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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444974/school-based-surveillance-for-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-during-2014-15-seasons-in-hong-kong
#1
Ting F Leung, Renee W Y Chan, Angela Kwok, Wendy C S Ho, Mars K P Tao, Kam L Hon, Frankie W T Cheng, Albert M Li, Paul K S Chan
BACKGROUND: Influenza imposes substantial healthcare burden in children, which can be prevented by vaccination. Influenza vaccination coverage varies widely among childhood populations worldwide, which has significant impact on herd immunity and usefulness of influenza vaccine. However, there is limited real-life data on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children. OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to investigate clinical spectrum of childhood influenza and VE in preventing influenza in Hong Kong children...
April 26, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443077/molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-the-influenza-a-h3n2-hemagglutinin-trimer-reveals-the-structural-basis-for-adaptive-evolution-of-the-recent-epidemic-clade-3c-2a
#2
Masaru Yokoyama, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Masayuki Shirakura, Shinji Watanabe, Takato Odagiri, Kimito Ito, Hironori Sato
Influenza A(H3N2) has been a major cause of seasonal influenza in humans since 1968, and has evolved by antigenic drift under the constantly changing human herd immunity. Increasing evidence suggests that the antigenic change occasionally occurred concomitant with the alterations of the N-glycosylation site profile and hemagglutination activity of the virion surface protein hemagglutinin (HA). However, the structural basis of these changes remains largely unclear. To address this issue, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the glycosylated HA trimers of the A(H3N2), which has a novel pattern of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons unique in the new A(H3N2) epidemic clade 3C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438407/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-against-serogroup-c-meningococci-in-the-region-of-valencia-spain-impact-of-meningococcal-c-conjugate-vaccination
#3
Lina Pérez-Breva, Raquel Abad-Torreblanca, Miguel Ángel Martínez-Beneito, Joan Puig-Barberà, Sara Alemán-Sánchez, Nuria Morant-Talamante, Macrina Sastre-Cantón, Julio A Vázquez-Moreno, Javier Díez-Domingo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccination programs provide direct and indirect protection against meningococcal disease. However, a decrease in the antibodies could affect herd immunity. We conducted a seroprevalence study to assess the immunity in subjects 8-12years after different MCCV vaccination programs were launched and evaluated the impact of vaccination on seroprotection. METHODS: Seroepidemiological study conducted from October 2010 to April 2012 in the region of Valencia, Spain...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430168/classical-swine-fever-an-updated-review
#4
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Christoph Staubach, Julia Henke, Jolene Carlson, Martin Beer
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization...
April 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405629/human-norovirus-evolution-in-a-chronically-infected-host
#5
Sylvie Y Doerflinger, Stefan Weichert, Anna Koromyslova, Martin Chan, Christian Schwerk, Ruediger Adam, Stefan Jennewein, Grant S Hansman, Horst Schroten
Typically, human noroviruses cause symptoms of acute gastroenteritis for 2 to 4 days. Often, the virions are shed in stool for several days after the symptoms recede, which in turn can lead to further contamination and transmission. Moreover, a number of reports have considered that chronic norovirus infections, i.e., lasting months and years, might even function as reservoirs for the generation of novel strains that can escape the herd immunity or have modified binding interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs)...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405464/the-use-of-vaccines-to-control-pathogen-spread-in-pig-populations
#6
REVIEW
Nicolas Rose, Mathieu Andraud
Vaccine efficacy has often been studied from the viewpoint of individual direct clinical protection. For several vaccines, a decrease in pathogen shedding in vaccinated animals has also been documented, which suggests that transmission between individuals has the potential to be reduced. In addition, vaccination induces an immune response in the host potentially decreasing susceptibility to infection in comparison with immunologically naïve animals. As a collective result of individual vaccinations, vaccine programmes generally have a wider impact on pathogen diffusion at the population scale...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403085/is-rotavirus-still-a-major-cause-for-diarrheal-illness-in-hospitalized-pediatric-patients-after-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-the-saudi-national-immunization-program
#7
Moustafa Abdelaal Hegazi, Mohamed Hesham Sayed, Haifa Hasan Sindi, Osama Elsayed Bekhit, Basem Salama El-Deek, Faisal M Yaqoub Alshoudri, Amroo Khaled Noorelahi
Previous studies in Jeddah, western Saudi Arabia, showed rotavirus (RV) prevalence around 40% in pediatric inpatients with gastroenteritis (GE) with a maximum level during cooler months. Currently, there are no data on impact of rotavirus vaccine (RVV) on RV-GE in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess impact of RVV on incidence and severity of RV-GE in hospitalized pediatric patients; 3 years after introduction of RVV in Saudi immunization program (SIP) in January, 2013.This cross-sectional observational study included GE cases under 5 years of age admitted to 2 tertiary hospitals, in Jeddah, from October to December, 2015...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400145/vaccination-of-cattle-against-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus
#8
Benjamin W Newcomer, Manuel F Chamorro, Paul H Walz
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant losses to the cattle industry. Currently, modified-live viral (MLV) and inactivated viral vaccines are available against BVDV, often in combination with other viral and bacterial antigens. Inactivated and MLV vaccines provide cattle producers and veterinarians safe and efficacious options for herd immunization to limit disease associated with BVDV infection. Vaccination of young cattle against BVDV is motivated by prevention of clinical disease and limiting viral spread to susceptible animals...
April 6, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388694/determination-of-clusters-and-factors-associated-with-dengue-dispersion-during-the-first-epidemic-related-to-dengue-virus-serotype-4-in-vit%C3%A3-ria-brazil
#9
Creuza Rachel Vicente, Karl-Heinz Herbinger, Crispim Cerutti Junior, Camila Malta Romano, Aline de Souza Areias Cabidelle, Günter Fröschl
Dengue occurrence is partially influenced by the immune status of the population. Consequently, the introduction of a new Dengue virus serotype can trigger explosive epidemics in susceptible populations. The determination of clusters in this scenario can help to identify hotspots and understand the disease dispersion regardless of the influence of the population herd immunity. The present study evaluated the pattern and factors associated with dengue dispersion during the first epidemic related to Dengue virus serotype 4 in Vitória, Espírito Santo state, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385500/successful-strategies-implemented-towards-the-elimination-of-canine-rabies-in-the-western-hemisphere
#10
REVIEW
Andres Velasco-Villa, Luis E Escobar, Anthony Sanchez, Mang Shi, Daniel G Streicker, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Fernando Vargas-Pino, Veronica Gutierrez-Cedillo, Inger Damon, Ginny Emerson
Almost all cases of human rabies result from dog bites, making the elimination of canine rabies a global priority. During recent decades, many countries in the Western Hemisphere have carried out large-scale dog vaccination campaigns, controlled their free-ranging dog populations and enforced legislation for responsible pet ownership. This article reviews progress in eliminating canine rabies from the Western Hemisphere. After briefly summarizing the history of control efforts and describing the approaches listed above, we note that programs in some countries have been hindered by societal attitudes and severe economic disparities, which underlines the need to discuss measures that will be required to complete the elimination of canine rabies throughout the region...
April 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380060/cost-effectiveness-of-dengue-vaccination-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-mexico-using-a-dynamic-dengue-transmission-model
#11
Eunha Shim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of dengue fever (DF) is steadily increasing in Mexico, burdening health systems with consequent morbidities and mortalities. On December 9th, 2015, Mexico became the first country for which the dengue vaccine was approved for use. In anticipation of a vaccine rollout, analysis of the cost-effectiveness of the dengue vaccination program that quantifies the dynamics of disease transmission is essential. METHODS: We developed a dynamic transmission model of dengue in Yucatán, Mexico and its proposed vaccination program to incorporate herd immunity into our analysis of cost-effectiveness analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375029/emerging-experience-with-meningococcal-serogroup-b-protein-vaccines
#12
REVIEW
Daniela Toneatto, Mariagrazia Pizza, Vega Masignani, Rino Rappuoli
The successful development of two broadly protective vaccines targeting Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB); 4CMenB and rLP2086, is the most significant recent advance in meningococcal disease prevention. Areas covered: Here we review the principles underlying the development of each vaccine and the novel methods used to estimate vaccine coverage. We update clinical and post-licensure experience with 4CMenB and rLP2086. Expert commentary: The immunogenicity and acceptable safety profile of 4CMenB and rLP2086 has been demonstrated in clinical trials...
May 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368526/licensed-meningococcal-serogroup-b-vaccine-induced-immunity-against-invasive-disease-does-not-reflect-protection-against-nasal-colonization-in-a-humanized-mouse-model
#13
Carolyn M Buckwalter, Elissa G Currie, Raymond S W Tsang, Scott D Gray-Owen
Background: The 4CMenB vaccine is an outer membrane vesicle and recombinant protein-based vaccine recently licensed to protect against serogroup B meningococcal disease. It remains unknown whether this vaccine will prevent carriage or transmission, key aspects in long-term vaccine success and disease eradication. Methods: Employing a 'humanized' transgenic mouse model of nasal colonization, a systematic approach was taken to estimate the potential for carriage prevention against antigenically-diverse Neisseria meningitidis strains, and to compare this protection to an invasive meningococcal disease challenge model...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368471/effectiveness-of-early-measles-mumps-and-rubella-vaccination-among-6-14-month-old-infants-during-an-epidemic-in-the-netherlands-an-observational-cohort-study
#14
Tom Woudenberg, Nicoline A T van der Maas, Mirjam J Knol, Hester de Melker, Rob S van Binnendijk, Susan J M Hahné
Background.: Routinely, the first measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine dose is given at 14 months of age in the Netherlands. However, during a measles epidemic in 2013-2014, MMR vaccination was also offered to 6-14-month-olds in municipalities with <90% MMR vaccination coverage. We studied the effectiveness of the early MMR vaccination schedule. Methods.: Parents of all infants targeted for early MMR vaccination were asked to participate. When parent(s) suspected measles, their infant's saliva was tested for measles-specific antibodies...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359621/varicella-seroepidemiology-in-united-states-air-force-recruits-a-retrospective-cohort-study-comparing-immunogenicity-of-varicella-vaccination-and-natural-infection
#15
Joshua R Duncan, Catherine T Witkop, Bryant J Webber, Amy A Costello
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) produces lifelong immunity, but duration of post-vaccination immunity has not been established. The purpose of this study is to determine if a difference exists in the long-term seropositivity of anti-VZV antibodies in a cohort of young adults who were vaccinated against varicella as compared to a similar cohort with a history of chickenpox disease, and to determine which variables best predict waning seropositivity following varicella vaccination...
March 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356256/recent-progress-in-the-prevention-of-serogroup-b-meningococcal-disease
#16
Ian M Feavers, Martin C J Maiden
The widespread use of meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has highlighted the challenge of providing protection against serogroup B disease. Over a period of four decades vaccine development has focused on sub-capsular, protein antigens, first with outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines against epidemic outbreaks, and more recently on new multicomponent vaccines designed to offer better cross-protection against the antigenically diverse strains responsible for endemic disease. Because of the low incidence of meningococcal disease, the protective efficacy of these vaccines has not been determined in clinical studies and their licensure has been based on serological data; however, the serological assays used to predict protective coverage have limitations...
March 29, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348551/evolutionary-constraints-on-the-norovirus-pandemic-variant-gii-4_2006b-over-the-five-year-persistence-in-japan
#17
Hironori Sato, Masaru Yokoyama, Hiromi Nakamura, Tomoichiro Oka, Kazuhiko Katayama, Naokazu Takeda, Mamoru Noda, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Kazushi Motomura
Norovirus GII.4 is a major cause of global outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and has evolved by antigenic changes under the constantly changing human herd immunity. Major shift in the pandemic GII.4 strain periodically occurs concomitant with changes in the antigenic capsid protein VP1. However, how the newly emerged strain evolves after the onset of pandemic remains unclear. To address this issue, we examined molecular evolution of a pandemic lineage, termed the GII.4_2006b, by using the full-length viral genome and VP1 sequences (n = 317) from stools collected at 20 sites in Japan between 2006 and 2011...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328521/human-papillomavirus-first-and-second-generation-vaccines-current-status-and-future-directions
#18
Somayeh Pouyanfard, Martin Müller
It has been more than 10 years that the first prophylactic papillomavirus vaccine became available, although distribution has been mainly limited to the more affluent countries. The first two vaccines have been a great success, hundreds of millions of women and a much smaller number of men have been vaccinated ever since. In a few countries with high vaccination coverage, in particular Australia but also parts of Great Britain and others, clinical impact of vaccination programs is already visible and there are indications for herd immunity as well...
March 22, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294578/rethinking-thresholds-for-serological-evidence-of-influenza-virus-infection
#19
Xiahong Zhao, Karen Siegel, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Alex R Cook
INTRODUCTION: For pathogens such as influenza that cause many subclinical cases, serologic data can be used to estimate attack rates and the severity of an epidemic in near real time. Current methods for analysing serologic data tend to rely on use of a simple threshold or comparison of titres between pre- and post-epidemic, which may not accurately reflect actual infection rates. METHODS: We propose a method for quantifying infection rates using paired sera and bivariate probit models to evaluate the accuracy of thresholds currently used for influenza epidemics with low and high existing herd immunity levels, and a subsequent non-influenza period...
March 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292980/streptococcus-pneumoniae-transmission-is-blocked-by-type-specific-immunity-in-an-infant-mouse-model
#20
Tonia Zangari, Yang Wang, Jeffrey N Weiser
Epidemiological studies on Streptococcus pneumoniae show that rates of carriage are highest in early childhood and that the major benefit of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a reduction in the incidence of nasopharyngeal colonization through decreased transmission within a population. In this study, we sought to understand how anti-S. pneumoniae immunity affects nasal shedding of bacteria, the limiting step in experimental pneumococcal transmission. Using an infant mouse model, we examined the role of immunity (passed from mother to pup) on shedding and within-litter transmission of S...
March 14, 2017: MBio
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