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E Kaczorek, J Szarek, M Mikiewicz, E Terech-Majewska, P Schulz, J Małaczewska, R Wójcik, A K Siwicki
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous substance produced on the kynurenine pathway which is primarily known for its neuroactive properties. Recently, it has been proven that KYNA is a selective ligand for G protein-coupled receptor (GPR 35), presented on immunocompetent cells such as T lymphocytes. This opens up new possibilities of its application as an immunostimulating substance in aquaculture. Thus far, no histopathological investigations in fish have been completed to evaluate influence of KYNA supplementation in feed...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Sebastian Andrzej Kaczmarek, Maciej Bochenek, Anne-Cathrine Samuelsson, Andrzej Rutkowski
A completely randomised design study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to observe effects of an emulsifier (glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate (GPR)) on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were used to determine the influence of GPR (without addition or added at 0.04% of diet) and two levels of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) (according to standard requirements (Diets SE) or energy reduced by 0.4 MJ/kg diet (Diets LE)) on birds' performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD)...
2015: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Chengliu Gou, Zhaohui Yang, Jing Huang, Huiling Wang, Haiyin Xu, Like Wang
Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste was investigated semi-continuously using continuously stirred tank reactors. Results showed that the performance of co-digestion system was distinctly influenced by temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) in terms of gas production rate (GPR), methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal efficiency and the system stability. The highest GPR at 55 °C was 1.6 and 1.3 times higher than that at 35 and 45 °C with the OLR of 1 g VSL(-1)d(-1), and the corresponding average CH₄ yields were 0...
June 2014: Chemosphere
S Daniele, M L Trincavelli, P Gabelloni, D Lecca, P Rosa, M P Abbracchio, C Martini
G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 17 is a P2Y-like receptor that responds to both uracil nucleotides (as UDP-glucose) and cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysLTs, as LTD(4)). By bioinformatic analysis, two distinct binding sites have been hypothesized to be present on GPR17, but little is known on their putative cross-regulation and on GPR17 desensitization/resensitization upon agonist exposure. In this study, we investigated in GPR17-expressing 1321N1 cells the cross-regulation between purinergic- and cysLT-mediated responses and analyzed GPR17 regulation after prolonged agonist exposure...
August 2011: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Shaji K Chacko, Agneta L Sunehag
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of total gluconeogenesis to glucose production in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) providing glucose exceeding normal infant glucose turnover rates. STUDY DESIGN: Eight infants (0.955±0.066 kg, 26.5±0.5 weeks, 4±1 days) were studied while receiving routine TPN. The glucose appearance rate (the sum of rates of glucose infusion and residual glucose production) and gluconeogenesis were measured by stable isotope-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques using deuterated water and applying the Chacko and Landau methods...
November 2010: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Jin-yan Wang, Li-hua Wang, Liang-zhou Wei, Jun Wu, Ning Wei, Xin-juan Kong, Zi-bin Tian
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of gastric emptying with ghrelin, obestatin and GHSR, GPR-39 in hypothalamus of diabetic rats. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a normal control group (NC, n = 20), a diabetes mellitus group (DM, n = 20) induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and an insulin treated group (INS, n = 20). After two and six weeks of STZ injection, gastric emptying was measured by intragastric administration of phenol red, ghrelin and obestatin in hypothalamus measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and GHSR and GPR-39 by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction)...
April 27, 2010: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Silvia Fallarini, Laura Magliulo, Tiziana Paoletti, Claudia de Lalla, Grazia Lombardi
The aim of this study was to examine the expression of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)35 in human invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and to determine the functional effects induced by selective activation of this receptor. RT-PCR analysis showed that both human iNKT cells and resting PBMC expressed GPR35; GPR35 protein resulted mostly localized in the plasma membrane, while it internalized in punctate intracellular structures following specific receptor activation (Western blot and immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy analysis)...
July 30, 2010: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Gert-Jan Van Der Heijden, Zhiyue J Wang, Zili Chu, Gianna Toffolo, Erica Manesso, Pieter J J Sauer, Agneta L Sunehag
INTRODUCTION: Data on the metabolic effects of resistance exercise (strength training) in adolescents are limited. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine whether a controlled resistance exercise program without dietary intervention or weight loss reduces body fat accumulation, increases lean body mass, and improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in sedentary obese Hispanic adolescents. METHODS: Twelve obese adolescents (age = 15...
November 2010: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Peishen Zhao, Chau H Nguyen, Peter Chidiac
The protein G18 (also known as AGS4 or GPSM3) contains three conserved GoLoco/GPR domains in its central and C-terminal regions that bind to inactive Galpha(i), whereas the N-terminal region has not been previously characterized. We investigated whether this domain might itself regulate G protein activity by assessing the abilities of G18 and mutants thereof to modulate the nucleotide binding and hydrolytic properties of Galpha(i1) and Galpha(o). Surprisingly, in the presence of fluoroaluminate (AlF(4)(-)) both G proteins bound strongly to full-length G18 (G18wt) and to its isolated N-terminal domain (G18DeltaC) but not to its GoLoco region (DeltaNG18)...
March 19, 2010: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Gert-Jan van der Heijden, Gianna Toffolo, Erica Manesso, Pieter J J Sauer, Agneta L Sunehag
CONTEXT: Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and affects glucose production (GPR), gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in sedentary lean and obese Hispanic adolescents. PATIENTS AND DESIGN: Twenty-nine post-pubertal adolescents (14 lean: 15...
November 2009: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yin-Yan He, Bin Cai, Yi-Xia Yang, Xue-Lian Liu, Xiao-Ping Wan
The regulatory mechanism of endometrial carcinoma and the signal transduction pathways involved in hormone action are poorly defined. It has become apparent that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 30 mediates the non-genomic signaling of 17beta-estradiol (E2). Here we show that GPR30 is highly expressed in endometrial cancer tissues and cancer cell lines and positively regulates cell proliferation and invasion. GPR30 expression was detected in 50 human endometrial carcinomas. The transcription level of GPR30 was significantly higher in the tissue of endometrial carcinoma than in normal endometrium (P < 0...
June 2009: Cancer Science
Ann-Katherine Carton, Raymond Acciavatti, Johnny Kuo, Andrew D A Maidment
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of an antiscatter grid and its potential benefit on image quality for a full-field digital mammography (FFDM) detector geometry at energies typical for temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced (CE) breast imaging. The signal intensities from primary, scatter, and glare were quantified in images acquired with an a-Si/CsI(T1) FFDM detector using a Rh target and a 0.27 mm Cu filter at tube voltages ranging from 35 to 49 kV. Measurements were obtained at the center of the irradiation region of 20-80 mm thick breast-equivalent phantoms...
March 2009: Medical Physics
Rie Usui, Akihide Ohkuchi, Shigeki Matsubara, Mitsuaki Suzuki
AIMS: To identify risk factors for a short interval to birth in women with preterm labor, and to construct a statistical model to predict birth within seven days from the diagnosis of preterm labor at 22-35 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Vaginal flora was obtained from 126 singleton pregnant women hospitalized for preterm labor at 22-35 weeks' gestation. The amount of vaginal large Gram-positive rods (GPR) was counted in a bright field under x400 magnification and classified semiquantitively as loss of GPRs, decreased GPRs (<10), and normal flora (10 or more)...
2009: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
B Diderholm, M Stridsberg, S Nordén-Lindeberg, J Gustafsson
OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common complication of pregnancy. There are many possible aetiologic factors of maternal, placental and/or fetal origin. Often there is no known explanation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in maternal energy substrate production could be one of the factors involved in IUGR. DESIGN: Measurement of maternal energy substrate production and glucoregulatory hormones in women with growth-restricted fetuses...
February 2006: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
William W Ja, Anirban Adhikari, Ryan J Austin, Stephen R Sprang, Richard W Roberts
Recently, in vitro selection using mRNA display was used to identify a novel peptide sequence that binds with high affinity to Galpha(i1). The peptide was minimized to a 9-residue sequence (R6A-1) that retains high affinity and specificity for the GDP-bound state of Galpha(i1) and acts as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI). Here we demonstrate that the R6A-1 peptide interacts with Galpha subunits representing all four G protein classes, acting as a core motif for Galpha interaction. This contrasts with the consensus G protein regulatory(GPR) sequence, a 28-mer peptide GDI derived from the GoLoco (Galpha(i/0)-Loco interaction)/GPR motif that shares no homology with R6A-1 and binds only to Galpha(i1-3) in this assay...
September 16, 2005: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nam Hyo Heo, Soon Chul Park, Ho Kang
The biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradabilities of food waste (FW), waste activated sludge (WAS), and the mixtures having the ratios of 10:90, 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10 (FW:WAS) on a volatile solid (VS) basis. The carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and the biodegradability of the mixtures improved from 6.16 to 14.14 and increased from 36.6 to 82.6% as the FW proportion of the mixture increased from 10 to 90%, respectively. The stability and performance of the single-stage anaerobic digester (SSAD) for the co-digestion of FW and WAS were investigated, operated at the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 10, 13, 16, and 20 days with five mixtures at 35 degrees C, respectively...
2004: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Marina Ioudina, Etsuro Uemura
Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), causing neuronal death through apoptosis. In this study, the neuroprotective role of small peptides, Gly-Pro-Glu (GPE), Gly-Glu (GE), Gly-Pro-Asp (GPD), and Gly-Pro-Arg (GPR) were examined against Abeta-induced toxicity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We report here that GPR (10-100 microM) prevented Abeta-mediated increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and Abeta inhibition of MTT reduction, even in neurons that were pre-exposed to Abeta for 24 or 48 h...
December 2003: Experimental Neurology
Yingzi Lin, Takuya Tsuchihashi, Kiyoshi Matsumura, Masayo Fukuhara, Yusuke Ohya, Koji Fujii, Mitsuo Iida
We have previously reported that urotensin II acts on the central nervous system to increase blood pressure in normotensive rats. In the present study, we have determined the central cardiovascular action of urotensin II in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of urotensin II elicited a dose-dependent increase in blood pressure in both SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The changes in mean arterial pressure induced by ICV urotensin II at doses of 1 and 10 nmol in the WKY were 8 +/- 2 and 23 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively...
October 2003: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Jiri Hruska, Jan Cermák, Svatopluk Sustek
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technique was used to study the three-dimensional distribution of root systems of large (DBH = 14 to 35 cm) oak trees (Quercus petraea (Mattusch.) Liebl.) in relatively dry, luvisoil on loamy deluvium and weathered granodiorite. We used a pulse EKKO 1000 GPR system, a profile grid of 0.25 x 0.25 meters, at 0.05 m intervals, and a signal frequency of 450 MHz, to assure resolution of about 3 cm in both directions (further increases in resolution up to 1 cm are possible with the system)...
February 1999: Tree Physiology
R G Weaver, N K Haden, R W Valachovic
The American Dental Education Association's 1998-1999 Survey of Clinic Fees and Revenue obtained data by which to report, by school, clinic revenue information per undergraduate student. Fifty of the fifty-five U.S. dental schools responded to the survey. The median revenue per third-year student was $6,313. It was $11,680 for fourth-year students. Clinic revenue data was also obtained by type of postdoctoral program. The postdoctoral general dentistry programs had the highest per student clinic revenues, at over $59,000 per AEGD student and almost $35,000 per student of GPR programs...
September 2001: Journal of Dental Education
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