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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047019/challenges-for-nationwide-vaccine-delivery-in-african-countries
#1
Mario Songane
Vaccines are very effective in providing individual and community (herd) immunity against a range of diseases. In addition to protection against a range of diseases, vaccines also have social and economic benefits. However, for vaccines to be effective, routine immunization programmes must be undertaken regularly to ensure individual and community protection. Nonetheless, in many countries in Africa, vaccination coverage is low because governments struggle to deliver vaccines to the most remote areas, thus contributing to constant outbreaks of various vaccine-preventable diseases...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Health Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041786/census-and-vaccination-coverage-of-owned-dog-populations-in-four-resource-limited-rural-communities-mpumalanga-province-south-africa
#2
Anne Conan, Joy A C Geerdes, Oluyemisi A Akerele, Bjorn Reininghaus, Gregory J G Simpson, Darryn Knobel
Dogs (Canis familiaris) are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie) in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035332/random-network-models-to-predict-the-long-term-impact-of-hpv-vaccination-on-genital-warts
#3
Javier Díez-Domingo, Víctor Sánchez-Alonso, Rafael-J Villanueva, Luis Acedo, José-Antonio Moraño, Javier Villanueva-Oller
The Human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccine induces a herd immunity effect in genital warts when a large number of the population is vaccinated. This aspect should be taken into account when devising new vaccine strategies, like vaccination at older ages or male vaccination. Therefore, it is important to develop mathematical models with good predictive capacities. We devised a sexual contact network that was calibrated to simulate the Spanish epidemiology of different HPV genotypes. Through this model, we simulated the scenario that occurred in Australia in 2007, where 12-13 year-old girls were vaccinated with a three-dose schedule of a vaccine containing genotypes 6 and 11, which protect against genital warts, and also a catch-up program in women up to 26 years of age...
October 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033339/transmissible-viral-vaccines
#4
REVIEW
James J Bull, Mark W Smithson, Scott L Nuismer
Genetic engineering now enables the design of live viral vaccines that are potentially transmissible. Some designs merely modify a single viral genome to improve on the age-old method of attenuation whereas other designs create chimeras of viral genomes. Transmission has the benefit of increasing herd immunity above that achieved by direct vaccination alone but also increases the opportunity for vaccine evolution, which typically undermines vaccine utility. Different designs have different epidemiological consequences but also experience different evolution...
October 12, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027811/prevention-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-related-tumors-in-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv
#5
Mario Poljak, Anja Šterbenc, Maja M Lunar
In comparison to their HIV-negative counterparts, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in various anatomical sites coupled with increased HPV persistence, higher risk of HPV-related tumors, and faster disease progression. Areas covered: Gender-neutral prevention strategies for HPV-related cancers in PLWH discussed: ABC approach, HPV vaccination, antiretroviral treatment (ART), anal cancer screening, and smoking cessation. Gender specific strategies: cervical cancer screening reduces the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer and circumcision might reduce the risk of HPV infections in men...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017603/longitudinal-study-of-influenza-a-virus-circulation-in-a-nursery-swine-barn
#6
Juliana B Ferreira, Helena Grgić, Robert Friendship, Greg Wideman, Éva Nagy, Zvonimir Poljak
Commercial production of swine often involves raising animals in large groups through the use of multi-stage production systems. In such systems, pigs can experience different degrees of contact with animals of the same or different ages. Population size and degree of contact can greatly influence transmission of endemic pathogens, including influenza A virus (IAV). IAV can display high genetic variability, which can further complicate population-level patterns. Yet, the IAV transmission in large multi-site swine production systems has not been well studied...
October 10, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017279/population-level-herd-protection-of-males-from-a-female-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-program-evidence-from-australian-serosurveillance
#7
Alexis J Pillsbury, Helen E Quinn, TaNisha D Evans, Peter B McIntyre, Julia M L Brotherton
Background: Australia instituted funded female human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization in 2007, followed by a targeted male vaccination program in 2013. To date, Australia is one of only several countries with a funded male HPV immunization program. In 2012-2013, we conducted a survey of HPV seroprevalence in males to assess whether or not a herd impact of female vaccination could be observed. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of de-identified residual diagnostic test serum samples from males aged 15-39 years from laboratories in 3 Australian states and calculated the proportion seropositive to HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993171/cross-sectional-study-of-mers-cov-specific-rna-and-antibodies-in-animals-that-have-had-contact-with-mers-patients-in-saudi-arabia
#8
Samy Kasem, Ibrahim Qasim, Ali Al-Hufofi, Osman Hashim, Ali Alkarar, Ali Abu-Obeida, Albagir Gaafer, Abdelhamid Elfadil, Ahmed Zaki, Ahmed Al-Romaihi, Nasereldeen Babekr, Nadr El-Harby, Raed Hussien, Ali Al-Sahaf, Ali Al-Doweriej, Faisal Bayoumi, Leo L M Poon, Daniel K W Chu, Malik Peiris
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly emerged coronavirus that is associated with a severe respiratory disease in humans in the Middle East. The epidemiological profiles of the MERS-CoV infections suggest zoonotic transmission from an animal reservoir to humans. METHODS: This study was designed to investigate animal herds associated with Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-infected patients in Saudi Arabia, during the last three years (2014-2016)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980715/the-early-impact-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-on-anogenital-warts-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#9
Marc Steben, Najwa Ouhoummane, Caroline Rodier, Liliya Sinyavskaya, Paul Brassard
BACKGROUND: In Québec, Canada, a public school-based and catch-up HPV vaccination programs with the quadrivalent vaccine have been introduced in September 2008 for girls aged 9-17 years. We assessed the early impact of the HPV vaccination program on the incidence of anogenital warts (AGW) in the Quebec general population. METHODS: We used the provincial health administrative data of the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ). AGW were identified either through a prescription of podofilox, or a medical procedure code specific to AGW, or a diagnostic code for viral warts followed by a prescription of imiquimod or fluorouracil...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974251/control-of-endemic-swine-flu-persistence-in-farrow-to-finish-pig-farms-a-stochastic-metapopulation-modeling-assessment
#10
Charlie Cador, Mathieu Andraud, Lander Willem, Nicolas Rose
Swine influenza viruses (swIAVs) are known to persist endemically in farrow-to-finish pig farms, leading to repeated swine flu outbreaks in successive batches of pigs at a similar age (mostly around 8 weeks of age). This persistence in European swine herds involves swIAVs from European lineages including H1avN1, H1huN2, H3N2, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus and their reassortants. The specific population dynamics of farrow-to-finish pig farms, the immune status of the animals at infection-time, the co-circulation of distinct subtypes leading to consecutive or concomitant infections have been evidenced as factors favouring swIAV persistence within herds...
October 3, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968661/meningococcal-carriage-following-a-university-serogroup-b-meningococcal-disease-outbreak-and-vaccination-campaign-with-menb-4c-and-menb-fhbp-oregon-2015-2016
#11
Lucy A McNamara, Jennifer Dolan Thomas, Jessica MacNeil, How Yi Chang, Michael Day, Emily Fisher, Stacey Martin, Tasha Poissant, Susanna E Schmink, Evelene Steward-Clark, Laurel Thompson Jenkins, Xin Wang, Anna Acosta
Background: Limited data exist on the impact of the serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines MenB-FHbp and MenB-4C on meningococcal carriage and herd protection. We therefore assessed meningococcal carriage following a MenB vaccination campaign in response to a university serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak in 2015. Methods: A convenience sample of students recommended for vaccination provided oropharyngeal swabs and completed questionnaires during four carriage surveys over 11 months...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968148/successful-african-introduction-of-a-new-group-a-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine-future-challenges-and-next-steps
#12
F Marc LaForce, Mamoudou Djingarey, Simonetta Viviani, Marie-Pierre Preziosi
The introduction of a new Group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac(R), has been a important public health success. Group A meningococcal meningitis has disappeared in all countries where the new Men A conjugate vaccine has been used at public health scale. However, continued control of Group A disease in sub-Saharan Africa will require that community immunity against Group A meningococci be maintained. Modeling studies have shown that unless herd immunity is maintained Group A meningococcal disease will return...
October 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959244/estimating-herd-immunity-to-amphibian-chytridiomycosis-in-madagascar-based-on-the-defensive-function-of-amphibian-skin-bacteria
#13
Molly C Bletz, Jillian Myers, Douglas C Woodhams, Falitiana C E Rabemananjara, Angela Rakotonirina, Che Weldon, Devin Edmonds, Miguel Vences, Reid N Harris
For decades, Amphibians have been globally threatened by the still expanding infectious disease, chytridiomycosis. Madagascar is an amphibian biodiversity hotspot where Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has only recently been detected. While no Bd-associated population declines have been reported, the risk of declines is high when invasive virulent lineages become involved. Cutaneous bacteria contribute to host innate immunity by providing defense against pathogens for numerous animals, including amphibians...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941208/gaps-in-african-swine-fever-analysis-and-priorities
#14
M Arias, C Jurado, C Gallardo, J Fernández-Pinero, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno
African swine fever (ASF) causes greater sanitary, social and economic impacts on swine herds than many other swine diseases. Although ASF was first described in 1921 and it has affected more than fifty countries in Africa, Europe and South America, several key issues about its pathogenesis, immune evasion and epidemiology remain uncertain. This article reviews the main characteristics of the causative virus, its molecular epidemiology, natural hosts, clinical features, epidemiology and control worldwide. It also identifies and prioritizes gaps in ASF from a horizontal point of view encompassing fields including molecular biology, epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and vaccine development...
September 22, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937601/humoral-response-of-buffaloes-to-a-recombinant-vaccine-against-botulism-serotypes-c-and-d
#15
Denis Y Otaka, José D Barbosa, Clóvis Moreira, Marcos R A Ferreira, Carlos E P Cunha, Antônio R S Brito, Rafael A Donassolo, Ângela N Moreira, Fabrício R Conceição, Felipe M Salvarani
Botulism is a fatal intoxication caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which are mainly produced by Clostridium botulinum and characterized by flaccid paralysis. The BoNTs C and D are the main serotypes responsible for botulism in animals, including buffaloes. Botulism is one of the leading causes of death in adult ruminants in Brazil due to the high mortality rates, even though botulism in buffaloes is poorly reported and does not reflect the real economic impact of this disease in Brazilian herds. Vaccination is reported as the most important prophylactic measure for botulism control, although there are no specific vaccines commercially available for buffaloes in Brazil...
September 22, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928960/the-relationship-between-mucosal-immunity-nasopharyngeal-carriage-asymptomatic-transmission-and-the-resurgence-of-bordetella-pertussis
#16
REVIEW
Christopher Gill, Pejman Rohani, Donald M Thea
The incidence of whooping cough in the US has been rising slowly since the 1970s, but the pace of this has accelerated sharply since acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the earlier whole cell vaccines in the late 1990s. A similar trend occurred in many other countries, including the UK, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and Spain, following the switch to acellular vaccines. The key question is why. Two leading theories (short duration of protective immunologic persistence and evolutionary shifts in the pathogen to evade the vaccine) explain some but not all of these shifts, suggesting that other factors may also be important...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928077/influenza-vaccine-use-to-protect-healthy-children-a-debated-topic
#17
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
At the beginning of this century, a number of studies suggested that in healthy children, particularly those <2years of age, influenza could have a serious and complicated course, as it frequently led to hospitalization and sometimes, albeit rarely, to death. Moreover, pre-schoolers and school-age children were found to be among the most important causes of influenza transmission to the community, as they shed the virus for a longer time than adults and had frequent contact with greater numbers of individuals through day-care and school...
September 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904188/characterization-of-antigenic-relatedness-between-gii-4-and-gii-17-noroviruses-using-serum-samples-from-norovirus-infected-patients
#18
Ying-Chun Dai, Ming Xia, Qiong Huang, Ming Tan, Lin Qin, Ya-Li Zhuang, Yan Long, Jian-Dong Li, Xi Jiang, Xu-Fu Zhang
A novel GII.17 norovirus variant caused major gastroenteritis epidemics in China in 2014 -2016. To explore the host immune factors in selection of the emergence of this new variant, we characterized its antigenic relatedness with the GII.4 noroviruses that have dominated in China for decades. Through ELISA and histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking assays using sera from GII.4 and the GII.17 variant-infected patients, respectively, we observed limited cross immune reactivity by the ELISA but little reactivity by the HBGA blocking assay between GII...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903749/modelling-the-effects-of-booster-dose-vaccination-schedules-and-recommendations-for-public-health-immunization-programs-the-case-of-haemophilus-influenzae-serotype-b
#19
Nadia A Charania, Seyed M Moghadas
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) has yet to be eliminated despite the implementation of routine infant immunization programs. There is no consensus regarding the number of primary vaccine doses and an optimal schedule for the booster dose. We sought to evaluate the effect of a booster dose after receiving the primary series on the long-term disease incidence. METHODS: A stochastic model of Hib transmission dynamics was constructed to compare the long-term impact of a booster vaccination and different booster schedules after receiving the primary series on the incidence of carriage and symptomatic disease...
September 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893935/tumour-virus-vaccines-hepatitis-b-virus-and-human-papillomavirus
#20
REVIEW
Margaret Stanley
Two of the most important human oncogenic viruses are hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). HBV infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982; vaccination of neonates and infants is highly effective, resulting already in decreased rates of new infections, chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma. Nonetheless, HBV remains a global public health problem with high rates of vertical transmission from mother to child in some regions. Prophylactic HPV vaccines composed of virus-like particles (VLPs) of the L1 capsid protein have been licensed since 2006/2007...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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