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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214838/the-role-of-hippocampal-structural-synaptic-plasticity-in-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-improve-cognitive-function-in-male-samp8-mice
#1
Jiang Ma, Jinhua Wang, Chaonan Lv, Jingjuan Pang, Bing Han, Mingwei Wang, Yuan Gen
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to improve cognitive function, but the stimulation protocols are variable and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Therefore, we intend to examine whether 5Hz rTMS with 30% maximum output could improve cognitive functions in senescence-accelerated-prone mouse 8 (SAMP8) through changing synaptic plasticity. METHODS: SAMP8 and senescence-accelerated-prone mouse/resistant 1 (SAMR1) (7-month old male) were randomly divided into 3 groups: SMAP8 rTMS group (P8-rTMS), SMAP8 sham-rTMS group (P8-sham), and SAMR1 sham-rTMS group (R1-sham)...
January 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214579/motor-training-and-the-combination-of-action-observation-and-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-reciprocally-interfere-with-the-plastic-changes-induced-in-primary-motor-cortex-excitability
#2
Ambra Bisio, Laura Avanzino, Monica Biggio, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove
AO-PNS is a stimulation protocol combining action observation (AO) and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) to induce plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) (increased excitability). Another method to increase M1 excitability is motor training. The combination of two protocols, which individually induce long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in overlapping neural circuits, results in a transitory occlusion or reverse of this phenomenon. This study aimed to understand the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying AO-PNS by testing whether AO-PNS and motor training induced LTP-like plasticity in, at least partially, overlapping neural networks...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214128/robotic-arch-catheter-placement-reduces-cerebral-embolization-during-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-tevar
#3
A H Perera, C V Riga, L Monzon, R G Gibbs, C D Bicknell, M Hamady
OBJECTIVE: Stroke caused by cerebral embolization constitutes a principal risk during arch manipulation and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). This study investigates the incidence of cerebral embolization during catheter placement in the aortic arch, and compares robotic and manual techniques. METHODS: Intra-operative transcranial Doppler (TCD) was performed in 11 patients undergoing TEVAR. Wire and catheter placement in the arch was performed by two experienced operators...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213645/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-neuronal-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Anna Sotnikova, Cornelia Soff, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Katja Becker, Michael Siniatchkin
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been repeatedly shown to improve working memory (WM). Since patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in WM, the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in ADHD patients may increase their WM performance as well as improve the activation and connectivity of the WM network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using a double-blind sham-controlled experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213639/prechiasmatic-sulcus-and-optic-strut-an-anatomic-study-in-dry-skulls
#5
Vasiliki Kanellopoulou, Evgenia Efthymiou, Vasiliki Thanopoulou, Dimitra Kozompoli, Dimitrios Mytilinaios, Maria Piagkou, Elizabeth O Johnson
BACKGROUND: Although safe surgical access to the cavernous sinus is related to understanding the anatomical and ethnic variants of the prechiasmatic sulcus and the optic strut, there remains a paucity of studies of the morphology and the bony relationships in the region. The present study provides a systematic morphological and morphometric analysis of the sulcal region and the optic strut anatomy and their relations in a Greek population. METHODS: The interoptic distance, length of planum sphenoidale, sulcal length and sulcal angle was determined in 96 Greek adult dry skulls...
February 17, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210217/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-a-quantitative-review-of-cognitive-outcomes
#6
REVIEW
Joshua E Mervis, Riley J Capizzi, Elias Boroda, Angus W MacDonald
Cognitive deficits are a core and disabling feature of psychotic disorders, specifically schizophrenia. Current treatments for impaired cognition in schizophrenia remain insufficient. Recent research suggests transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can potentiate cognitive improvements in healthy individuals and those with psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. However, this burgeoning literature has not been quantitatively evaluated. Through a literature search and quantitative review, we identified 194 papers on tDCS, psychosis, and cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210202/mechanisms-and-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#7
James Giordano, Marom Bikson, Emily S Kappenman, Vincent P Clark, H Branch Coslett, Michael R Hamblin, Roy Hamilton, Ryan Jankord, Walter J Kozumbo, R Andrew McKinley, Michael A Nitsche, J Patrick Reilly, Jessica Richardson, Rachel Wurzman, Edward Calabrese
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209926/characterization-of-the-influence-of-age-on-gabaa-and-glutamatergic-mediated-functions-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-using-paired-pulse-tms-eeg
#8
Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Mera S Barr, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions in the prefrontal cortex decreases with age. Further, cognitive function mediated through the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) also declines with age. Although neuroimaging studies have demonstrated decreased levels of these substances, direct neurophysiological data investigating the effect of aging in the DLPFC in human subjects is lacking. The advent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) has allowed for the assessment of functional neurotransmission in vivo...
February 16, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209346/reliability-of-tms-phosphene-threshold-estimation-toward-a-standardized-protocol
#9
Chiara Mazzi, Silvia Savazzi, Arman Abrahamyan, Manuela Ruzzoli
BACKGROUND: Phosphenes induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are a subjectively described visual phenomenon employed in basic and clinical research as index of the excitability of retinotopically organized areas in the brain. OBJECTIVE: Phosphene threshold estimation is a preliminary step in many TMS experiments in visual cognition for setting the appropriate level of TMS doses; however, the lack of a direct comparison of the available methods for phosphene threshold estimation leaves unsolved the reliability of those methods in setting TMS doses...
February 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208601/surgical-neurostimulation-for-spinal-cord-injury
#10
REVIEW
Aswin Chari, Ian D Hentall, Marios C Papadopoulos, Erlick A C Pereira
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress in scientific understanding, regenerative therapies are lacking. In this review, we outline the current state and future potential of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation strategies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the context of SCI...
February 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207907/argon-does-not-affect-cerebral-circulation-or-metabolism-in-male-humans
#11
Frank Grüne, Stephan Kazmaier, Sanne Elisabeth Hoeks, Robert Jan Stolker, Marc Coburn, Andreas Weyland
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating data have recently underlined argon´s neuroprotective potential. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available on the cerebrovascular effects of argon (Ar) in humans. We hypothesized that argon inhalation does not affect mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (Vmca), cerebral flow index (FI), zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe), resistance area product (RAP) and the arterio-jugular venous content differences of oxygen (AJVDO2), glucose (AJVDG), and lactate (AJVDL) in anesthetized patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205500/primary-motor-cortex-excitability-is-modulated-during-the-mental-simulation-of-hand-movement
#12
Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Jarrad A G Lum, Jacqueline Williams, Jason He, Peter G Enticott
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether the primary motor cortex (PMC) is involved in the mental simulation of movement [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. The present study aimed to clarify PMC involvement using a highly novel adaptation of the hand laterality task (HLT). METHODS: Participants were administered single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the hand area of the left PMC (hPMC) at either 50 ms, 400 ms, or 650 ms post stimulus presentation. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous via electromyography...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204998/discrimination-between-emboli-and-artifacts-for-outpatient-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-data
#13
Blaise Kévin Guépié, Bruno Sciolla, Fabien Millioz, Marilys Almar, Philippe Delachartre
This paper addresses the detection of emboli in transcranial Doppler ultrasound data acquired from an original portable device. The challenge is the removal of several artifacts (motion and voice) intrinsically related to long-duration (up to 1 h 40 mn per patient) outpatient signals monitoring from this device, as well as high intensities due to the stochastic nature of blood flow. This paper proposes an adapted removal procedure. This firstly consists of reducing the background noise and detecting the blood flow in the time-frequency domain using a likelihood method for contour detection...
February 15, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203558/cerebral-monitoring-during-carotid-endarterectomy-by-transcranial-doppler-ultrasonography
#14
Woo-Sung Yun
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cerebral monitoring by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) for the detection of cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). METHODS: From August 2004 to December 2013, 159 CEAs were performed in a tertiary hospital. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. Intraoperative TCD was routinely used to detect cerebral ischemia. Of the 159 patients, 102 patients were included in this study, excluding 27 patients who had a poor transtemporal isonation window and 30 patients who used additional cerebral monitoring systems such as electroencephalography or somatosensory evoked potentials...
February 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203199/plexiform-neurofibroma-involving-the-lacrimal-gland
#15
Mikael Hofsli, Nico Gampenrieder, Steffen Heegaard
BACKGROUND: To present a rare case of a 2-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who presented with ptosis of the right upper eyelid along with a tumor in the eyelid. METHODS: A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the orbit revealed a solid tumor located extraconally at the site of the right lacrimal gland. A transcranial orbitotomy was performed. RESULTS: Histopathological examination demonstrated expanded nerve branches/fascicles cut in various planes in between normal lacrimal gland acini...
January 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203151/cerebellar-tdcs-effects-on-conditioned-eyeblinks-using-different-electrode-placements-and-stimulation-protocols
#16
Linda Beyer, Giorgi Batsikadze, Dagmar Timmann, Marcus Gerwig
There is good evidence that the human cerebellum is involved in the acquisition and timing of classically conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs). Animal studies suggest that the cerebellum is also important in CR extinction and savings. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was reported to modulate CR acquisition and timing in a polarity dependent manner. To extent previous findings three experiments were conducted using standard delay eyeblink conditioning. In a between-group design, effects of tDCS were assessed with stimulation over the right cerebellar hemisphere ipsilaterally to the unconditioned stimulus (US)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203084/use-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-auditory-hallucinations-of-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Pedro H Pondé, Eduardo P de Sena, Joan A Camprodon, Arão Nogueira de Araújo, Mário F Neto, Melany DiBiasi, Abrahão Fontes Baptista, Lidia Mvr Moura, Camila Cosmo
INTRODUCTION: Auditory hallucinations are defined as experiences of auditory perceptions in the absence of a provoking external stimulus. They are the most prevalent symptoms of schizophrenia with high capacity for chronicity and refractoriness during the course of disease. The transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - a safe, portable, and inexpensive neuromodulation technique - has emerged as a promising treatment for the management of auditory hallucinations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the level of evidence in the literature available for the use of tDCS as a treatment for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199523/detection-and-differentiation-of-cerebral-microemboli-in-patients-undergoing-major-orthopaedic-surgery-using-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound
#18
C Kietaibl, A Engel, I Horvat Menih, M Huepfl, G Erdoes, B Kubista, R Ullrich, R Windhager, K Markstaller, K U Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198386/hemispheric-differences-between-left-and-right-supramarginal-gyrus-for-pitch-and-rhythm-memory
#19
Nora K Schaal, Bettina Pollok, Michael J Banissy
Functional brain imaging studies and non-invasive brain stimulation methods have shown the importance of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) for pitch memory. The extent to which this brain region plays a crucial role in memory for other auditory material remains unclear. Here, we sought to investigate the role of the left and right SMG in pitch and rhythm memory in non-musicians. Anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied over the left SMG (Experiment 1) and right SMG (Experiment 2) in two different sessions...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197189/does-a-combined-intervention-program-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-intensive-occupational-therapy-affect-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-post-stroke-upper-limb-hemiparesis
#20
Takatoshi Hara, Masahiro Abo, Kiyohito Kakita, Takeshi Masuda, Ryunosuke Yamazaki
Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS) to the contralesional hemisphere and intensive occupational therapy (iOT) have been shown to contribute to a significant improvement in upper limb hemiparesis in patients with chronic stroke. However, the effect of the combined intervention program of LF-rTMS and iOT on cognitive function is unknown. We retrospectively investigated whether the combined treatment influence patient's Trail-Making Test part B (TMT-B) performance, which is a group of easy and inexpensive neuropsychological tests that evaluate several cognitive functions...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
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