (e.g. eating, having sex, buying things) is still in debate...
May 19, 2016: La Presse Médicale
David M Cutler, Amber I Jessup, Donald S Kenkel, Martha A Starr
The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit-cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit-cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers' observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences...
May 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
J M Rippe, L Tappy
Few topics in nutrition engender more controversy than added sugars in general, and fructose-containing sugars in particular. Some investigators have argued that added sugars are associated with increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and even sugar 'addiction'. Other investigators have questioned the scientific basis for all of these assertions. This debate has extended far beyond the scientific community into various media outlets including the internet and other non-refereed venues often with heated rhetoric and little science...
March 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Maryam Radahmadi, Mohammad Reza Sharifi, Masoud Amini, Mehrafarin Fesharaki
BACKGROUND: Morphine is related to dysregulation of serum hormone levels. In addition, addict subjects interest to sugar intake. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of co-administration of glucose with Mo on the glucoregulatory hormones and causing of diabetes mellitus in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats were randomly divided into four groups including, control, morphine, Morphine-Glucose and diabetes groups. Morphine was undergone through doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mg/kg, respectively on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Wendy K Adams, Jacob L Sussman, Sukhbir Kaur, Anna M D'souza, Timothy J Kieffer, Catharine A Winstanley
High impulsivity, mediated through ventral striatal dopamine signalling, represents an established risk factor for substance abuse, and may likewise confer vulnerability to pathological overeating. Mechanistically, the assumption is that trait impulsivity facilitates the initiation of maladaptive eating styles or choices. However, whether consumption of appetitive macronutrients themselves causes deficits in impulse control and striatal signalling, thereby contributing to cognitive changes permissive of overeating behaviour, has yet to be considered...
December 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
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