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herd immunity

HyeEun Eom, YoungJoon Park, JooWhee Kim, Jeong-Sun Yang, HaeJi Kang, Kisoon Kim, Byung Chul Chun, Ok Park, Jeong Ik Hong
The Republic of Korea declared measles elimination in 2006. However, a measles outbreak occurred in 2013. This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics of the sources of infection and the pattern of measles transmission in 2013 in South Korea. We utilized surveillance data, epidemiological data, immunization registry data, and genetic information. We describe the epidemiological characteristics of all measles case patients (sex, age distribution, vaccination status, sources of infection) as well as details of the outbreak (the pattern of transmission, duration, mean age of patients, and generation time)...
2018: PloS One
Anna Lacasta, Stephen Mwalimu, Elisabeth Kibwana, Rosemary Saya, Elias Awino, Thomas Njoroge, Jane Poole, Nicholas Ndiwa, Roger Pelle, Vishvanath Nene, Lucilla Steinaa
East Coast fever (ECF) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the tick-transmitted protozoan parasite Theileria parva. ECF is one of the most serious cattle tick-borne diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. We have previously demonstrated that three doses of the C-terminal part of the sporozoite protein p67 (p67C) adjuvanted with ISA206VG confers partial protection against ECF at a herd level. We have tested the efficacy of two doses of this experimental vaccine, as reducing the vaccination regimen would facilitate its deployment in the field...
February 8, 2018: Vaccine
Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Julian Savulescu
We argue that individuals who have access to vaccines and for whom vaccination is not medically contraindicated have a moral obligation to contribute to the realisation of herd immunity by being vaccinated. Contrary to what some have claimed, we argue that this individual moral obligation exists in spite of the fact that each individual vaccination does not significantly affect vaccination coverage rates and therefore does not significantly contribute to herd immunity. Establishing the existence of a moral obligation to be vaccinated (both for adults and for children) despite the negligible contribution each vaccination can make to the realisation of herd immunity is important because such moral obligation would strengthen the justification for coercive vaccination policies...
February 10, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Dominic Thorrington, Leo van Rossum, Mirjam Knol, Hester de Melker, Hans Rümke, Eelko Hak, Albert Jan van Hoek
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes morbidity and mortality among all ages in The Netherlands. To reduce this burden, infants in The Netherlands receive the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV10), but older persons are not targeted. We assessed the impact and cost-effectiveness of vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) or 13-valent PCV (PCV13) among all those aged 60, 65 or 70 and/or in combination with replacing PCV10 with PCV13 in the infant vaccination programme...
2018: PloS One
A G Boyle, J F Timoney, J R Newton, M T Hines, A S Waller, B R Buchanan
This consensus statement update reflects our current published knowledge and opinion about clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology, treatment, complications, and control of strangles. This updated statement emphasizes varying presentations in the context of existing underlying immunity and carrier states of strangles in the transmission of disease. The statement redefines the "gold standard" for detection of possible infection and reviews the new technologies available in polymerase chain reaction diagnosis and serology and their use in outbreak control and prevention...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Shahrokh Izadi, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Talat Mokhtari-Azad
Eight months after the mass immunization campaign of November 2015 against measles and rubella in the southeast of Iran, in order to evaluate the sero-immunity level of the people living in the mentioned region, a serosurvey study was performed. Using a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling, the sera of 1,056 participants, ranging from 15 months to 20 years old, were tested for measles and rubella IgG antibodies in the National Reference Laboratory at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran...
February 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Andrew Brettin, Rosa Rossi-Goldthorpe, Kyle Weishaar, Igor V Erovenko
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe infection with an extremely high fatality rate spread through direct contact with body fluids. A promising Ebola vaccine (rVSV-ZEBOV) may soon become universally available. We constructed a game-theoretic model of Ebola incorporating individual decisions to vaccinate. We found that if a population adopts selfishly optimal vaccination strategies, then the population vaccination coverage falls negligibly short of the herd immunity level. We concluded that eradication of Ebola is feasible if voluntary vaccination programmes are coupled with focused public education efforts...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Ting Yang, Fengxia Zhang, Liwei Zhai, Weiyong He, Zhen Tan, Yangyang Sun, Yuan Wang, Lei Liu, Chao Ning, Weiliang Zhou, Hong Ao, Chuduan Wang, Ying Yu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a virus susceptible to antibody dependent enhancement, causing reproductive failures in sows and preweaning mortality of piglets. Modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines are used to control PRRS in swine herds. However, immunized sows and piglets often generate variable antibody levels. This study aimed to detect significant genes and pathways involved in antibody responsiveness of pregnant sows and their offspring post-PRRSV vaccination. RNA sequencing was conducted on peripheral blood-mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which were isolated from pregnant sows and their piglets with high (HA), median (MA), and low (LA) PRRS antibody levels following vaccination...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Heidi Auerswald, Camille Boussioux, Saraden In, Sokthearom Mao, Sivuth Ong, Rekol Huy, Rithea Leang, Malen Chan, Veasna Duong, Sowath Ly, Arnaud Tarantola, Philippe Dussart
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus circulating worldwide. Its presence in Asia has been reported since the 1950s, constituting the Asian genotype. Since 2005, strains from the Eastern, Central, and Southern African (ECSA) genotype have caused several outbreaks across Asia. Viruses from the ECSA genotype were also detected in Cambodia in late 2011 and led to an outbreak in a rural community in 2012. A former investigation from 2012 found a higher risk of infection in people younger than 40 years, suggesting a pre-existing herd immunity in the older Cambodian population due to infection with an Asian genotype...
February 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Junhong Li, Zhujun Shao, Gang Liu, Xilian Bai, Ray Borrow, Min Chen, Qinglan Guo, Yue Han, Yixing Li, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Xihai Xu, Xin Xu, Huizhen Zheng
The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group, including scientists, clinicians and public health officials from a wide range of specialities. The goal of the GMI is to prevent meningococcal disease worldwide through education, research, and co-operation. The Chinese GMI roundtable meeting was held in June 2017. The GMI met with local experts to gain insight into the meningococcal disease burden in China and current prevention and vaccination strategies in place. China experienced five epidemics of serogroup A meningococcal disease (MenA) between 1938 and 1977, with peak incidence of 403/100,000 recorded in 1967...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Infection
Umair Qazi, Sidra Malik, Usman A Raza, Maryam Saad, Muhammad Fazal Zeeshan, Saeed Anwar
The importance of childhood immunization in prevention of highly fatal diseases and disability cannot be overemphasized. Pakistan has a national Expanded Program on Immunization but the compliance is far below the international benchmark for achieving a herd immunity. Monitoring the compliance to timely receipt of vaccinations is crucial to establishing and preventing disease and disability associated risk in children. There is little or no evidence that reports the timeliness of the vaccinations according to the EPI schedule in Peshawar...
January 26, 2018: Vaccine
M C Niederwerder, R A Hesse
Swine enteric coronaviruses, including porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), have emerged and spread throughout the North American swine industry over the last four years. These diseases cause significant losses within the pork industry and within the first year after PEDV introduction, approximately 10% of the US herd died due to the disease. Similar to other enteric coronaviruses, such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), these emerging swine enteric coronavirus diseases (SECD) are age-dependent, with high morbidity and mortality in neonatal pigs...
February 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Anat Amit Aharon, Haim Nehama, Shmuel Rishpon, Orna Baron-Epel
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been an increase in parents who do not comply with recommended routine vaccines. The vaccination coverage rates in Israel are known, but the reasons for not completing immunizations are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of failure to complete the routine vaccinations in time and the reasons among different population groups. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control cohort study, among children born in 2009...
January 2018: Harefuah
Francisco Ceacero, Enrique Gaspar-López, Tomás Landete-Castillejos, Laureano Gallego, Andrés J García
We studied the effects of social rank on the haematologic profile in a herd of 24 female Iberian red deer hinds. Social rank hierarchy was determined and blood samples were taken and analysed. After adjusting for age and body mass, dominance ranking showed a significant negative effect (ie, lower values in dominant hinds) on white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Our results are similar to those reported for stressed individuals due to physical immobilisation, but do not support the predicted enhanced erythropoiesis due to higher levels of androgens...
January 26, 2018: Veterinary Record
Nicola Principi, Giuseppe Di Cara, Ilaria Bizzarri, Chiara Isidori, Paola Borgia, Costanza Mignini, Marco Saponara, Alberto Argentiero, Susanna Esposito
Starting from 2010, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in several countries. This paper discusses some of the problems recently emerged after PCV13 use and their clinical impact. The impact of PCV13 has been relevant and has saved millions of children and adults by severe infectious diseases. However, it seems likely that in the future, effectiveness of the vaccine might be even higher than that presently evidenced. This is because long-term administration of PCV13 to the pediatric population can favor a more extensive reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization with vaccine serotypes of both vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects and further reduce invasive pneumococcal disease in all the individuals (herd immunity)...
January 24, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Daria Matczyńska, Daniel Sypniewski, Sabina Gałka, Dagna Sołtysik, Tomasz Loch, Ewa Nowak, Zdzisław Smorąg, Ilona Bednarek
Molecular characterization of the SLA (Swine Leukocyte Antigen) genes is important for understanding the immune responses between swine-donor and human-recipient in course of xenotransplantation. Explanation of association between alleles of SLA class I genes, type of pigs genetic modification, the PERV viral titer, and its subtypes may shed light on the nature of xenograft acceptance or rejection and the safety of xenotransplantation. No significant differences in PERV gag RNA level between transgenic and non-transgenic pigs were noted, likewise the type of applied transgene had no impact on PERV viremia...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
A W Byrne, J Graham, C Brown, A Donaghy, M Guelbenzu-Gonzalo, J McNair, R A Skuce, A Allen, S W McDowell
Correctly identifying bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle remains a significant problem in endemic countries. We hypothesized that animal characteristics (sex, age, breed), histories (herd effects, testing, movement) and potential exposure to other pathogens (co-infection; BVDV, liver fluke and Mycobacterium avium reactors) could significantly impact the immune responsiveness detected at skin testing and the variation in post-mortem pathology (confirmation) in bTB-exposed cattle. Three model suites were developed using a retrospective observational data set of 5,698 cattle culled during herd breakdowns in Northern Ireland...
January 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Hongjie Xia, Xuping Xie, Chao Shan, Pei-Yong Shi
A number of mechanisms have driven the explosive epidemics and severe diseases of Zika virus since 2007. Here, we comment on how herd immunity, heterologous flavivirus preimmunity, and viral mutations could enhance the epidemic potential and disease severity of Zika virus in humans.
January 22, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Ivan Kosik, William L Ince, Lauren E Gentles, Andrew J Oler, Martina Kosikova, Matthew Angel, Javier G Magadán, Hang Xie, Christopher B Brooke, Jonathan W Yewdell
Rapid antigenic evolution enables the persistence of seasonal influenza A and B viruses in human populations despite widespread herd immunity. Understanding viral mechanisms that enable antigenic evolution is critical for designing durable vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we utilize the primerID method of error-correcting viral population sequencing to reveal an unexpected role for hemagglutinin (HA) glycosylation in compensating for fitness defects resulting from escape from anti-HA neutralizing antibodies...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Sarah Tc Elliott, David B Weiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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