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herd immunity

Emeli Torsson, Tebogo Kgotlele, Mikael Berg, Niwael Mtui-Malamsha, Emanuel S Swai, Jonas Johansson Wensman, Gerald Misinzo
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Toshihiko Matsuoka, Tomoki Sato, Tomoyuki Akita, Jiturou Yanagida, Hiroki Ohge, Masao Kuwabara, Junko Tanaka
The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the expansion of infection and prevention of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. A retrospective non-randomized cohort study (from June 2009 to May 2010) on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was conducted in a sample of residents from Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The cumulative incidence of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and the pandemic vaccine effectiveness (VE) were estimated. The response rate was 53.5% (178,669/333,892). Overall, the odds ratio of non-vaccinated group to vaccinated group for cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 2...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michela Malvisi, Fiorentina Palazzo, Nicola Morandi, Barbara Lazzari, John L Williams, Giulio Pagnacco, Giulietta Minozzi
Paratuberculosis in cattle is a chronic granulomatous gastroenteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratubercolosis (MAP) which is endemic worldwide. In dairy herds, it is responsible for huge economic losses. However, current diagnostic methods do not detect subclinical infection making control of the disease difficult. The identification of MAP infected animals during the sub-clinical phase of infection would play a key role in preventing the dissemination of the pathogen and in reducing transmission...
2016: PloS One
Á B Collins, D Barrett, M L Doherty, M Larska, J F Mee
BACKGROUND: Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in northern-Europe in 2011 resulting in an epidemic of ruminant abortions and congenital malformations throughout the continent. In the years following the epidemic there have been reports of SBV overwintering and continued circulation in several European countries. When the population-level of immunity declines in exposed regions, re-introduction of SBV could result in further outbreaks of Schmallenberg disease. The aims of this study were to determine the SBV seroprevalence in previously exposed Irish dairy herds in 2014 and to investigate if SBV continued to circulate in these herds in the three years (2013-2015) following the Irish Schmallenberg epidemic...
October 18, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Alice Lejeune, Luise Martin, Sabine Santibanez, Stephanie Thee, Alexander Gratopp, Peter Späth, Annette Mankertz, Tilmann Kallinich, Horst von Bernuth
Most non-immune individuals exposed to the highly contagious measles virus will develop measles. Complications, such as encephalitis and bacterial infections due to measles virus-induced immunomodulation, account for an acute mortality rate of approximately 0.1% (1). It has been calculated that measles-related immunomodulation may last for several years and may contribute to child mortality on a larger scale than acute measles-related mortality (2). Since humans provide the only host for the virus, and an efficient vaccine is available, it is possible to eliminate measles...
October 17, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Helen S Marshall, Peter C Richmond, Johannes Beeslaar, Qin Jiang, Kathrin U Jansen, Maria Garcés-Sánchez, Federico Martinón-Torres, Leszek Szenborn, Jacek Wysocki, Joseph Eiden, Shannon L Harris, Thomas R Jones, Su-San Lee, John L Perez
BACKGROUND: Bivalent rLP2086 is a recombinant factor H binding protein-based vaccine approved in the USA for prevention of meningococcal serogroup B disease in 10-25-year-olds. We aimed to assess the persistence of bactericidal antibodies up to 4 years after a three-dose schedule of bivalent rLP2086. METHODS: We did this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial at 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. In stage 1 of the study (February, 2009-May, 2010), healthy adolescents (aged 11-18 years) were randomly assigned, via an interactive voice and web-response system with computer-generated sequential random numbers, to receive either ascending doses of vaccine (60 μg, 120 μg, and 200 μg) or placebo at months 0, 2, and 6...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Shalini Desai, Michelle E Policarpio, Kenney Wong, Jonathan Gubbay, Jill Fediurek, Shelley Deeks
BACKGROUND: In Ontario, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been sequentially introduced into the publicly funded childhood vaccination program since 2005. A 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been routinely recommended for adults aged 65 years and older since 1996. To determine the effect of herd immunity, we examined the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults aged 65 years and older. METHODS: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a provincially reportable disease...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
T Usman, Y Yu, L Zhai, C Liu, X Wang, Y Wang
Cluster of differentiation 4 gene (CD4) is well known for its role in immunity, but its effects on production traits remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to explore single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons, flanking introns, and promoter of CD4, as well as to analyze their effects on milk production traits (percentage of protein, fat, and lactose; mastitis indicator traits somatic cell count; and somatic cell score). A total of 10 SNPs, including eight in the exon and two in the intron regions, were identified using pooled DNA sequencing...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Vu Duy Kien, Hoang Van Minh, Kim Bao Giang, Vu Quynh Mai, Ngo Tri Tuan, Mikkel B Quam
OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in measles vaccine coverage rates and their association with socioeconomic characteristics among children from age 12 to 23 months in Vietnam from the year 2000 to 2014. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in years 2000, 2006, 2011, and 2014. Concentration indices were used to determine the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in measles vaccine coverage. Associations between measles vaccine coverage and relevant social factors were assessed using logistic regression...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
Moataz Alhaj
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an infectious illness with serious clinical manifestations and health consequences in humans as well as a wide range of domestic ruminants. This review provides significant information about the prevention options of RVF along with the safety-efficacy profile of commercial vaccines and some of RVF vaccination strategies. Information presented in this paper was obtained through a systematic investigation of published data about RVF vaccines. Like other viral diseases, the prevention of RVF relies heavily on immunization of susceptible herds with safe and cost-effective vaccine that is able to confer long-term protective immunity...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
S Bhattacharyya, M J Ferrari
Measles elimination goals have been adopted in a range of countries, sub-regions, and regions since the WHO declared an elimination goal by 2015 or 2020. All countries attempt to achieve and maintain high coverage through routine immunization programmes. This routine strategy, however, does not ensure the elimination goal of measles. Many developed countries, such as the United States, that have succeeded in interrupting measles transmission earlier, are now experiencing outbreaks with an increasing number of cases...
September 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Wayne M Getz, Colin Carlson, Eric Dougherty, Travis C Porco Francis, Richard Salter
The winter 2014-15 measles outbreak in the US represents a significant crisis in the emergence of a functionally extirpated pathogen. Conclusively linking this outbreak to decreases in the measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccination rate (driven by anti-vaccine sentiment) is critical to motivating MMR vaccination. We used the NOVA modeling platform to build a stochastic, spatially-structured, individual-based SEIR model of outbreaks, under the assumption that R 0 ≈ 7 for measles. We show this implies that herd immunity requires vaccination coverage of greater than approximately 85%...
April 2016: Agent Dir Simul Symp
Harvey W Kaufman, Zhen Chen
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the impact of rotavirus vaccination at national and state levels by evaluating the change in rotavirus antigen detection after vaccination licensure. We examined herd immunity in an unlikely vaccinated cohort and waning immunity with aging in a likely vaccinated cohort. We proposed a new approach to estimate the length of season by contrasting with what is recently reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: We analyzed 11-year results of rotavirus testing (n = 276 342) conducted at Quest Diagnostics, a national clinical reference laboratory, spanning from September 2003 to August 2014...
September 23, 2016: Pediatrics
J C Blackwood, D A T Cummings, S Iamsirithaworn, P Rohani
Pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease that has been on the rise in many countries worldwide over the past several years. The drivers of this increase in pertussis incidence remain hotly debated, with a central and long-standing hypothesis that questions the ability of vaccines to eliminate pertussis transmission rather than simply modulate the severity of disease. In this paper, we present age-structured case notification data from all provinces of Thailand between 1981 and 2014, a period during which vaccine uptake rose substantially, permitting an evaluation of the transmission impacts of vaccination...
September 2016: Epidemics
J W Aleri, B C Hine, M F Pyman, P D Mansell, W J Wales, B Mallard, A D Fisher
Common health problems observed during peripartum include milk fever, mastitis, fatty liver disease, ketosis, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, hypomagnesaemia and abomasal displacements. The increased incidence of health problems observed during the periparturient period can be partly attributed to suboptimal immune responses. Factors contributing to decreased periparturient immunity include the act of parturition itself, impaired leukocytic activity, effects of colostrogenesis and lactogenesis, and associated hypocalcemia and negative energy balance...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Charlie Cador, Nicolas Rose, Lander Willem, Mathieu Andraud
Swine Influenza A Viruses (swIAVs) have been shown to persist in farrow-to-finish pig herds with repeated outbreaks in successive batches, increasing the risk for respiratory disorders in affected animals and being a threat for public health. Although the general routes of swIAV transmission (i.e. direct contact and exposure to aerosols) were clearly identified, the transmission process between batches is still not fully understood. Maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) were stressed as a possible factor favoring within-herd swIAV persistence...
2016: PloS One
Stephen J Murphy, Kaiyang Xu, Liza S Comita
Insect herbivores can serve as important regulators of plant dynamics, but their impacts in temperate forest understories have received minimal attention at local scales. Here, we test several related hypotheses about the influence of plant neighborhood composition on insect leaf damage in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Using data on seedlings and adult trees sampled at 36 sites over an approximately 900 ha area, we tested for the effects of total plant density, rarefied species richness (i.e., resource concentration and dietary-mixing hypotheses), conspecific density (i...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
K C Dixon, R Mullis, T Blumenfeld
BACKGROUND: Compared to the general population, the Traveller community has substantial health inequalities. Vaccination coverage in Traveller children is estimated to be low and Travellers are at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases due to their social circumstances. METHODS: Audit of vaccination history of Traveller (n = 214) and non-Traveller (n = 776) children registered at a general practice in England. The Green Book childhood immunization schedule was used as a reference standard...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Megan Wong, Xiaoye Liang, Matt Smart, Le Tang, Richard Moore, Brian Ingalls, Tao G Dong
: In the host and natural environments, microbes often exist in complex multispecies communities. The molecular mechanisms through which such communities develop and persist - despite significant antagonistic interactions between species - are not well understood. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal weapon commonly employed by Gram-negative bacteria to inhibit neighboring species through delivery of toxic effectors. It is well established that intra-species protection is conferred by immunity proteins that neutralize effector toxicities...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
B S Penman, S Gupta, G D Shanks
The depopulation of Pacific islands during the 16th to 19th centuries is a striking example of historical mass mortality due to infectious disease. Pacific Island populations have not been subject to such cataclysmic infectious disease mortality since. Here we explore the processes which could have given rise to this shift in infectious disease mortality patterns. We show, using mathematical models, that the population dynamics exhibited by Pacific Island populations are unlikely to be the result of Darwinian evolution...
September 9, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
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