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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667282/cardiac-gated-phase-contrast-magnetic-resonance-angiography-is-a-reliable-and-reproducible-technique-for-quantifying-blood-flow-in-canine-major-cranial-abdominal-vessels
#1
Francesca Del Chicca, Andrea Schwarz, Paula Grest, Florian Willmitzer, Matthias Dennler, Patrick R Kircher
Blood flow changes in cranial abdominal vessels are important contributing factors for canine hepatic disease. This prospective, experimental, pilot study aimed to evaluate cardiac-gated, phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PCMRA) as a method for characterizing blood flow in canine major cranial abdominal vessels. Eleven, healthy, adult beagle dogs were sampled. Cardiac-gated, phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography of the cranial abdomen was performed in each dog and blood flow was independently measured in each of the major cranial abdominal vessels by three observers, with two observers recording blood flow values once and one observer recording blood flow values three times...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666154/prediction-and-quantification-of-hepatic-transporter-mediated-uptake-of-pitavastatin-utilizing-a-combination-of-the-relative-activity-factor-approach-and-mechanistic-modeling
#2
Pallabi Mitra, Samantha Weinheimer, Meeghan Michalewicz, Mitchell E Taub
Quantification of the fraction transported (ft) by a particular transporter will facilitate more robust estimations of transporter interactions. Using pitavastatin as a model uptake transporter substrate, we investigated the utility of the relative activity factor (RAF) approach and mechanistic modeling, to estimate ft in hepatocytes. Transporters evaluated were OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and NTCP. Transporter expressing HEK293 cells and human hepatocytes were used for determining RAF values, which were then incorporated into the mechanistic model to simulate hepatocyte uptake of pitavastatin over time...
April 17, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666149/genetic-and-phenotypic-difference-in-cd8-t-cell-exhaustion-between-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Xiaochen Wang, Qifeng He, Haiyuan Shen, Xiao-Jie Lu, Beicheng Sun
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies published have suggested that T cell exhaustion exists both in chronic infection and cancer. However, to date, few studies have investigated their differences. Here we designed this study to explore the genetic and phenotypic difference in CD8+ T cell exhaustion between chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: In this study, we assayed the phenotypes and functional states of CD8+ T cells separating from human CHB tissues and HCC tissues, and re-analyse the single-cell sequencing data (GSE98638) published previously...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665630/comparison-of-surgical-resection-versus-transarterial-chemoembolization-with-additional-radiation-therapy-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-portal-vein-invasion
#4
Danbi Lee, Han Chu Lee, Jihyun An, Ju Hyun Shim, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee
Background/Aims: Portal vein invasion (PVI) is a poor prognostic factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We intended to compare the effects of surgical resection and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with additional radiation therapy (RT) in HCC patients with PVI. Methods: The subjects comprised 43 patients who underwent surgical resection for HCC with PVI without previous treatment and another 43 patients who received TACE followed by RT (TACE+RT) as initial treatment who were matched for Child-Pugh class, tumor size, and extent of PVI...
January 16, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665034/metabolic-features-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-nafl-in-obese-adolescents-findings-from-a-multi-ethnic-cohort
#5
Domenico Tricò, Sonia Caprio, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Bridget Pierpont, Jessica Nouws, Alfonso Galderisi, Grace Kim, Mariana M Mata, Nicola Santoro
AIMS: We conducted a prospective study in a large, multiethnic cohort of obese adolescents to characterize clinical and genetic features associated with pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFL), the most common cause of chronic liver disease in youth. METHODS: A total of 503 obese adolescents were enrolled, including 191 (38.0%) Caucasians, 134 (26.6%) African Americans, and 178 (35.4%) Hispanics. Participants underwent abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify hepatic fat content, an oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and the genotyping of three SNPs associated with fatty liver (PNPLA3 rs738409, GCKR rs1260326, and TM6SF2 rs58542926)...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665000/increased-killer-b-cells-in-chronic-hcv-infection-may-lead-to-autoimmunity-and-increased-viral-load
#6
Nasren Eiza, Eli Zuckerman, Matthias Carlebach, Tova Rainis, Yair Goldberg, Zahava Vadasz
BACKGROUND: B regulatory (Breg) cells are characterized by various membrane markers, and the secretion of different inhibitory cytokines. A new subset of Breg cells was identified as CD5hi Fas-ligand (FasL)hi. Their main reported role is to suppress anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses and hence, they have been dubbed "killer" B cells. In this study, we aim to assess the role of these cells in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and determine if they contribute to the increased viral load and persistence of HCV and its related autoimmunity...
April 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664906/cigarette-smoking-is-a-risk-factor-for-the-onset-of-fatty-liver-disease-in-nondrinkers-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#7
Masashi Okamoto, Teruki Miyake, Kohichiro Kitai, Shinya Furukawa, Shin Yamamoto, Hidenori Senba, Sayaka Kanzaki, Akiko Deguchi, Mitsuhito Koizumi, Toru Ishihara, Hiroaki Miyaoka, Osamu Yoshida, Masashi Hirooka, Teru Kumagi, Masanori Abe, Bunzo Matsuura, Yoichi Hiasa
BACKGROUND: The effect of cigarette smoking on the onset of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear, especially that associated with drinking small amounts of alcohol. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and NAFLD onset, which was stratified according to the amount of alcohol consumed. METHODS: We enrolled 7,905 Japanese subjects who had received annual health checkups more than twice between April 2003 and August 2013, 4,045 of whom met at least one of the following exclusion criteria and were excluded: (a) fatty liver at baseline; (b) hepatitis B or hepatitis C; (c) alcohol consumption (men: ≥210 g/wk; women: ≥140 g/wk); (d) change in alcohol drinking status between baseline and the study's endpoint; (e) change in cigarette smoking habits between baseline and the study's endpoint; or (f) current treatment with antidiabetic agents, antihypertensive agents, and/or lipid-lowering agents...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664893/occupational-exposure-during-emergency-department-thoracotomy-a-prospective-multi-institution-study
#8
Andrew Nunn, Priya Prakash, Kenji Inaba, Alvarez Escalante, Zoë Maher, Seiji Yamaguchi, Dennis Y Kim, James Maciel, William C Chiu, Byron Drumheller, Joshua P Hazelton, Kaushik Mukherjee, Xian Luo-Owen, Rachel M Nygaard, Ashley P Marek, Bryan C Morse, Caitlin A Fitzgerald, Patrick L Bosarge, Randeep S Jawa, Susan E Rowell, Louis J Magnotti, Adrian W Ong, Tejal S Brahmbhatt, Michael D Grossman, Mark J Seamon
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure is an important consideration during emergency department thoracotomy (EDT). While HIV/hepatitis prevalence in trauma patients (0-16.8%) and occupational exposure rates during operative trauma procedures (1.9-18.0%) have been reported, exposure risk during EDT is unknown. We hypothesized that occupational exposure risk during EDT would be greater than other operative trauma procedures. METHODS: A prospective, observational study at 16 US trauma centers was performed (2015-2016)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664710/analysis-of-host-and-viral-related-factors-associated-to-direct-acting-antiviral-response-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients
#9
Hafsa Aziz, Muneeba Aziz, Muzaffar Lateef Gill
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) signifies an important health issue as it is a globally prevalent pathogen and poses a great threat to human health. Direct antiviral therapy became a landmark in treatment against chronic HCV infection as they have proven to increase sustained virological response (SVR) rate, provide shortened and simplified regimens. This study aimed to evaluate efficacy of Sofosbuvir and classify factors of treatment success and their function in therapy continuation decision. We studied host and viral factors in 310 patients who received Sofosbuvir (DAA) at a dose of 400 mg daily along with ribavirin 10 mg/kg body weight for 24 weeks and followed by 12 weeks after completion of treatment...
April 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663452/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-in-health-facilities-of-tigray-northern-ethiopia
#10
Selam Niguse, Haftamu Hailekiros, Gerezgiher Buruh, Tadese Dejene, Nega Berhe, Tsehaye Asmelash
Existing literatures from developing countries show an increased mortality and morbidity related to hepatitis E virus during pregnancy as compared to the general population. Studies focusing on pregnant women are required for policy makers to improve maternal and child health. Therefore this study is aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis E virus infection among pregnant women attending the health facilities of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. In this cross sectional study 846 pregnant women were included consecutively from April 2014 to February 2016...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663433/indeterminate-genotypes-of-hepatitis-c-virus-by-the-abbott-realtime-hcv-genotype-ii-assay-in-morocco-about-8-cases-resolved-by-a-sequencing-method
#11
Mesbahi Z, Kabbaj H, Malki E, Bouihat N, Qrafli M, Belfquih B, Marcil S, Challine D, Pawlotsky Jm, Bouvier Alias M, Seffar M
The early detection and genotyping of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important in the management of this infection. The genotype is the major factor influencing treatment decisions. That's why it is necessary to use fast and accurate methods in its determination. This study reports, over a period of 3 years (from May 2012 to July 2015), the percentage of indeterminate genotypes by the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II test and their results using a sequencing technique. Of 309 samples of 309 patients tested, 11 were indeterminate (4...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663266/hepatitis-b-virus-screening-and-reactivation-in-a-national-va-cohort-of-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-treated-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-antagonists
#12
Rajesh Shah, Edith Y Ho, Jennifer R Kramer, Peter Richardson, Shubhada Sansgiry, Hashem B El-Serag, Jason K Hou
BACKGROUND: Practice guidelines recommend screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection prior to initiating treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy. However, the adherence to these screening guidelines and the clinical outcomes of HBV reactivation following anti-TNF use are not well known. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using the Veterans Health Administration datasets for IBD patients with filled prescriptions for anti-TNFs from 2003 to 2011...
April 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663140/poorly-differentiated-ductal-adenocarcinoma-of-the-pancreas-with-rapid-progression-in-a-young-man
#13
Koji Tezuka, Tomoharu Ishiyama, Akiko Takeshita, Hidekazu Matsumoto, Akira Jingu, Jiro Kikuchi, Hideyuki Yamaya, Rintaro Ohe, Tetsuya Ishizawa
Pancreatic cancer in young adults is very rare. We report a case of young-onset poorly differentiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with rapid progression and poor prognosis in a 31-year-old Japanese man with no obvious family history of malignancy. Preoperative examinations revealed a mass lesion in the body of the pancreas, accompanied by a slightly dilated main pancreatic duct distal to the mass lesion. Pancreatic cancer with acute pancreatitis was suspected because of an elevation of serum pancreatic enzyme and tumor marker, along with imaging findings...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662930/biliary-atresia-clinical-series
#14
Bárbara Neto, Mariana Borges-Dias, Eunice Trindade, José Estevão-Costa, José Miguel Campos
Introduction: Biliary atresia is the main cause of death by hepatic failure and the main indication for liver transplant in children. This study aims to analyze the population with this diagnosis, treated between 2000 and 2015 at Hospital de São João. Material and Methods: Descriptive, observational, and retrospective study, including the patients with biliary atresia, diagnosed and treated between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2015. We analyzed epidemiologic, clinical, biochemical, and image data, as well as registered complications and present status...
March 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662454/the-biological-clock-a-pivotal-hub-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Salvatore De Cosmo, Tommaso Mazza
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent hepatic pathology in the Western world and may evolve into steatohepatitis (NASH), increasing the risk of cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD derives from the accumulation of hepatic fat due to discrepant free fatty acid metabolism. Other factors contributing to this are deranged nutrients and bile acids fluxes as well as alterations in nuclear receptors, hormones, and intermediary metabolites, which impact on signaling pathways involved in metabolism and inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662128/the-extracellular-domain-of-staphylococcus-aureus-ltas-binds-insulin-and-induces-insulin-resistance-during-infection
#16
Yu Liu, Fang-Jie Liu, Zhang-Chun Guan, Fang-Ting Dong, Jian-Hua Cheng, Ya-Ping Gao, Di Li, Jun Yan, Cheng-Hua Liu, Dian-Peng Han, Chun-Mei Ma, Jian-Nan Feng, Bei-Fen Shen, Guang Yang
Insulin resistance is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes and predisposes individuals to Staphylococcus aureus colonization; however, the contribution of S. aureus to insulin resistance remains unclear. Here, we show that S. aureus infection causes impaired glucose tolerance via secretion of an insulin-binding protein extracellular domain of LtaS, eLtaS, which blocks insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Notably, eLtaS transgenic mice (eLtaS trans ) exhibited a metabolic syndrome similar to that observed in patients, including increased food and water consumption, impaired glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic glycogen synthesis...
April 16, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661866/reciprocal-effects-of-antiretroviral-drugs-used-to-treat-hiv-infection-on-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-%C3%AE-klotho-system
#17
Ricardo Moure, Pere Domingo, Joan Villarroya, Laura Gasa, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Tania Quesada-López, Samantha Morón-Ros, Alberto F Maroto, Gracia M Mateo, Joan C Domingo, Francesc Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Following antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients show increased circulating levels of the antidiabetic hormone fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21). In contrast, expression of the FGF21-obligatory co-receptor β-Klotho (KLB) is reduced in target tissues. This situation is comparable to the FGF21 resistance status observed in obesity and type-2 diabetes. Here, we performed the first systematic study of the effects of distinct members of different antiretroviral drug classes on the FGF21/KLB system in human hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle cells...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661680/individual-level-key-associations-and-modes-of-exposure-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-a-systematic-synthesis
#18
Sarwat Mahmud, Silva P Kouyoumjian, Zaina Al Kanaani, Hiam Chemaitelly, Laith J Abu-Raddad
PURPOSE: To identify, map, and synthesize the individual-level key associations and modes of exposure for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the most affected region by HCV. METHODS: Source of data was the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project database, populated through systematic literature searches. Risk factors determined to be statistically significant after adjustment for confounders were extracted and categorized into key associations or modes of exposure...
March 21, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661436/model-for-end-stage-liver-disease-score-before-hepatic-transplantation-and-root-mean-square-of-the-diaphragmatic-domes-affect-postoperative-extubation-time
#19
R P Duarte, A M O da Silva, R M Tonella, L S R Ratti, I F S F Boin
INTRODUCTION: The liver transplantation procedure, in addition to its prolonged surgical time, also predisposes to complications such as changes in respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, and gas exchange. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to verify if clinical factors related to the recipient, namely immediate pretransplant Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, surgical time, and root square metric (RMS) of the diaphragmatic domes, affect the extubation time after liver transplantation...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661433/better-selection-criteria-with-prognostic-factors-for-liver-transplantation
#20
L S Nacif, R S Pinheiro, V Rocha-Santos, V M Barbosa, A P de Moura Dias, R B Martino, R A Macedo, L Ducatti, L Haddad, F Galvão, W Andraus, L Carneiro D' Albuquerque
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation has evolved significantly in recent years, with each advancement part of the effort toward increasing patient and graft survival as well as quality of life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors and selection criteria for liver transplantation. METHODS: Our study was a statistical analysis, logistic regression, and survival evaluation of a total of 80 liver transplants that were performed between June 1, 2016 and September 24, 2016...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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