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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328521/human-papillomavirus-first-and-second-generation-vaccines-current-status-and-future-directions
#1
Somayeh Pouyanfard, Martin Müller
It has been more than 10 years that the first prophylactic papillomavirus vaccine became available, although distribution has been mainly limited to the more affluent countries. The first two vaccines have been a great success, hundreds of millions of women and a much smaller number of men have been vaccinated ever since. In a few countries with high vaccination coverage, in particular Australia but also parts of Great Britain and others, clinical impact of vaccination programs is already visible and there are indications for herd immunity as well...
March 22, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294578/rethinking-thresholds-for-serological-evidence-of-influenza-virus-infection
#2
Xiahong Zhao, Karen Siegel, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Alex R Cook
INTRODUCTION: For pathogens such as influenza that cause many sub-clinical cases, serologic data can be used to estimate attack rates and the severity of an epidemic in near real-time. Current methods for analysing serologic data tend to rely on use of a simple threshold or comparison of titers between pre- and post-epidemic, which may not accurately reflect actual infection rates. METHODS: We propose a method for quantifying infection rates using paired sera and bivariate probit models to evaluate the accuracy of thresholds currently used for influenza epidemics with low and high existing herd immunity levels, and a subsequent non-influenza period...
March 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292980/streptococcus-pneumoniae-transmission-is-blocked-by-type-specific-immunity-in-an-infant-mouse-model
#3
Tonia Zangari, Yang Wang, Jeffrey N Weiser
Epidemiological studies on Streptococcus pneumoniae show that rates of carriage are highest in early childhood and that the major benefit of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a reduction in the incidence of nasopharyngeal colonization through decreased transmission within a population. In this study, we sought to understand how anti-S. pneumoniae immunity affects nasal shedding of bacteria, the limiting step in experimental pneumococcal transmission. Using an infant mouse model, we examined the role of immunity (passed from mother to pup) on shedding and within-litter transmission of S...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288752/encysted-cyathostomin-larvae-in-foals-progression-of-stages-and-the-effect-of-seasonality
#4
Martin K Nielsen, Eugene T Lyons
Cyathostomins (small strongyles) are ubiquitous in grazing horses and are known pathogens as cause of larval cyathostominosis. As part of their life cycle, cyathostomin larvae invade the mucosal walls of the large intestines and undergo encystment. Newly ingested third stage larvae are known to undergo arrested development and this can lead to an accumulation of encysted burdens over the course of a grazing season. It is believed that the host immune system plays a significant role in triggering this arrestment...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288206/an-in-vivo-system-for-directed-experimental-evolution-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus
#5
Robyn N Hall, Lorenzo Capucci, Markus Matthaei, Simona Esposito, Peter J Kerr, Michael Frese, Tanja Strive
The calicivirus Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is widely used in Australia as a biocontrol agent to manage wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. However, widespread herd immunity limits the effectiveness of the currently used strain, CAPM V-351. To overcome this, we developed an experimental platform for the selection and characterisation of novel RHDV strains. As RHDV does not replicate in cell culture, variant viruses were selected by serially passaging a highly virulent RHDV field isolate in immunologically naïve laboratory rabbits that were passively immunised 18-24 hours post-challenge with a neutralising monoclonal antibody...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288018/cost-effectiveness-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children-in-portugal
#6
Miguel Gouveia, Francesca Fiorentino, Gonçalo Jesus, João Costa, Margarida Borges
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal infections are the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children. In June 2015, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in the Portuguese Immunization Program. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of children vaccination with PCV13 versus no vaccination for preventing pneumococcal diseases (PD). METHOD: A cohort simulation model for 2014 Portuguese newborns was used, considering a lifetime horizon and existence of herd effect on adults...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286295/impact-of-non-medical-vaccine-exemption-policies-on-the-health-and-economic-burden-of-measles
#7
Melanie D Whittington, Allison Kempe, Amanda Dempsey, Rachel Herlihy, Jonathan D Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Despite relatively high national vaccination coverage for measles, geographic vaccination variation exists resulting in clusters of susceptibility. A portion of this geographic variation can be explained by differences in state policies related to non-medical vaccine exemptions. The objective of this analysis was to determine the magnitude, likelihood, and cost of a measles outbreak under different non-medical vaccine exemption policies. METHODS: An agent-based transmission model simulated the likelihood and magnitude of a measles outbreak under different non-medical vaccine exemption policies, previously categorized as easy, medium, or difficult...
March 9, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284681/systematic-review-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-influenza-immunization-programs
#8
REVIEW
Eon E K Ting, Beate Sander, Wendy J Ungar
BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza immunization programs vary widely across jurisdictions. In Canada, some provinces offer universal programs while others target specific population groups. However, whether targeted or universal programs provide more benefit and value-for-money is unclear. The cost-effectiveness of influenza immunization programs was systematically reviewed to inform policy. METHODS: Citation databases and the grey literature were searched for economic evaluations of influenza immunization programs...
March 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284625/putative-vaccine-breakthrough-event-associated-with-heterotypic-rotavirus-infection-in-newborn-calves-turkey-2015
#9
Ilke Karayel, Enikő Fehér, Szilvia Marton, Nüvit Coskun, Krisztián Bányai, Feray Alkan
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are regarded as major enteric pathogens of large ruminants, including cattle. Rotavirus vaccines administered to pregnant cows are commonly used to provide passive immunity that protects newborn calves from the clinical disease. In this study we report the detection of RVA from calves with severe diarrhea in a herd regularly vaccinated to prevent enteric infections including RVA. Diarrheic disease was observed in newborn calves aged 4-15days, with high morbidity and mortality rates, but no diarrhea was seen in adult animals...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277778/herd-immunity-to-newcastle-disease-virus-in-broiler-flocks-in-israel
#10
Anat Wiseman, Elyakum M Berman
Due to the ongoing need to protect poultry from virulent Newcastle disease virus, all commercial poultry flocks in Israel are vaccinated according to a defined program using a combination of live and inactivated vaccines. The vaccination protocol for broilers during the years of the study comprised a live vaccine administered by spray on the day of hatch, inactivated vaccine by subcutaneous injection at 10-12 days of age, and another live vaccine given by aerosol at 17-21 days of age. A cross-sectional study was designed in order to examine the influence of herd immunity on the risk of Newcastle disease (ND) outbreak in broiler flocks...
March 1, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260141/evidence-of-natural-co-infection-with-pcv2b-subtypes-in-vivo
#11
Yi Hu, Yang Zhan, Dongliang Wang, Xiaohong Xie, Tanbin Liu, Wei Liu, Naidong Wang, Zhibang Deng, Hongyu Lei, Yi Yang, Aibing Wang
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative pathogen of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD). This virus evolves mostly through point mutations and genome recombination between different PCV2 genotypes (e.g. PCV2a and PCV2b), as has been confirmed in swine herds. In the current work, the complete PCV2 genome sequences of 69 clones derived from various tissues (lymph node, spleen and lung,) of an infected individual, were subjected to phylogenetic and alignment analyses. The results not only demonstrate co-infection with distinct PCV2b subtypes (e...
March 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256391/molecular-epidemiology-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolated-from-mastitis-in-brazilian-dairy-herds
#12
Glei A Carvalho-Castro, Juliana R Silva, Luciano V Paiva, Dircéia A C Custódio, Rafael O Moreira, Glaucia F Mian, Ingrid A Prado, Antônio Chalfun-Junior, Geraldo M Costa
Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most common pathogens leading to mastitis in dairy herds worldwide; consequently, the pathogen causes major economic losses for affected farmers. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), genotypic capsular typing by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and virulence gene detection were performed to address the molecular epidemiology of 59 bovine (mastitis) S. agalactiae isolates from 36 dairy farms located in the largest milk-producing mesoregions in Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, and Pernambuco)...
February 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256310/asymptomatic-infection-and-unrecognised-ebola-virus-disease-in-ebola-affected-households-in-sierra-leone-a-cross-sectional-study-using-a-new-non-invasive-assay-for-antibodies-to-ebola-virus
#13
Judith R Glynn, Hilary Bower, Sembia Johnson, Catherine F Houlihan, Carla Montesano, Janet T Scott, Malcolm G Semple, Mohammed S Bangura, Alie Joshua Kamara, Osman Kamara, Saidu H Mansaray, Daniel Sesay, Cecilia Turay, Steven Dicks, Raoul E Guetiya Wadoum, Vittorio Colizzi, Francesco Checchi, Dhan Samuel, Richard S Tedder
BACKGROUND: The frequency of asymptomatic infection with Ebola virus is unclear: previous estimates vary and there is no standard test. Asymptomatic infection with Ebola virus could contribute to population immunity, reducing spread. If people with asymptomatic infection are infectious it could explain re-emergences of Ebola virus disease (EVD) without known contact. METHODS: We validated a new oral fluid anti-glycoprotein IgG capture assay among survivors from Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Centre and controls from communities unaffected by EVD in Sierra Leone...
February 27, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254459/epidemiological-characteristics-of-measles-from-2000-to-2014-results-of-a-measles-catch-up-vaccination-campaign-in-xianyang-china
#14
Rong-Qiang Zhang, Hong-Bing Li, Feng-Ying Li, Li-Xin Han, Yong-Min Xiong
This study was a cross-sectional case-control study aimed at (1) identifying risk factors contributing to the measles epidemic and (2) evaluating the impacts of measles-containing vaccines (MCVs), with the goal of providing evidence-based recommendations for measles elimination strategies in China. Data on measles cases from 2000 to 2014 were obtained from a passive surveillance system at the Center for Diseases Prevention and Control in Xianyang. The effectiveness of MCVs was evaluated in 357 patients with a vaccination history and 503 healthy randomly selected controls...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245803/policy-perspectives-on-post-pandemic-influenza-vaccination-in-ghana-and-malawi
#15
Evanson Z Sambala, Lenore Manderson
BACKGROUND: In the late 1990s, in the context of renewed concerns of an influenza pandemic, countries such as Ghana and Malawi established plans for the deployment of vaccines and vaccination strategies. A new pandemic was declared in mid-June 2009, and by April 2011, Ghana and Malawi vaccinated 10% of the population. We examine the public health policy perspectives on vaccination as a means to prevent the spread of infection under post pandemic conditions. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 46 policymakers (Ghana, n = 24; Malawi, n = 22), identified through snowballing sampling...
February 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239512/exploring-the-continuum-of-vaccine-hesitancy-between-african-american-and-white-adults-results-of-a-qualitative-study
#16
Sandra Quinn, Amelia Jamison, Donald Musa, Karen Hilyard, Vicki Freimuth
Vaccine delay and refusal present very real threats to public health. Since even a slight reduction in vaccination rates could produce major consequences as herd immunity is eroded, it is imperative to understand the factors that contribute to decision-making about vaccines. Recent scholarship on the concept of "vaccine hesitancy" emphasizes that vaccine behaviors and beliefs tend to fall along a continuum from refusal to acceptance. Most research on hesitancy has focused on parental decision-making about childhood vaccines, but could be extended to explore decision-making related to adult immunization against seasonal influenza...
December 29, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237236/influenza-a-virus-in-swine-breeding-herds-combination-of-vaccination-and-biosecurity-practices-can-reduce-likelihood-of-endemic-piglet-reservoir
#17
L A White, M Torremorell, M E Craft
Recent modelling and empirical work on influenza A virus (IAV) suggests that piglets play an important role as an endemic reservoir. The objective of this study is to test intervention strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of IAV in piglets and ideally, preventing piglets from becoming exposed in the first place. These interventions include biosecurity measures, vaccination, and management options that swine producers may employ individually or jointly to control IAV in their herds. We have developed a stochastic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Vaccinated (SEIRV) model that reflects the spatial organization of a standard breeding herd and accounts for the different production classes of pigs therein...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207888/effect-of-the-different-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-uptakes-on-the-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-analysis-of-a-hospital-based-and-population-based-surveillance-study-in-madrid-spain-2007-2015
#18
Juan Picazo, Jesús Ruiz-Contreras, Juan Casado-Flores, Sagrario Negreira, Fernando Baquero, Teresa Hernández-Sampelayo, Enrique Otheo, Cristina Méndez
In the Community of Madrid, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced the 7-valent (PCV7) in the fully government-funded Regional Immunization Program (RIP) in May, 2010, but was later excluded in May, 2012, and included again in January, 2015. These unique changes allowed us to assess the impact of the different pneumococcal vaccination policies on PCV13 uptake in infants and on the incidence rate (IR) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children <15 years old. In this prospective, active, surveillance study, we estimated PCV13 uptakes, IR and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for total IPD and for IPD caused by PCV13- and non-PCV13 serotypes in children <15 years, stratified by age, in four periods with different vaccination policies: fully government-funded PCV7 vaccination, fully government-funded PCV13, mixed public/private funding and only private funding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202790/reactivity-of-anti-pedv-structural-protein-antibodies-to-porcine-enteric-coronaviruses-diagnostic-implications
#19
Luis Gabriel Gimenez-Lirola, Jianqiang Zhang, Jose Antonio Carrillo-Avila, Qi Chen, Ronaldo Magtoto, Korakrit Poonsuk, David H Baum, Pablo Piñeyro, Jeffrey Zimmerman
The development of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) antibody-based assays is important for detecting infected animals, confirming previous virus exposure, and monitoring sow herd immunity. However, the potential cross-reactivity among porcine coronaviruses is a major concern for the development of pathogen-specific assays. In this study, we used serum samples (n = 792) from pigs of precisely known infection status and a multiplex fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay and/or enzyme-linked immunoassay platform to characterize the antibody response against PEDV whole-virus (WV) particles and recombinant polypeptides derived from the four PEDV structural proteins, i...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198725/adult-pneumococcal-vaccination-advances-impact-and-unmet-needs
#20
Ricardo J José, Jeremy S Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preventing pneumonia in the elderly and study participants individuals with comorbidities is an unmet clinical need. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest bacterial cause of pneumonia, and we summarize recent findings regarding current S. pneumoniae vaccines, and debate their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in risk groups. We also discuss potential future vaccine strategies such as protein antigen vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Current vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine does not prevent S...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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