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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036851/a-novel-low-cost-approach-for-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#1
Jakob Rodseth, Edward P Washabaugh, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is commonly used for assessing or modulating brain excitability. However, the credibility of TMS outcomes depends on accurate and reliable coil placement during stimulation. Navigated TMS systems can address this issue, but these systems are expensive for routine use in clinical and research environments. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide a high-quality open source framework for navigated TMS and test its reliability and accuracy using standard TMS procedures...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035892/patent-foramen-ovale-as-possible-cause-of-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-a-case-report
#2
Andrea Ciorba, Virginia Corazzi, Luca Cerritelli, Chiara Bianchini, Giovanni Scanelli, Claudia Aimoni
OBJECTIVE: To present a case of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and the related diagnostic work-up. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 54-year-old man presented with unilateral SSNHL episode and vertigo. A severe patent foramen ovale (PFO) that included a complete ear nose and throat, audiological and neurological examination was discovered during the diagnostic work-up. Audiometry, blood and serological tests were performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), supra-aortic trunks and lower limbs color Doppler echography were done...
October 16, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035887/valeriana-officinalis-root-extract-modulates-cortical-excitatory-circuits-in-humans
#3
Ludovico Mineo, Carmen Concerto, Dhaval Patel, Tyrone Mayorga, Michael Paula, Eileen Chusid, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
BACKGROUND: Valeriana officinalis extract (VE) is a popular herbal medicine used for the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. Although the anxiolytic and sedative effects are mainly attributed to the modulation of GABA-ergic transmission, the mechanism of action has not been fully investigated in humans. Noninvasive brain stimulation protocols can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of psychoactive substances at the cortical level in humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of a single dose of VE on cortical excitability as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034765/assessment-of-maternal-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-by-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-before-delivery-and-in-the-early-postpartum-period
#4
Hale Z Batur Caglayan, Bijen Nazliel, Mehmet Cinar, Esra Ataoglu, Ozlem Moraloglu, Ceyla Irkec
OBJECTIVE: This prospective observational study aimed to identify the effects of labor on cerebral hemodynamics by measuring the middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), and the related factors just before delivery and within the 24 h after delivery. METHODS: The study included 35 healthy pregnant women with a gestational age of >37 weeks who were in labor and a control group including healthy, age-matched, nonpregnant women (n = 24)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034496/clinical-impact-of-the-microembolic-signal-burden-during-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation-just-a-lot-of-noise
#5
Christian von Bary, Thomas Deneke, Thomas Arentz, Anja Schade, Heiko Lehrmann, Susanne Schwab-Malek, Sabine Fredersdorf, Dobri Baldaranov, Lars Maier, Felix Schlachetzki
OBJECTIVES: Microembolic signal detection by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography may be considered a surrogate for cerebral events during invasive cardiac procedures. However, the impact of the microembolic signal count during pulmonary vein isolation on the clinical outcome is not well evaluated. We investigated the effect of the microembolic signal count on the occurrence of new silent cerebral embolism measured by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), changes in neuropsychological testing, and the occurrence of clinical events during long-term follow-up after pulmonary vein isolation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034483/effect-of-sensory-and-motor-connectivity-on-hand-function-in-pediatric-hemiplegia
#6
Disha Gupta, Alexandre Barachant, Andrew M Gordon, Claudio Ferre, Hsing-Ching Kuo, Jason B Carmel, Kathleen M Friel
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that somatosensory system injury would more strongly affect movement than motor system injury in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (USCP). This hypothesis was based on how somatosensory and corticospinal circuits adapt to injury during development: while the motor system can maintain connections to the impaired hand from the uninjured hemisphere, this doesn't occur in the somatosensory system. As a corollary, cortical injury strongly impairs sensory function, so we hypothesized that cortical lesions would impair hand function more than subcortical lesions...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033859/multi-watt-near-infrared-phototherapy-for-the-treatment-of-comorbid-depression-an-open-label-single-arm-study
#7
Theodore A Henderson, Larry D Morries
BACKGROUND: The treatment of depression has been hampered by low efficacy of antidepressant medications and safety concerns with alternative modalities. Recent work demonstrated that multi-Watt transcranial near-infrared light therapy (NILT) can effectively treat traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current objective is to explore multi-Watt NILT efficacy in a proof-of-concept study as a treatment for depression. METHODS: Thirty-nine sequential patients treated for TBI between March 2013 and May 2017 provided depression self-assessment data and/or were administered the Hamilton depression rating scale...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033856/possible-facilitative-effects-of-repeated-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-functional-outcome-1-month-later-in-schizophrenia-an-open-trial
#8
Zui Narita, Takuma Inagawa, Kazuki Sueyoshi, Crystal Lin, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Recent research on neuromodulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), for the treatment of schizophrenia has mainly focused on psychotic symptoms. We aimed to determine whether repetitive tDCS is efficacious in improving determinants of outcome, such as cognitive function, daily living skills, and depressive mood in patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-eight patients underwent tDCS (2 mA × 20 min) two times per day for 5 consecutive days. The anodal electrode was placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while the cathodal electrode was placed over the right supraorbital region...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033331/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-facilitates-associative-learning-and-alters-functional-connectivity-in-the-primate-brain
#9
Matthew R Krause, Theodoros P Zanos, Bennett A Csorba, Praveen K Pilly, Jaehoon Choe, Matthew E Phillips, Abhishek Datta, Christopher C Pack
There has been growing interest in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique purported to modulate neural activity via weak, externally applied electric fields. Although some promising preliminary data have been reported for applications ranging from stroke rehabilitation to cognitive enhancement, little is known about how tDCS affects the human brain, and some studies have concluded that it may have no effect at all. Here, we describe a macaque model of tDCS that allows us to simultaneously examine the effects of tDCS on brain activity and behavior...
October 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032397/correction-to-extent-and-location-of-the-excitatory-and-inhibitory-cortical-hand-representation-maps-a-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#10
Minna Pitkänen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Petro Julkunen
The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error. An error in the transformation between coordinate systems used to derive part of the results has been noticed.
October 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032218/the-hypoglossal-nerve-anatomical-study-of-its-entire-course
#11
Giorgio Iaconetta, Domenico Solari, Alessandro Villa, Clotilde Castaldo, Rosa Maria Gerardi, Gianluigi Califano, Stefania Montagnani, Paolo Cappabianca
OBJECT: Only a few anatomic studies concerning the entire course of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) have been reported. The purpose of the present study is to analyze all the relationships of the XII nerve with the surrounding structures from the brainstem to the tongue through a microscopic perspective. A comprehensive anatomically and clinically oriented classification of its different segments is proposed. METHODS: Ten formalin-fixed adult human cadaveric heads (20 sides) were dissected with the aim to explore the entire course of the XII cranial nerve via the lateral suboccipital, the far lateral partial or total transcondilar routes...
October 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032089/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-basic-and-clinical-neuroscience-a-comprehensive-review-of-fundamental-principles-and-novel-insights
#12
REVIEW
Antoni Valero-Cabré, Julià Amengual, Chloé Stengel, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Olivier A Coubard
Non-invasive brain stimulation methods, such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), are widely used worldwide to make causality-based inferences about brain-behavior interactions. TMS-based clinical applications have been shown promising to treat neurological or psychiatric diseases. TMS works by inducing non-invasively electric currents in localized cortical regions thus modulating their excitability levels and ongoing activity patterns depending on stimulation settings: frequency, number of pulses, train duration and intertrain intervals...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031604/sex-mediates-the-effects-of-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-mind-reading
#13
A K Martin, J Huang, A Hunold, M Meinzer
Sex differences in social cognitive ability are well established, including measures of Theory of Mind (ToM). The aim of this study was to investigate if sex mediates the effects of high definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) administered to a key hub of the social brain (i.e., the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dmPFC) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). 40 healthy young adults (18-35 years) were randomly allocated to receive either anodal or cathodal HD-tDCS in sham HD-tDCS controlled, double blind designs...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031601/enhancing-generalization-of-visuomotor-adaptation-by-inducing-use-dependent-learning
#14
Yuming Lei, Shancheng Bao, Monica A Perez, Jinsung Wang
Learning a motor task in one condition typically generalizes to another, although it is unclear why it generalizes substantially in certain situations, but only partially in other situations (e.g., across movement directions and motor effectors). Here, we demonstrate that generalization of motor learning across directions and effectors can be enhanced substantially by inducing use-dependent learning, that is, by having subjects experience motor actions associated with a desired trajectory repeatedly during reaching movements...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030715/point-of-care-transcranial-doppler-by-intensivists
#15
REVIEW
Vincent Issac Lau, Robert Thomas Arntfield
In the unconscious patient, there is a diagnostic void between the neurologic physical exam, and more invasive, costly and potentially harmful investigations. Transcranial color-coded sonography and two-dimensional transcranial Doppler imaging of the brain have the potential to be a middle ground to bridge this gap for certain diagnoses. With the increasing availability of point-of-care ultrasound devices, coupled with the need for rapid diagnosis of deteriorating neurologic patients, intensivists may be trained to perform point-of-care transcranial Doppler at the bedside...
October 13, 2017: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030623/monitoring-cerebral-hemodynamic-change-during-transcranial-ultrasound-stimulation-using-optical-intrinsic-signal-imaging
#16
Evgenii Kim, Eloise Anguluan, Jae Gwan Kim
Transcranial ultrasound stimulation (tUS) is a promising non-invasive approach to modulate brain circuits. The application is gaining popularity, however the full effect of ultrasound stimulation is still unclear and further investigation is needed. This study aims to apply optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI) for the first time, to simultaneously monitor the wide-field cerebral hemodynamic change during tUS on awake animal with high spatial and temporal resolution. Three stimulation paradigms were delivered using a single-element focused transducer operating at 425 kHz in pulsed mode having the same intensity (ISPPA = 1...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030110/where-and-what-tms-activates-experiments-and-modeling
#17
Ilkka Laakso, Takenobu Murakami, Akimasa Hirata, Yoshikazu Ugawa
BACKGROUND: Despite recent developments in navigation and modeling techniques, the type and location of the structures that are activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We studied the relationships between electrophysiological measurements and electric fields induced in the brain to locate the TMS activation site. METHODS: The active and resting motor thresholds of the first dorsal interosseous muscle were recorded in 19 subjects (7 female, 12 male, age 22 ± 4 years) using anteromedially oriented monophasic TMS at multiple locations over the left primary motor cortex (M1)...
September 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028933/novel-method-for-intraoperative-assessment-of-cerebral-autoregulation-by-paced-breathing
#18
N H Sperna Weiland, J Hermanides, M W Hollmann, B Preckel, W J Stok, J J van Lieshout, R V Immink
Background: Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is the mechanism that maintains constancy of cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite variations in blood pressure (BP). Patients with attenuated CA have been shown to have an increased incidence of peri-operative stroke. Studies of CA in anaesthetized subjects are rare, because a simple and non-invasive method to quantify the integrity of CA is not available. In this study, we set out to improve non-invasive quantification of CA during surgery. For this purpose, we introduce a novel method to amplify spontaneous BP fluctuations during surgery by imposing mechanical positive pressure ventilation at three different frequencies and quantify CA from the resulting BP oscillations...
October 6, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025748/compromised-cerebrovascular-regulation-and-cerebral-oxygenation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
Simon Malenfant, Patrice Brassard, Myriam Paquette, Olivier Le Blanc, Audrey Chouinard, Valérie Nadeau, Philip D Allan, Yu-Chieh Tzeng, Sébastien Simard, Sébastien Bonnet, Steeve Provencher
BACKGROUND: Functional cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms are important for maintaining constant cerebral blood flow and oxygen supply in heathy individuals and are altered in heart failure. We aim to examine whether pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with abnormal cerebrovascular regulation and lower cerebral oxygenation and their physiological and clinical consequences. METHODS AND RESULTS: Resting mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAvmean); transcranial Doppler), cerebral pressure-flow relationship (assessed at rest and during squat-stand maneuvers; analyzed using transfer function analysis), cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2, and central chemoreflex were assessed in 11 patients with PAH and 11 matched healthy controls...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024263/field-distribution-of-transcranial-static-magnetic-stimulation-in-realistic-human-head-model
#20
Joseph J Tharayil, Stefan M Goetz, John M Bernabei, Angel V Peterchev
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to characterize the magnetic field (B-field) that arises in a human brain model from the application of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The spatial distribution of the B-field magnitude and gradient of a cylindrical, 5.08 cm × 2.54 cm NdFeB magnet were simulated in air and in a human head model using the finite element method and calibrated with measurements in air. The B-field was simulated for magnet placements over prefrontal, motor, sensory, and visual cortex targets...
October 10, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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