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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220496/the-duration-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-test-negative-design-case-control-studies
#1
Barnaby Young, Sapna Sadarangani, Lili Jiang, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Mark I-Cheng Chen
Background: Whether influenza vaccination offers protection for the duration of an influenza season has recently been questioned following analysis of data from test-negative design (TND) case-control studies. Method: The published literature was systematically reviewed to identify TND studies which estimated change in vaccine effectiveness (VE) with time since vaccination. Results: Fourteen studies were identified through the literature search as meeting eligibility criteria...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210105/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diagnostic-accuracy-of-serum-refractometry-and-brix-refractometry-for-the-diagnosis-of-inadequate-transfer-of-passive-immunity-in-calves
#2
REVIEW
S Buczinski, E Gicquel, G Fecteau, Y Takwoingi, M Chigerwe, J M Vandeweerd
BACKGROUND: Transfer of passive immunity in calves can be assessed by direct measurement of immunoglobulin G (IgG) by methods such as radial immunodiffusion (RID) or turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA). IgG can also be measured indirectly by methods such as serum refractometry (REF) or Brix refractometry (BRIX). OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of REF and BRIX for assessment of inadequate transfer of passive immunity (ITPI) in calves. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207667/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-cystic-echinococcosis-among-herding-families-in-five-provinces-in-western-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Ruixia Yuan, Hairong Wu, Heng Zeng, Ping Liu, Quangang Xu, Lu Gao, Yin Li, Rendong Li, Duan Huang, Chuanhua Yu, Xiangdong Sun
Echinococcosis is a severe zoonosis that endangers the health of herdsmen in China's western provinces. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of this disease and identify potential factors associated with human echinococcosis among herding families. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces in western China from May 1, 2016 to November 30, 2016, and 1500 herding families participated in the study. A total of 1211 completed questionnaires were analyzed. The prevalence of Cystic echinococcosis (CE) among surveyed herding families was 1...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207516/equine-vaccines-how-when-and-why-report-of-the-vaccinology-session-french-equine-veterinarians-association-2016-reims
#4
Romain Paillot, Christel Marcillaud Pitel, Xavier D'Ablon, Stéphane Pronost
To date, vaccination is one of the most efficient methods of prevention against equine infectious diseases. The vaccinology session, which was organised during the annual meeting of the French Equine Veterinarians Association (AVEF) at Reims (France) in 2016, aimed to approach three subjects of importance for the equine industry. Vaccination against three major equine diseases were used as examples: equine influenza (equine influenza virus), rhinopneumonitis (equine herpes virus 1/4), and tetanus (Clostridium tetani neuro-toxin)...
December 4, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202149/clinical-inquiries-which-interventions-are-effective-in-managing-parental-vaccine-refusal
#5
Dan Brelsford, Elise Knutzen, Jon O Neher, Sarah Safranek
It's unclear whether educational initiatives alone alter vaccine refusal. Although about a third of parents cite herd immunity as motivation for vaccination, its efficacy in addressing vaccine hesitancy isn't clear. Multifaceted interventions (encompassing improved access to vaccines, immunization mandates, and patient education) may produce a ≥25% increase in vaccine uptake in groups with vaccine hesitancy and low utilization. Correcting false information about influenza vaccination improves perceptions about the vaccine, but may decrease intention to vaccinate in parents who already have strong concerns about safety...
December 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199090/voluntary-vaccination-dilemma-with-evolving-psychological-perceptions
#6
Xue Feng, Bin Wu, Long Wang
Voluntary vaccination is a universal control protocol for infectious diseases. Yet there exists a social dilemma between individual benefits and public health: non-vaccinators free ride via the herd immunity from adequate vaccinators who bear vaccination cost. This is due to the interplay between disease prevalence and individual vaccinating behavior. To complicate matters further, individual vaccinating behavior depends on the perceived vaccination cost rather than the actual one. The perception of vaccination cost is an individual trait, which varies from person to person, and evolves in response to the disease prevalence and vaccination coverage...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195189/-one-of-the-greatest-medical-success-stories-physicians-and-nurses-small-stories-about-vaccine-knowledge-and-anxieties
#7
Terra Manca
In recent years, the Canadian province of Alberta experienced outbreaks of measles, mumps, pertussis, and influenza. Even so, the dominant cultural narrative maintains that vaccines are safe, effective, and necessary to maintain population health. Many vaccine supporters have expressed anxieties that stories contradicting this narrative have lowered herd immunity levels because they frighten the public into avoiding vaccination. As such, vaccine policies often emphasize educating parents and the public about the importance and safety of vaccination...
November 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191395/a-novel-cell-based-high-throughput-assay-to-determine-neutralizing-antibody-titers-against-circulating-strains-of-rubella-virus
#8
Daiki Kanbayashi, Takako Kurata, Kazuo Takahashi, Tetsuo Kase, Jun Komano
A large rubella outbreak occurred in Japan 2013, and 14,344 rubella and 45 congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases were reported. At that time, the populational immunity was above the protective threshold assessed by hemmaglutination inhibition (HI) titer. The genotype 2B rubella virus (RV) strains were responsible for the outbreak, which are non-indigenous in Japan. In this work, a cell-based high throughput assay was established to measure the neutralizing antibody (NA) titer against circulating RV isolates...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187975/evolutionary-structure-of-plasmodium-falciparum-major-variant-surface-antigen-genes-in-south-america-implications-for-epidemic-transmission-and-surveillance
#9
Virginie Rougeron, Kathryn E Tiedje, Donald S Chen, Thomas S Rask, Dionicia Gamboa, Amanda Maestre, Lise Musset, Eric Legrand, Oscar Noya, Erhan Yalcindag, François Renaud, Franck Prugnolle, Karen P Day
Strong founder effects resulting from human migration out of Africa have led to geographic variation in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites (MS) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. This is particularly striking in South America where two major founder populations of P. falciparum have been identified that are presumed to have arisen from the transatlantic slave trade. Given the importance of the major variant surface antigen of the blood stages of P. falciparum as both a virulence factor and target of immunity, we decided to investigate the population genetics of the genes encoding "Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1" (Pf EMP1) among several countries in South America, in order to evaluate the transmission patterns of malaria in this continent...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180687/exploring-voluntary-vaccinating-behaviors-using-evolutionary-n-person-threshold-games
#10
Benyun Shi, Weihao Wang, Hongjun Qiu, Yu-Wang Chen, Shaoliang Peng
Understanding individuals' voluntary vaccinating behaviors plays essential roles in making vaccination policies for many vaccinepreventable diseases. Usually, individuals decide whether to vaccinate through evaluating the relative cost of vaccination and infection according to their own interests. Mounting evidence shows that the best vaccine coverage level for the population as a whole can hardly be achieved due to the effects of herd immunity. In this paper, taking into consideration the herd immunity threshold, we present an evolutionary N-person threshold game, where individuals can dynamically adjust their vaccinating strategies and their payoffs depend nonlinearly on whether or not the herd immunity threshold is reached...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174323/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-13-delivered-as-one-primary-and-one-booster-dose-1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-1-compared-with-two-primary-doses-and-a-booster-2%C3%A2-%C3%A2-1-in-uk-infants-a-multicentre-parallel-group-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
David Goldblatt, Jo Southern, Nick J Andrews, Polly Burbidge, Jo Partington, Lucy Roalfe, Marta Valente Pinto, Vasilli Thalasselis, Emma Plested, Hayley Richardson, Matthew D Snape, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: Infants in the UK were first offered a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2006, given at 2 and 4 months of age and a booster dose at 13 months (2 + 1 schedule). A 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in 2010. We aimed to compare the post-booster antibody response in UK infants given a reduced priming schedule of PCV13 (ie, a 1 + 1 schedule) versus the current 2 + 1 schedule and to assess the potential effect on population protection. METHODS: In this multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial, we recuited infants due to receive their primary immunisations aged up to 13 weeks on first vaccinations by information booklets mailed out via the NHS Child Health Information Service and the UK National Health Application and Infrastructure Services...
November 22, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162319/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-on-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-under-5-years-in-senegal-experience-of-sentinel-site-of-the-albert-royer-children-s-hospital-in-dakar
#12
Amadou Diop, Aliou Thiongane, Jason M Mwenda, Negar Aliabadi, Mouhamadou A Sonko, Aliou Diallo, Babacar Ndoye, Papa M Faye, Idrissa D Ba, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Ousmane Ndiaye, Moussa F Cissé, Mamadou Ba
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age in developing countries, with rotavirus being the most common infectious etiology. In November 2014, monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Senegal. We determined the impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalizations for all-cause and rotavirus related AGE in children <60 months of age. METHODS: We examined two data sources from the national referral hospital...
November 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153912/-acute-epiglottitis-due-to-haemophilus-influenzae-b-a-severe-consequence-of-increased-skepticism-about-vaccination
#13
J Doutau, C Bost-Bru, A Gayot, I Wroblewski, I Pelloux, T Debillon, A Millet
Acute epiglottis is a life-threatening disease in relation with the occurrence of an acute upper airway obstruction. Its incidence has fallen dramatically since the widespread introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. We report the case of a 26-month-old child who was not fully immunized and presented acute upper airway respiratory distress with fever. The symptoms quickly evolved to a respiratory arrest condition with bradycardia, revealing epiglottitis due to Hib. Despite high immunization coverage with great efficacy and occurrence of herd immunity, this entity still exists because of the French population's skepticism of the routine vaccination schedule...
November 16, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153518/subacute-ruminal-acidosis-affects-fermentation-and-endotoxin-concentration-in-the-rumen-and-relative-expression-of-the-cd14-tlr4-md2-genes-involved-in-lipopolysaccharide-systemic-immune-response-in-dairy-cows
#14
B Stefanska, W Człapa, E Pruszynska-Oszmałek, D Szczepankiewicz, V Fievez, J Komisarek, K Stajek, W Nowak
The first objective of this study was to investigate the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on fermentation, ruminal free lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and expression of the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) complex in white blood cells involved in the systemic immune response in dairy cows. The second objective was a study of whether increased expression of the LPS receptor complex led to increases in the concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and serum Ca...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148885/self-clearance-of-pestivirus-in-a-pyrenean-chamois-rupicapra-pyrenaica-population
#15
Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Mathieu Garel, Philippe Gibert, Sébastien Lambert, Pierre Menaut, Brigitte Bonetti, Yvette Game, Gaël Reynaud, Kévin Foulché
Understanding the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction is key to the management of epidemics. A pestivirus belonging to the border disease virus group 4 emerged around 2001 in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in Spain and France. The virus had significant demographic impact in some populations, but it was less harmful and more endemic in other places. The determinants of these local variations are still unclear. Here, we documented empirical evidence of self-clearance of the virus in a chamois population in France...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146380/inclusion-of-the-value-of-herd-immunity-in-economic-evaluations-of-vaccines-a-systematic-review-of-methods-used
#16
REVIEW
Liv S Nymark, Tarang Sharma, Alexander Miller, Ulrika Enemark, Ulla Kou Griffiths
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this review were to identify vaccine economic evaluations that include herd immunity and describe the methodological approaches used. METHODS: We used Kim and Goldie's search strategy from a systematic review (1976-2007) of modelling approaches used in vaccine economic evaluations and additionally searched PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase for 2007-2015. Studies were classified according to modelling approach used. Methods for estimating herd immunity effects were described, in particular for the static models...
November 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129227/t-and-b-cell-activation-profiles-from-cows-with-and-without-johne-s-disease-in-response-to-in-vitro-stimulation-with-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis
#17
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R B Sporer, Brian W Kirkpatrick, Paul M Coussens
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic wasting disease of ruminants caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). JD is particularly problematic on US dairy farms: estimates show that over 50% of farms are MAP-contaminated and as many as 91% of dairy herds could be infected. Although estimates vary widely, JD may cost the dairy industry between $200 million and $1.5 billion every year. One major obstacle to JD management is that JD is difficult to detect in many animals, in part due to the variable immunity against MAP demonstrated by JD+ cattle...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128227/genome-wide-association-study-for-ketosis-in-us-jerseys-using-producer-recorded-data
#18
K L Parker Gaddis, J H Megonigal, J S Clay, C W Wolfe
Ketosis is one of the most frequently reported metabolic health events in dairy herds. Several genetic analyses of ketosis in dairy cattle have been conducted; however, few have focused specifically on Jersey cattle. The objectives of this research included estimating variance components for susceptibility to ketosis and identification of genomic regions associated with ketosis in Jersey cattle. Voluntary producer-recorded health event data related to ketosis were available from Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128221/short-communication-genetic-association-of-variations-in-the-osteopontin-gene-spp1-with-lactation-persistency-in-dairy-cattle
#19
Nathalie Bissonnette
Improving lactation persistency (LP) in dairy cattle has a beneficial effect on animal health and fertility and herd productivity. A complex trait, LP not only reflects the cow's ability to maintain milk secretion activity after the lactation peak but is also a function of the postcalving development of the mammary gland and, later on, of tissue remodeling as lactation declines. This decline is a consequence of an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell removal. In a previous study, single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the osteopontin (OPN) gene, SPP1...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125097/historical-and-contemporary-aspects-of-maternal-immunity-in-swine
#20
Korakrit Poonsuk, Jeff Zimmerman
Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune cells provided in mammary secretions...
November 10, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
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