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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#1
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
December 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922518/hepatitis-c-point-of-care-testing-in-vulnerable-populations-a-human-factors-study
#2
Donna M Zucker, Akshaya Shanmugam
One third of all hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases in the United States are incarcerated in jails and prisons. Hepatitis C virus testing is primarily accomplished through a clinical laboratory, yet point-of-care (POC) testing is less invasive and results are available in 20 minutes compared with up to 3 weeks. The purpose of this article was to describe the findings of a collaborative project between the Colleges of Engineering and Nursing at the University of Massachusetts Amherst in executing a human factors study for HCV antibody testing and screening...
November 2016: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922109/regulation-of-hepcidin-expression-by-inflammation-induced-activin-b
#3
Yohei Kanamori, Makoto Sugiyama, Osamu Hashimoto, Masaru Murakami, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Activin B is induced in response to inflammation in the liver and enhances hepcidin expression, but the source of activin B and the molecular mechanism underlying hepcidin induction are not clear yet. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation induced inhibin βB but not inhibin α or inhibin βA expression in the liver, implicating activin B induction. Immunoreactive inhibin βB was detected in endothelial cells and Kupffer cells in LPS-treated liver. Activin B, but not activin A or activin AB, directly increased hepcidin expression...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920819/co-administration-of-metformin-and-n-acetylcysteine-with-dietary-control-improves-the-biochemical-and-histological-manifestations-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#4
Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Sayed Hassan Seif El-Din, Abdel-Nasser Abdel-Aal Sabra, Olfat Ali Hammam, Fatma Abdel-Latif Ebeid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem that affects 1/3 of the adult population and an increasing number of children in developed countries. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance are the mechanisms that seem to be mostly involved in its pathogenesis. This study was conceived in a NAFLD rat model to evaluate the efficacy of both metformin (MTF) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with dietary control on biochemical and histologic liver manifestations. Rats were classified into nine groups; normal (I), NAFLD-induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD; II) for 12 weeks, NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or -RD treated with MTF in a dose of 150 mg/kg (IV, V), NAC in a dose of 500 mg/kg (VI, VII) or MTF+NAC (VIII, IX) respectively for 8 weeks...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920555/effect-of-cyberknife-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-on-hepatic-toxicity
#5
Ping Liang, Cheng Huang, Shi-Xiong Liang, Ye-Fei Li, Shang-Xiao Huang, Zu-Ping Lian, Jian-Min Liu, Yang Tang, Hai-Jie Lu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and identify the treatment-related risk factors of hepatic toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and four HCC patients treated with CyberKnife SBRT were included in this study between August 2009 and December 2012. The average dose of prescribed radiation was 42.81±4.78 Gy (28-55 Gy) with the average fraction size of 8-16 Gy to the planning target volume...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920470/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-multisystem-disease
#6
REVIEW
Ivana Mikolasevic, Sandra Milic, Tamara Turk Wensveen, Ivana Grgic, Ivan Jakopcic, Davor Stimac, Felix Wensveen, Lidija Orlic
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920414/morbidity-and-mortality-and-predictors-of-outcome-following-hepatectomy-at-a-saudi-tertiary-care-center
#7
Faisal Al-Alem, Rafif Essam Mattar, Ola Abdelmonem Fadl, Abdulsalam Alsharabi, Faisal Al-Saif, Mazen Hassanain
BACKGROUND: Hepatic resection is a major surgical procedure. Data on outcomes of hepatectomy in Saudi Arabia are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To measure morbidity and mortality and assess predictors of outcome after hepatectomy. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia with well established hepatobiliary surgery unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients undergoing liver resection in our institute during 2006-2014...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919848/surgical-outcomes-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-invading-hepatocaval-confluence
#8
Wei Li, Hong Wu, Jun Han
BACKGROUND: Combined liver and inferior vena cava (IVC) resection followed by IVC and/or hepatic vein reconstruction (HVR) is a curative operation for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the hepatocaval confluence. The present study aimed to elucidate the prognostic factors for patients with HCC invading the hepatocaval confluence. METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients underwent hepatectomy, combined with IVC replacement and/or HVR for HCC between January 2009 and December 2014 were included in this study...
December 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919710/the-transcription-factor-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-chrebp-a-possible-link-between-metabolic-disease-and-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Katsumi Iizuka
Carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP) has been identified as a transcription factor that binds to carbohydrate response element in the promoter of pyruvate kinase, liver and red blood cells. ChREBP is activated by metabolites derived from glucose and suppressed by adenosine monophosphate (AMP), ketone bodies and cyclic cAMP. ChREBP regulates gene transcription related to glucose and lipid metabolism. Findings from knockout mice and human subjects suggest that ChREBP helps to induce hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance...
December 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918964/sarcopenia-in-older-mice-is-characterized-by-a-decreased-anabolic-response-to-a-protein-meal
#10
Miriam van Dijk, Jolanda Nagel, Francina J Dijk, Jerôme Salles, Sjors Verlaan, Stephane Walrand, Klaske van Norren, Yvette Luiking
Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been studied in mice of various ages/strains; the aim was to study if mice display similar deteriorating processes as human ageing. Therefore, 10,16,21 and 25 months-old C57BL6/6J male mice were studied to measure parameters of sarcopenia and factors contributing to its pathophysiology, with the aim of characterizing sarcopenia in old mice...
November 27, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918845/application-of-probabilistic-modeling-to-quantify-the-reduction-levels-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-attributable-to-chronic-aflatoxins-exposure
#11
Joseph M Wambui, Edward G Karuri, Julia A Ojiambo, Patrick M K Njage
Epidemiological studies show a definite connection between areas of high aflatoxin content and a high occurrence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B virus in individuals further increases the risk of HCC. The two risk factors are prevalent in rural Kenya and continuously predispose the rural populations to HCC. A quantitative cancer risk assessment therefore quantified the levels at which potential pre- and postharvest interventions reduce the HCC risk attributable to consumption of contaminated maize and groundnuts...
December 5, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918111/imatinib-accelerates-progenitor-cell-mediated-liver-regeneration-in-choline-deficient-ethionine-supplemented-diet-fed-mice
#12
András Rókusz, Edina Bugyik, Vanessza Szabó, Armanda Szücs, Sándor Paku, Péter Nagy, Katalin Dezső
Severe chronic hepatic injury can induce complex reparative processes. Ductular reaction and the appearance of small hepatocytes are standard components of this response, which is thought to have both adverse (e.g. fibrosis, carcinogenesis) and beneficial (regeneration) consequences. This complex tissue reaction is regulated by orchestrated cytokine action. We have investigated the influence of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib on a regenerative process. Ductular reaction was induced in mice by the widely used choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented diet (CDE)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917568/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-recurrent-chronic-hepatitis-b-after-nucleos-t-ide-analog-withdrawal-with-stringent-cessation-criteria-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Zhirong Liu, Feng Liu, Lei Wang, Youde Liu, Meng Zhang, Tao Li
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with recurrent chronic hepatitis B meeting the cessation criteria outlined by the 2008 Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines. METHODS: In total, 223 chronic hepatitis B patients who met the cessation criteria and discontinued nucleos(t)ide analog therapy were prospectively included. They were monitored monthly during the first 4 months and every 3-6 months thereafter...
November 7, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917462/iron-overload-across-the-spectrum-of-non-transfusion-dependent-thalassaemias-role-of-erythropoiesis-splenectomy-and-transfusions
#14
John B Porter, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Antonis Kattamis, Vip Viprakasit, Khaled M Musallam, Zewen Zhu, Ali T Taher
Non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemias (NTDT) encompass a spectrum of anaemias rarely requiring blood transfusions. Increased iron absorption, driven by hepcidin suppression secondary to erythron expansion, initially causes intrahepatic iron overload. We examined iron metabolism biomarkers in 166 NTDT patients with β thalassaemia intermedia (n = 95), haemoglobin (Hb) E/β thalassaemia (n = 49) and Hb H syndromes (n = 22). Liver iron concentration (LIC), serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation (TfSat) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) were elevated and correlated across diagnostic subgroups...
December 5, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917263/changes-in-cellular-proliferation-and-plasma-products-are-associated-with-liver-failure
#15
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Frederico Marianetti Soriani, Pedro Henrique Ferreira Sucupira, Leonardo Assaf Pinheiro, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Cristina Carvalho Vianna Araújo, Lúcio Filgueiras Pacheco-Moreira, Gustavo Batista Menezes, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Claudia Lamarca Vitral, Marcelo Alves Pinto
AIM: To study the differences in immune response and cytokine profile between acute liver failure and self-limited acute hepatitis. METHODS: Forty-six patients with self-limited acute hepatitis (AH), sixteen patients with acute liver failure (ALF), and twenty-two healthy subjects were involved in this study. The inflammatory and anti-inflammatory products in plasma samples were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays and quantitative real-time PCR...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916939/immunopathogenic-mechanisms-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-how-much-do-we-know-from-animal-models
#16
REVIEW
Urs Christen, Edith Hintermann
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by a progressive destruction of the liver parenchyma and a chronic fibrosis. The current treatment of autoimmune hepatitis is still largely dependent on the administration of corticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. For a long time the development of novel therapeutic strategies has been hampered by a lack of understanding the basic immunopathogenic mechanisms of AIH and the absence of valid animal models. However, in the past decade, knowledge from clinical observations in AIH patients and the development of innovative animal models have led to a situation where critical factors driving the disease have been identified and alternative treatments are being evaluated...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#17
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
December 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916360/combined-resection-and-rfa-in-colorectal-liver-metastases-stratification-of-long-term-outcomes
#18
Kazunari Sasaki, Georgios A Margonis, Nikolaos Andreatos, Yuhree Kim, Ana Wilson, Faiz Gani, Neda Amini, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Combined hepatic resection and radiofrequency ablation (resection-RFA) is a widely accepted multidisciplinary treatment for unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases. Worse prognosis after resection-RFA is correlated to tumor morphology, although unfavorable morphology is inherent to this patient cohort. This study aimed to select patients who may or may not benefit from resection-RFA with the aid of tumor biology. METHOD: Data from 485 patients who underwent curative hepatectomy with or without concurrent RFA were retrospectively collected and analyzed...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916348/blood-transfusion-is-an-independent-predictor-of-morbidity-and-mortality-after-hepatectomy
#19
Allison N Martin, Matthew J Kerwin, Florence E Turrentine, Todd W Bauer, Reid B Adams, George J Stukenborg, Victor M Zaydfudim
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that blood transfusion is associated with increased risk of worse outcomes among patients selected for hepatectomy. However, the independent effect of transfusion has not been confirmed. We hypothesize that blood transfusion is an independent factor that affects outcomes in patients undergoing hepatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients at tertiary care center who underwent hepatectomy between 2006 and 2013 were identified and linked with the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program PUF data set...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916216/endocarditis-as-a-marker-for-new-epidemics-of-injection-drug-use
#20
Susana Williams Keeshin, Judith Feinberg
BACKGROUND: We examined discharges for infective endocarditis (IE) at an academic teaching hospital for over 10 years to evaluate if an increase in hospitalizations for IE and increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with IE could predict a new epidemic of injection drug use (IDU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective medical record review of discharged patients with the diagnosis of IE as defined by the modified Duke criteria. Student's t test, chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to calculate P values...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
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