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herd immunity

François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink
Modelling the long-term seroprevalence evolution against Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is of first interest to plan vaccination strategies and to predict viral resurgence. The objectives of this study were first to estimate the duration of colostral immunity and the persistence of active immunity in a sheep flock that encountered two episodes of natural SBV infection and then to model the evolution of SBV seroprevalence by considering immune status as well as zootechnical variables. The entire sheep flock of the University of Namur composed by around 400 ewes producing 600 lambs a year and characterized by an annual 24...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Yiyang Chen, Baoyuan Liu, Yani Sun, Huixia Li, Taofeng Du, Yuchen Nan, Julian A Hiscox, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes liver disease in humans and is thought to be a zoonotic infection with domestic animals being a reservoir including swine and rabbits. One of the proteins encoded by the virus is the capsid protein. This is likely the major immune-dominant protein and a target for vaccination. Four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs); three novel; 1E4, 2C7, 2G9, and one previously characterized (1B5), were evaluated for binding to the capsid protein from genotype 4 (swine) hepatitis E virus (HEV). The results indicated that 625 DFCP628 , 458 PSRPF462 , and 407 EPTV410 peptides on the capsid protein comprised minimal amino acid sequence motifs recognized by 1E4, 2C7, and 2G9, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
Rolf M Zinkernagel
Vaccines or early childhood exposure to infection mediate immunity, that is, improved resistance against disease and death caused by a second infection with the same agent. This has been explained by and equaled to immunological memory, that is, an "altered immune system behavior" that is maintained in a presumably antigen-independent fashion. This review summarizes epidemiological and experimental data, that largely falsify this idea and that show that periodic re-exposure to antigen either, artificially as vaccines or naturally as low-level persisting antigens or infections, or immune complexes on follicular dendritic cells or endemic re-exposure is necessary for protection...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
Salvador Oliver-Ferrando, Joaquim Segalés, Sergio López-Soria, Antonio Callén, Olivier Merdy, François Joisel, Marina Sibila
BACKGROUND: This study sought to evaluate the effect of sow vaccination against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) on reproductive parameters during two consecutive reproductive cycles. The study was performed in a PCV2 subclinical infected breeding herd (PCV2 circulation but absence of major reproductive problems). Ninety-four pregnant sows were primo-immunized with a commercial PCV2 vaccine and ninety-seven were injected with phosphate-buffered saline at 6 and 3 weeks before the first studied farrowing, and then boosted at 2 weeks before the second one...
April 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Ulrike Kusebauch, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Stine L Bislev, Robert L Moritz, Christine M Røntved, Emøke Bendixen
Mastitis is a major challenge to bovine health. The detection of sensitive markers for mastitis in dairy herds is of great demand. Suitable biomarkers should be measurable in milk and should report pathogen-specific changes at an early stage to support earlier diagnosis and more efficient treatment. However, the identification of sensitive biomarkers in milk has remained a challenge, in part due to their relatively low concentration in milk. In the present study, we used a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry approach, which allowed the absolute quantitation of 13 host response proteins in milk for the first time...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ngonda Saasa, Masahiro Kajihara, George Dautu, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Shuetsu Fukushi, Yona Sinkala, Shigeru Morikawa, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Jiro Arikawa
The open reading frame of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) strain MP12 was cloned and expressed in Vero E6 cells. The recombinant NP (rNP)-expressing cells were used as antigens for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The rNP-based IFA and RVFV-infected Vero E6 cell (authentic antigen)-based IFA showed similar IFA profiles with immune rabbit serum, which was prepared by immunization with rNP expressed using a baculovirus vector. A total of 942 traditional cattle sera obtained in five districts in Central, Southern, and Western provinces of Zambia were screened for anti-RVFV antibodies by the authentic antigen-based and rNP-based IFAs...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Mohanned Naif Alhussien, Aarti Kamboj, Mustafa Ahmad Aljader, Bibhudatta S K Panda, Munna Lal Yadav, Lakshit Sharma, Seid Mohammed, Aasif Ahmad Sheikh, Masoud Lotfan, Rajeev Kapila, A K Mohanty, Ajay Kumar Dang
Pregnancy losses during the peri-implantation period cause a negative impact on the reproductive and economic performance of dairy herds. In this study, we investigated the possible immunological factors which may contribute to pregnancy loss during the peri-implantation period under different seasons of tropical conditions. Eighteen Karan Fries cows, six cows in each season (W: winter; HH: hot-humid; HD: hot-dry) were selected. These cows exhibited heat and were brought for artificial insemination (AI; day 0)...
March 29, 2018: Theriogenology
Alvaro Mitsunori Nishikawa, Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Giulia Marcelino Mainardi, Angela Carvalho Freitas, Alexander Itria, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh Novaes, Patrícia Coelho de Soárez
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the economic evaluations of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in adults aged ≥60 years to inform the development of local studies through the discussion of parameters and assumptions that influence the results of the analyses. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica, Cochrane Library, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Brazilian Regional Library of Medicine, National Health Service Economic Evaluation, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination-as well as the Scopus citation index and the Web of Science for full economic evaluations of PPV23 published up to March 2016...
April 2, 2018: Vaccine
Emilie Vallée, Cord Heuer, Julie M Collins-Emerson, Jackie Benschop, Anne L Ridler, Peter R Wilson
Most New Zealand sheep flocks are seropositive to Leptospira serovars Hardjo and/or Pomona, yet vaccination is rare. This study evaluated the impact of exposure to these serovars and of vaccination, on primiparous one- (P1) and two-year-old (P2) sheep reproduction outcomes. The study was designed as a split-flock vaccination trial, with a third of the animals vaccinated starting at one month of age. Reproduction outcomes were the proportion of bred P1 (7 months old) and as P2 (19 months old) scanned pregnant, the proportion of pregnant ewes rearing a lamb to tail docking and the proportion of docked lambs that were weaned...
March 22, 2018: Theriogenology
Urban Johansson Kostenniemi, Jessica Palm, Sven-Arne Silfverdal
AIM: Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory tract infections including acute otitis media and pneumonia. In this study, we evaluated the impact of general infant pneumococcal vaccination, introduced in Sweden in 2009, on respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We studied the incidence of respiratory tract infections and antibiotic consumption in Västerbotten County, Sweden, during 2005-2014 by using the County Council's diagnosis register. RESULTS: Comparing the pre-vaccination period of 2005-2008 to 2014, the incidences of all-cause acute otitis media decreased significantly in children aged 0-4 and 5-17 years, by 41...
March 30, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Iacopo Baussano, Fulvio Lazzarato, Guglielmo Ronco, Silvia Franceschi
International variations in the prevalence of HPV infection derive from differences in sexual behaviors, which are also a key factor of the basic reproductive number (R0 ) of HPV infection in different populations. R0 affects the strength of herd protection and hence the impact of a vaccination program. Similar vaccination programs may therefore generate different levels of impact depending upon the population's pre-vaccination HPV prevalence. We used IARC's transmission model to estimate a) the overall effectiveness of vaccination versus no vaccination in women aged 15 to 34 years measured as percent prevalence reduction (%PR) of HPV16, and b) the corresponding herd protection in populations with gender-equal and traditional sexual behavior and with different levels of sexual activity, corresponding to pre-vaccination HPV16 prevalence from 1% to 8% as observed worldwide...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jesse D Blanton, Michael Niezgoda, Cathleen A Hanlon, Craig B Swope, Jason Suckow, Brandi Saidy, Kathleen Nelson, Richard B Chipman, Dennis Slate
Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) is an effective tactic for wildlife rabies control, particularly for containment of disease spread along epizootic fronts. As part of the continuing evaluation of the ORV program in free-ranging raccoons in the US, 37 raccoons from ORV-baited areas in Pennsylvania were live-trapped and transferred to captivity to evaluate protection against rabies in animals with varying levels of existing neutralizing antibodies, expressed in international units per milliliter (IU/mL). Among the 37 raccoons at the date of capture, 24% (9/37) of raccoons were seronegative (<0...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Mary Lou Berninger, Emily O'Hearn, Richanne Lomkin, Ken Newens, Karyn A Havas
Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a vesicular disease of horses, cattle, and pigs in the Western Hemisphere caused by viruses in the genus Vesiculovirus. Disease manifests as vesicles and erosions on the oral mucosa, teats, prepuce, and coronary band, and is similar in presentation to foot-and-mouth disease. Laboratory confirmation is therefore required. Conventional assays include competitive (c)ELISA and complement fixation (CF). The cELISA provides more accurate herd-level detection of VSV-exposed cattle, but may lack the ability to capture fluctuating antibody levels in individual animals...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Saman Lashkari, Mahmood Habibian, Søren Krogh Jensen
With the increase in the global herd, the use of metabolic modifiers has become an important area for many researchers looking for a supraphysiological diet to improve production parameters. For improving the performance of high yielding cows, the optimal balance of all nutrients including microminerals is important. Chromium (Cr) is one of the important micronutrients which plays an important role in metabolism of ruminants. Experimental studies have found that Cr could change performance, immune responses, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, and antioxidant status in dairy cows...
March 28, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Maximilian Seidl, Moritz Bader, Astrid Vaihinger, Ulrich F Wellner, Rumyana Todorova, Bettina Herde, Klaudia Schrenk, Jochen Maurer, Oliver Schilling, Thalia Erbes, Paul Fisch, Jens Pfeiffer, Linda Hoffmann, Kai Franke, Martin Werner, Peter Bronsert
Cancer research of immune-modulating mechanisms mainly addresses the role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Mechanisms modulating the adaptive immune system at the primary activation site - the draining lymph node (LN) - are less investigated. Here we present tumor-caused histomorphological changes in tumor draining LNs of breast cancer patients, dependent on the localization (sentinel LN vs. non-sentinel LN), the tumor size, the intrinsic subtype and nodal metastatic status. The quantitative morphological study was conducted in breast cancer patients with at least one sentinel LN and no neoadjuvant therapy...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Giovanni Curina, Roberto Nardini, Sara Corneli, Nicoletta D'Avino, Michele Tentellini, Claudia Montagnoli, Giulio Severi, Katia Forti, Beatrice Paternesi, Mauro Coletti, Monica Cagiola
The Brucella melitensis REV1 vaccine is the most widely employed vaccine for prophylaxis against brucellosis in sheep and goats. The objective of vaccination is disease control in herds or preventing infection in farms. In this study, we produced REV1 vaccine with a protocol, based on the use of liquid medium in a bioreactor, that resulted efficient, safe, relatively fast, and cost-effective. The live attenuated vaccine produced was tested in mice and sheep to investigate its immunogenicity and efficacy. Seventy-two female BALB/c mice were obtained and subdivided in 2 groups, one was stimulated with 1 × 106 colony-forming units (CFUs) of B...
April 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Aina Furutani, Tadahiro Kawabata, Masuo Sueyoshi, Yosuke Sasaki
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) occurred in Japan in 2013 after an interval of 7 years. The present study assessed individual productivity of sows exposed to PED virus at different periods of the production stage. The present study was performed at three commercial farms that had PED outbreak during the month of December 2013. Herd immunization was conducted for all gilts and sows. The production records were obtained for sows that were alive during the PED outbreak at each farm. The sows were categorized into six groups based on the period in which they were exposed to PED virus between days 0-30 (G1), 31-60 (G2), 61-90 (G3), or after 91 days of pregnancy (G4), during lactation (L), and after weaning (W)...
March 15, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Masaya M Saito, Keisuke Ejima, Ryo Kinoshita, Hiroshi Nishiura
Elevating herd immunity level against rubella is essential to prevent congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Insufficient vaccination coverage left susceptible pockets among adults in Japan, and the outbreak of rubella from 2012 to 2013 resulted in 45 observed CRS cases. Given a limited stock of rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) available, the Japanese government recommended healthcare providers to prioritize vaccination to those confirmed with low level of immunity, or to those likely to transmit to pregnant women...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Paul Balmer, Cynthia Burman, Lidia Serra, Laura J York
Colonization of the human nasopharyngeal tract by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is usually asymptomatic, but life-threatening meningococcal disease with a clinical presentation of meningitis, septicemia, or more rarely, gastrointestinal symptoms, can develop. Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) can be fatal within 24 hours, but IMD is vaccine-preventable. Vaccines used to protect against IMD caused by 5 of the 6 most common serogroups (A, B, C, W, and Y) may also influence carriage prevalence in vaccinated individuals...
March 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Francesca Macchi, José Manuel Rojas, Andrea Elizabeth Verna, Noemí Sevilla, Valentina Franceschi, Giulia Tebaldi, Sandro Cavirani, Verónica Martín, Gaetano Donofrio
Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) is an extremely infective morbillivirus that primarily affects goats and sheep. In underdeveloped countries where livestock are the main economical resource, PPRV causes considerable economic losses. Protective live attenuated vaccines are currently available but they induce antibody responses similar to those produced in PPRV naturally infected animals. Effective vaccines able to distinguish between vaccinated and naturally infected animals are required to PPRV control and eradication programs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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