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Diacetylmorphine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588112/h4k5-histone-acetylation-of-brg1-is-associated-with-heroin-administration-rather-than-addiction
#1
Limin Xu, Qingxiao Hong, Xiaoying Chen, Xuting Xu, Huifen Liu, Wenhua Zhou, Shiwei Duan
Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride (heroin) addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disorder that is a heavy public health burden worldwide. Brm/SWI2-related gene-1 (BRG1) is a tumor suppressor gene that can influence embryogenesis and the development of the cerebellum. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of histone H4 lysine 5 (H4K5) modifications on the BRG1 gene in brain tissue of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of heroin-addicted rats. A total of 21 male Sprague Dawley rats were raised in a standard manner and underwent heroin self-administration training...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499655/use-of-microdoses-for-induction-of-buprenorphine-treatment-with-overlapping-full-opioid-agonist-use-the-bernese-method
#2
Robert Hämmig, Antje Kemter, Johannes Strasser, Ulrich von Bardeleben, Barbara Gugger, Marc Walter, Kenneth M Dürsteler, Marc Vogel
BACKGROUND: Buprenorphine is a partial µ-opioid receptor agonist used for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Because of the partial agonism and high receptor affinity, it may precipitate withdrawal symptoms during induction in persons on full µ-opioid receptor agonists. Therefore, current guidelines and drug labels recommend leaving a sufficient time period since the last full agonist use, waiting for clear and objective withdrawal symptoms, and reducing pre-existing full agonist therapies before administering buprenorphine...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177805/efficacy-of-cocaine-contingency-management-in-heroin-assisted-treatment-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Peter Blanken, Vincent M Hendriks, Ineke A Huijsman, Jan M van Ree, Wim van den Brink
AIMS: To determine the efficacy of contingency management (CM), targeting cocaine use, as an add-on intervention for heroin dependent patients in supervised heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) with frequent cocaine use. DESIGN: Multi-center, open-label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Twelve specialized addiction treatment centers for HAT in The Netherlands; April 2006-January 2011. PARTICIPANTS: 214 chronic, treatment-refractory heroin dependent patients in HAT, with frequent cocaine use...
July 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130543/site-and-species-specific-hydrolysis-rates-of-heroin
#4
Levente Szöcs, Gábor Orgován, Gergő Tóth, Márta Kraszni, Lajos Gergó, Sándor Hosztafi, Béla Noszál
The hydroxide-catalyzed non-enzymatic, simultaneous and consecutive hydrolyses of diacetylmorphine (DAM, heroin) are quantified in terms of 10 site- and species-specific rate constants in connection with also 10 site- and species-specific acid-base equilibrium constants, comprising all the 12 coexisting species in solution. This characterization involves the major and minor decomposition pathways via 6-acetylmorphine and 3-acetylmorphine, respectively, and morphine, the final product. Hydrolysis has been found to be 18-120 times faster at site 3 than at site 6, depending on the status of the amino group and the rest of the molecule...
June 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049826/hydromorphone-compared-with-diacetylmorphine-for-long-term-opioid-dependence-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Daphne Guh, Suzanne Brissette, Kirsten Marchand, Scott MacDonald, Kurt Lock, Scott Harrison, Amin Janmohamed, Aslam H Anis, Michael Krausz, David C Marsh, Martin T Schechter
IMPORTANCE: Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride (the active ingredient in heroin), delivered under supervision, is effective for the treatment of severe opioid use disorder. However, owing to political and regulatory barriers, it is not available in many settings around the world, which limits the options for many long-term street opioid injectors not attracted into or retained in available treatments. OBJECTIVE: To test if injectable hydromorphone hydrochloride is noninferior to injectable diacetylmorphine in reducing illicit heroin use for chronic injection opioid users after 6 months of intervention...
May 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040874/occupational-allergic-contact-dermatitis-caused-by-heroin-diacetylmorphine-and-morphine
#6
Lone Hvid, Mathias T Svendsen, Klaus E Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015909/sustained-release-dexamfetamine-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-cocaine-dependent-patients-on-heroin-assisted-treatment-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mascha Nuijten, Peter Blanken, Ben van de Wetering, Bastiaan Nuijen, Wim van den Brink, Vincent M Hendriks
BACKGROUND: Heroin-assisted treatment is effective for methadone treatment-refractory heroin-dependent patients, but continued comorbid cocaine dependence remains problematic. Sustained-release dexamfetamine is a promising agonist pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence and we aimed to assess its acceptance, efficacy, and safety. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients who were treatment-refractory, as indicated by at least two earlier failed treatments aimed at reducing or abstaining from cocaine use, and who regularly (≥8 days/month) used crack-cocaine were enrolled from four heroin-assisted treatment centres in the Netherlands...
May 28, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25772560/determination-of-illicit-drugs-and-metabolites-in-oral-fluid-by-microextraction-on-packed-sorbent-coupled-with-lc-ms-ms
#8
Camilla Montesano, Maria Chiara Simeoni, Roberta Curini, Manuel Sergi, Claudio Lo Sterzo, Dario Compagnone
Oral fluid (OF) has become a valuable biologic specimen for toxicological analysis, especially in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) investigations, because of easy and non-invasive collection procedures. In OF testing, being the sample volume is limited, multi-analyte procedures are particularly advantageous since they save time and resources. In this work, a procedure for the simultaneous analysis of 20 illicit drugs, belonging to the classes of cocaine, amphetamines, natural and synthetic opioids and hallucinogens, is presented...
May 2015: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25619263/the-salome-study-recruitment-experiences-in-a-clinical-trial-offering-injectable-diacetylmorphine-and-hydromorphone-for-opioid-dependency
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Kirsten Marchand, Kurt Lock, Scott MacDonald, Daphne Guh, Martin T Schechter
BACKGROUND: The Study to Assess Long-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME) is a two-stage phase III, single site (Vancouver, Canada), randomized, double blind controlled trial designed to test if hydromorphone is as effective as diacetylmorphine for the treatment of long-term illicit opioid injection. Recruiting participants for clinical trials continues to be a challenge in medical and addiction research, with many studies not being able to reach the planned sample size in a timely manner...
January 26, 2015: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25467383/reduced-volume-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-heroin-addiction
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Christian L Seifert, Stefano Magon, Till Sprenger, Undine E Lang, Christian G Huber, Niklaus Denier, Marc Vogel, André Schmidt, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Stefan Borgwardt, Marc Walter
The neural mechanisms of heroin addiction are still incompletely understood, even though modern neuroimaging techniques offer insights into disease-related changes in vivo. While changes on cortical structure have been reported in heroin addiction, evidence from subcortical areas remains underrepresented. Functional imaging studies revealed that the brain reward system and particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of drug addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a volume difference of the NAcc in heroin addiction in comparison to healthy controls...
December 2015: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25452049/predictors-of-non-use-of-illicit-heroin-in-opioid-injection-maintenance-treatment-of-long-term-heroin-dependence
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Luis Sordo, Daphne Guh, David C Marsh, Kurt Lock, Suzanne Brissette, Aslam H Anis, Martin T Schechter
AIMS: To investigate baseline and concurrent predictors of non-use of illicit heroin among participants randomized to injectable opioids in the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) clinical trial. METHODS: NAOMI was an open-label randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of injectable diacetylmorphine and hydromorphone for long-term opioid-dependency. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and during treatment (3, 6, 9, 12months). Days of non-use of illicit heroin in the prior month at each follow-up visit were divided into three categories: Non-use; Low use (1 to 7days) and High use (8days or more)...
February 2015: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25262567/a-chance-to-stop-and-breathe-participants-experiences-in-the-north-american-opiate-medication-initiative-clinical-trial
#12
Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Kirsten Marchand, Kurt Lock, Jill Chettiar, David C Marsh, Suzanne Brissette, Aslam H Anis, Martin T Schechter
BACKGROUND: The North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) clinical trial compared the effectiveness of injectable diacetylmorphine (DAM) or hydromorphone (HDM) to oral methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). This study aimed to determine participants' perceptions of treatment delivered in NAOMI. METHODS: A qualitative sub-study was conducted with 29 participants (12 female): 18 (62.1%) received injectable DAM or HDM and 11 (37.9%) received MMT. A phenomenological theoretical framework was used...
September 29, 2014: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24908387/differential-long-term-outcomes-for-voluntary-and-involuntary-transition-from-injection-to-oral-opioid-maintenance-treatment
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Daphne Guh, Kirsten Marchand, David C Marsh, Kurt Lock, Suzanne Brissette, Aslam H Anis, Martin T Schechter
BACKGROUND: The most widely used maintenance treatment for opioid dependency is substitution with long-acting oral opioids. Treatment with injectable diacetylmorphine provides an opportunity for patients to stabilize and possibly transition to oral treatment, if clinically indicated. The aim of this study was to explore outcomes of individuals that received injectable diacetylmorphine and voluntarily transitioned to oral methadone. DESIGN AND METHODS: The North American Opiate Medication Initiative was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effectiveness of injectable diacetylmorphine (or hydromorphone) to oral methadone for long-term opioid-dependency...
June 8, 2014: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24858136/prevalence-of-heroin-markers-in-urine-for-pain-management-patients
#14
Julie Knight, Brandi L Puet, Anne DePriest, Rebecca Heltsley, Cheryl Hild, David L Black, Timothy Robert, Yale H Caplan, Edward J Cone
Surveys of current trends indicate heroin abuse is associated with nonmedical use of pain relievers. Consequently, there is an interest in evaluating the presence of heroin-specific markers in chronic pain patients who are prescribed controlled substances. A total of 926,084 urine specimens from chronic pain patients were tested for heroin/diacetylmorphine (DAM), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), 6-acetylcodeine (6AC), codeine (COD), and morphine (MOR). Heroin and markers were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)...
October 2014: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24579243/plasma-level-monitoring-of-the-major-metabolites-of-diacetylmorphine-heroin-by-the-chasing-the-dragon-route-in-severe-heroin-addicts
#15
N Dubois, I Demaret, M Ansseau, E Rozet, Ph Hubert, C Charlier
The objective of the present study was to verify if severe physical health problems frequently encountered in heroin addicts and the concomitant use of alcohol and legal or illegal drugs other than heroin influenced the pharmacokinetics of the major metabolites of heroin. We conducted a 90 minutes follow-up of the plasma concentrations of the pharmaceutical heroin, named diacetylmorphine (DAM), in patients recruited in a DAM assisted treatment centre. TADAM (Traitement Assisté par DiAcétylMorphine) aimed to compare the efficacy of heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) compared with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for heroin users considered as treatment resistant patients and who have severe physical and mental health problems...
September 2013: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24513780/understanding-swiss-drug-policy-change-and-the-introduction-of-heroin-maintenance-treatment
#16
Riaz Khan, Yasser Khazaal, Gabriel Thorens, Daniele Zullino, Ambros Uchtenhagen
AIMS: The aim of this paper is to illustrate how Switzerland was able to play such a pioneering role in the field of addiction treatment, in creating a drug policy that includes the medical prescription of diacetylmorphine (heroin). The paper will also describe the role of knowledge brokering processes and coalition building in the different phases of the development of the Swiss drug policy. DISCUSSION: The medical prescription of diacetylmorphine was the exotic element of the Swiss drug policy of 1991 and probably still is one of the most controversial practices in clinical medicine despite its documented effectiveness...
2014: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24216135/the-behavioral-effects-of-acute-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-heroin-diacetylmorphine-exposure-in-adult-zebrafish
#17
Adam Michael Stewart, Allan V Kalueff
The use of psychotropic drugs in clinical and translational brain research continues to grow, and the need for novel experimental models and screens is becoming widely recognized. Mounting evidence supports the utility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) for studying various pharmacological manipulations, as an alternative model complementing the existing rodent paradigms in this field. Here, we explore the effects of acute 20-min exposure to two commonly abused psychotropic compounds, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and heroin, on adult zebrafish behavior in the novel tank test...
January 16, 2014: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24148453/chemiluminescence-detection-of-heroin-in-illicit-drug-samples
#18
Jessica M Terry, Zoe M Smith, Jessica J Learey, R Andrew Shalliker, Neil W Barnett, Paul S Francis
Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) and several important extraction and synthesis impurities (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine and 6-acetylcodeine) were determined in illicit drug samples, using high performance liquid chromatography with 'parallel segmented flow', which enabled the simultaneous use of three complementary modes of detection (UV-absorbance, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence and permanganate chemiluminescence). This rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of street heroin was used to explore the chemistry of a proposed heroin screening test that is based on the relative response with these two chemiluminescence reagents using flow injection analysis...
November 15, 2013: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24084728/cytokines-chaperones-and-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-heroin-related-death-what-can-we-learn-from-different-patterns-of-cellular-expression
#19
Margherita Neri, Laura Panata, Mauro Bacci, Carmela Fiore, Irene Riezzo, Emanuela Turillazzi, Vittorio Fineschi
Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) has various effects on the central nervous system with several neuropathological alterations including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage from respiratory depressing effects and neuroinflammatory response. Both of these mechanisms induce the release of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators by the activation of many cell types such as leucocytes and endothelial and glial cells, especially microglia, the predominant immunocompetent cell type within the central nervous system...
2013: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23888578/-heroin
#20
I Demaret, A Lemaître, M Ansseau
Heroin (or diacetylmorphine), a depressant nervous central system, is a semi-synthetic opiate. Its main adverse effect, respiratory depression, can lead to death, especially after an intravenous injection. By loss of tolerance, an overdose can be lethal following heroin use after a period of abstinence (voluntary or not). Mortality rate among heroin users is between 1 and 3%. Addiction, following a regular and continuous use, occurs in less than a quarter of persons who ever tried heroine. Heroin addicts often present with different problems (for instance, a criminal behaviour), without any obvious link with addiction...
May 2013: Revue Médicale de Liège
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