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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527914/impact-of-hepatic-p450-mediated-biotransformation-on-the-disposition-and-respiratory-tract-toxicity-of-inhaled-naphthalene
#1
Nataliia Kovalchuk, Jacklyn Kelty, Lei Li, Matthew Hartog, Qing-Yu Zhang, Patricia Edwards, Laura Van Winkle, Xinxin Ding
We determined whether a decrease in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 activity would impact lung toxicity induced by inhalation exposure to naphthalene (NA), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The liver-Cpr-null (LCN) mouse showed decreases in microsomal metabolism of NA in liver, but not lung, compared to wild-type (WT) mouse. Plasma levels of NA and NA-glutathione conjugates (NA-GSH) were both higher in LCN than in WT mice after a 4-h nose-only NA inhalation exposure at 10ppm. Levels of NA were also higher in lung and liver of LCN, compared to WT, mice, following exposure to NA at 5 or 10ppm...
May 17, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527913/von-willebrand-factor-deficiency-reduces-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#2
Nikita Joshi, Anna K Kopec, Jessica L Ray, Holly Cline-Fedewa, Dafna J Groeneveld, Ton Lisman, James P Luyendyk
Liver diseases are associated with complex changes in the hemostatic system and elevated levels of the platelet-adhesive protein Von Willebrand factor (VWF) are reported in patients with acute and chronic liver damage. Although elevated levels of VWF are associated with fibrosis in the general population, the role of VWF in acute and chronic liver injury has not been examined in depth in experimental settings. We tested the hypothesis that VWF deficiency inhibits experimental liver injury and fibrosis. Wild-type (WT) and VWF-deficient mice were challenged with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and the impact of VWF deficiency on acute liver injury and chronic liver fibrosis was determined...
May 17, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526972/patient-experiences-attitudes-and-expectations-towards-receiving-information-about-anti-tnf-medication-a-quantitative-study
#3
Jon Packham, Paul Arkell, Tom Sheeran, Ann Brownfield, Anthony Cadwgan, Sarah Ryan
The objective of the study was to measure patient attitudes and experience of information received during drug counselling for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) medications. This is a cross-sectional UK postal questionnaire study. Three RA patient groups-disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) only, first anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and failed anti-TNF-were sent postal questionnaires. Data on patient history/demographics, drug counselling experience, knowledge of drug side effects, attitudes to vaccinations, cancer screening and blood borne virus testing was collected; 264/679 (39%) patients responded (median age 65 years, 66% female, median disease duration 15 years)...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526925/polyphenolic-extract-attenuates-fatty-acid-induced-steatosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-hepatic-and-endothelial-cells
#4
Laura Vergani, Giulia Vecchione, Francesca Baldini, Elena Grasselli, Adriana Voci, Piero Portincasa, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro A Casazza, Patrizia Perego
PURPOSE: Phenolic compounds (PC) of virgin olive oil exert several biochemical and pharmacological beneficial effects. Some dietary PC seem to prevent/improve obesity and metabolic-related disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the possible effects of PC extracted from olive pomace (PEOP) and of the main single molecules present in the extract (tyrosol, apigenin, oleuropein, p-coumaric and caffeic acid) in protecting hepatocytes and endothelial cells against triglyceride accumulation and oxidative stress...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526861/shedding-of-host-autophagic-proteins-from-the-parasitophorous-vacuolar-membrane-of-plasmodium-berghei
#5
Carolina Agop-Nersesian, Mariana De Niz, Livia Niklaus, Monica Prado, Nina Eickel, Volker T Heussler
The hepatic stage of the malaria parasite Plasmodium is accompanied by an autophagy-mediated host response directly targeting the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) harbouring the parasite. Removal of the PVM-associated autophagic proteins such as ubiquitin, p62, and LC3 correlates with parasite survival. Yet, it is unclear how Plasmodium avoids the deleterious effects of selective autophagy. Here we show that parasites trap host autophagic factors in the tubovesicular network (TVN), an expansion of the PVM into the host cytoplasm...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526381/medium-term-effect-of-sublingual-l-glutathione-supplementation-on-flow-mediated-dilation-in-subjects-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#6
Jonica Campolo, Stefano Bernardi, Lorena Cozzi, Silvia Rocchiccioli, Cinzia Dellanoce, Antonella Cecchettini, Annamaria Tonini, Marina Parolini, Benedetta De Chiara, Gianpaolo Micheloni, Gualtiero Pelosi, Claudio Passino, Cristina Giannattasio, Oberdan Parodi
OBJECTIVE: Supplementation of glutathione (GSH) may be a positive strategy to improve the endogenous antioxidant defense required to counteract many acute and chronic diseases. However, the efficacy of GSH treatment seems to be closely related to type of administration, degree of absorption, and increase of its concentrations. The aim of this study was to test a new sublingual formulation of L-GSH, which enters directly the systemic circulation, to assess its efficacy on circulating biochemical markers of hepatic metabolism, lipid profile, and oxidative stress and on peripheral vascular function compared with placebo in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF)...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526339/magnesium-isoglycyrrhizinate-blocks-fructose-induced-hepatic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-lipid-metabolism-disorder
#7
Xiao-Juan Zhao, Yan-Zi Yang, Yan-Jing Zheng, Shan-Chun Wang, Hong-Mei Gu, Ying Pan, Shui-Juan Wang, Hong-Jiang Xu, Ling-Dong Kong
Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate as a hepatoprotective agent possesses immune modulation and anti-inflammation, and treats liver diseases. But its effects on immunological-inflammatory and metabolic profiles for metabolic syndrome with liver injury and underlying potential mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate alleviated liver inflammation and lipid accumulation in fructose-fed rats with metabolic syndrome. It also suppressed hepatic inflammatory signaling activation by reducing protein levels of phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (p-NF-κB p65), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase α/β (p-IKKα/β) and inhibitor of NF-κB α (p-IκBα) as well as nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and Caspase-1 in rats, being consistent with its reduction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 levels...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524366/contrasting-hcv-and-hiv-seroepidemiology-in-11-years-of-blood-donors-screening-in-brazil
#8
J E Levi, S M Lira, C B Bub, M B Polite, C C Terzian, J M Kutner
BACKGROUND: Blood donors are, in principle, healthy individuals who may be revealed as infectious for blood-borne agents by the laboratory screening process, depicting the asymptomatic burden of the disease. Therefore, monitoring hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected donor and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donor and associating to their demographical and behavioural characteristics may shed light on the dynamics and contemporary changes in these viruses' epidemiology. METHODS: Donors presenting repeatedly reactive HCV or HIV serology/nucleic acid testing (NAT) screening results were submitted to confirmatory testing...
May 19, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524363/donor-transmitted-mutation-of-the-abcb11-gene-and-ensuing-intra-hepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient
#9
Tiong Yeng Lim, Iona Coltart, Pierre Foskett, Richard Thompson, Sandra Strautnieks, Leonie Penna, Catherine Williamson, Rosa Miquel, Michael A Heneghan
In liver transplant (LT) recipients, the cause of graft dysfunction in pregnancy is often difficult to ascertain. Moreover, a liver biopsy in late pregnancy is often avoided as a consequence of patient and physician factors. Management of graft dysfunction can be difficult in this setting. We report a 30-year-old female LT recipient who developed acutely deranged liver biochemistry during the third trimester of her first pregnancy. At 29 weeks gestation, her liver function test (LFT) became abnormal; AST peaked at 978 IU/L (normal range 10-50), GGT 25 IU/L (normal range 1-55), bilirubin 1...
May 19, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524171/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-fatty-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Charles E Foulds, Lindsey S Treviño, Brian York, Cheryl L Walker
A growing epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is paralleling the increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in countries that consume a Western diet. As NAFLD can lead to life-threatening conditions such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, an understanding of the factors that trigger its development and pathological progression is needed. Although by definition this disease is not associated with alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental agents that have been linked to other diseases might have a role in the development of NAFLD...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523926/quantitative-evaluation-of-insulin-resistance-markers-in-pakistani-patients-suffering-from-hcv-associated-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
S N Sabir, S Manzoor, F Parvaiz, M Saalim, E Ghani
The current study was designed to determine the role of the host genes involved in the development of chronic hepatitis C-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was carried out in patients in four different stages of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including treatment-naïve HCV patients, HCV-positive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), non-responders and responders. The mRNA expression level of host genes, such as glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and different adipokines including adiponectin, leptin and resistin, was quantified and compared to healthy controls...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523599/differential-effects-of-early-life-nutrient-restriction-in-long-lived-ghr-ko-and-normal-mice
#12
Yimin Fang, Samuel McFadden, Justin Darcy, Cristal M Hill, Joshua A Huber, Steve Verhulst, John J Kopchick, Richard A Miller, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
There is increasing evidence that growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (collectively referred to as somatotropic signaling) during development has a profound influence on aging and longevity. Moreover, the absence of GH action was shown to modify responses of adult mice to calorie restriction (CR) and other antiaging interventions. It was therefore of interest to determine whether GH resistance in GH receptor knockout (GHR-KO) mice would modify the effects of mild pre-weaning CR imposed by increasing the number of pups in a litter (the so-called litter crowding)...
May 18, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523535/self-protection-against-triptolide-induced-toxicity-in-human-hepatic-cells-via-nrf2-are-nqo1-pathway
#13
Ling-Ling Zhou, Cong Zhou, Xiao-Wen Liang, Zhe Feng, Zhang-Pu Liu, Hao-Lu Wang, Xue-Ping Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To find the signaling pathway of triptolide (TP)-induced liver injury and to reveal whether NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in cellular self-protection. METHODS: The L-02 and HepG2 cells were cultured and treated with various concentrations of TP. The cell viability was observed, and the cell medium was collected for detecting the aspartate aminotransferase (ALT), alanine aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and L-glutathione production (GSH) levels...
May 18, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523515/distribution-of-exogenous-and-endogenous-cyp3a-markers-and-related-factors-in-healthy-males-and-females
#14
Jieon Lee, Andrew HyoungJin Kim, SoJeong Yi, SeungHwan Lee, Seo Hyun Yoon, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Joo-Youn Cho
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme in humans. Assessing CYP3A activity is necessary for predicting therapeutic outcomes or the potential adverse events of various therapeutics. This study sought to evaluate the distribution of endogenous and exogenous markers reflecting hepatic CYP3A activity and related factors affecting its activity in healthy male and female. Each subject was given a single 1 mg dose of midazolam intravenously. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacometabolomics, and pharmacogenomics analyses were performed to evaluate CYP3A activity...
May 18, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523311/study-concerning-the-histopathological-changes-in-chronic-hepatopathies
#15
Cristian Marius Daina, Lucia Georgeta Daina, Marinela Bonta, Daniela Rahotă, Gabriela MuŢiu
Chronic liver diseases represent a public health problem both at global level and in our country. Their significance is due not only to the large number of cases but also to their severe complications and associated diseases, which increase the gravity of prognosis. Hepatopathies generally develop by formation and accumulation of fibrous tissue, which leads to architectural distortions in the structure of the liver. Hepatic fibrosis is the result of chronic injury and plays a direct role in the pathogenesis of the hepatocellular dysfunction and portal hypertension...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522913/gutuo-jiejiu-decoction-improves-survival-of-patients-with-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Hong-Yuan Mou, Hong-Ming Nie, Xiao-Yu Hu
AIM: To verify the value of Gutuo Jiejiu decoction in improving the survival of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in consecutive patients diagnosed with SAH at the Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The traditional Chinese medicine formula Gutuo Jiejiu decoction was employed as an exposure factor...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522909/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antioxidative-and-hepatoprotective-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-cortex-dictamni
#17
Lin Li, Yun-Feng Zhou, Yan-Lin Li, Li-Li Wang, Hiderori Arai, Yang Xu
AIM: To investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Cortex Dictamni aqueous extract (CDAE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. METHODS: The in vitro antioxidant effect of CDAE was investigated using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), β-carotene bleaching, reducing power, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assays. A linoleic acid system, including ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays, was used to evaluate the inhibition of lipid peroxidation...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522795/risk-factors-for-hepatic-venous-outflow-obstruction-in-piggyback-liver-transplantation-the-role-of-recipient-s-pattern-of-hepatic-veins-drainage-into-the-inferior-vena-cava
#18
Qifa Ye, Cheng Zeng, Yanfeng Wang, Zhehong Fang, Xiaoyan Hu, Yan Xiong, Ling Li
BACKGROUND The recipient's pattern of hepatic veins (HVs) drainage into the inferior vena cava (IVC) (drainage pattern, for short) may influence outflow reconstruction and thus hepatic venous outflow obstruction (HVOO) in piggyback liver transplantation (PBLT). However, no previous study has investigated this association. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 202 PBLT (2000-2016) was conducted. Based on drainage patterns, the patients were divided into Group A (common trunk of left and middle HVs), Group B (common trunk of right and middle HVs), and Group C (common trunk of 3 HVs)...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522403/multiplex-autoantibody-detection-for-autoimmune-liver-diseases-and-autoimmune-gastritis
#19
Joris Vanderlocht, Mart van der Cruys, Frans Stals, Liesbeth Bakker-Jonges, Jan Damoiseaux
Autoantibody detection for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is traditionally performed by IIF on a combination of tissues. Multiplex line/dot blots (LIA/DIA) offer multiple advantages, i.e. automation, objective reading, no interfering reactivities, no coincidental findings. In the current study we evaluated automated DIA (D-Tek) for detecting autoantibodies related to autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We tested samples of the Dutch EQC program and compared the results with the consensus of the participating labs...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521874/sirna-mediated-inhibition-of-srebp-cleavage-activating-protein-reduces-dyslipidemia-in-spontaneously-dysmetabolic-rhesus-monkeys
#20
Beth Ann Murphy, Marija Tadin-Strapps, Kristian Jensen, Robin Mogg, Andy Liaw, Kithsiri Herath, Gowri Bhat, David G McLaren, Stephen F Previs, Shirly Pinto
BACKGROUND: SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) is a cholesterol binding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that is required to activate SREBP transcription factors. SREBPs regulate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. They also influence lipid clearance by modulating the expression of LDL receptor (LDLR) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. Inhibiting SCAP decreases circulating PCSK9, triglycerides (TG), and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), both in vitro and in vivo...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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