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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104528/cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-cb2-as-one-of-the-candidate-genes-in-human-carotid-plaque-imaging-evalu1ation-of-the-novel-radiotracer-11-c-rs-016-targeting-cb2-in-atherosclerosis
#1
Romana Meletta, Roger Slavik, Linjing Mu, Zoran Rancic, Nicole Borel, Roger Schibli, Simon M Ametamey, Stefanie D Krämer, Adrienne Müller Herde
INTRODUCTION: Endarterectomized human atherosclerotic plaques are a valuable basis for gene expression studies to disclose novel imaging biomarkers and therapeutic targets, such as the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). In this work, CB2 is expressed on activated immune cells, which are abundant in inflamed plaques. We evaluated the CB2-specific radiotracer [(11)C]RS-016 for imaging vascular inflammation in human and mouse atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS: The differential gene expression of microscopically classified human carotid plaques was evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
January 8, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094076/influenza-vaccination-in-older-people-with-diabetes-and-their-household-contacts
#2
Lin Yang, Hairong Nan, Jun Liang, Yin Hang Chan, Laam Chan, Rita Wing Man Sum, Yee Mei Kwan, Feifei Zhou, Huaiqing Meng, Lorna Kwai Ping Suen
BACKGROUND: People with diabetes are at a higher risk of influenza infections and severe complications. The vaccination of close contacts could offer indirect protection to people with diabetes; this is known as "herd immunity." The aim of this study is to investigate the vaccination rates of people with diabetes and their household contacts in Hong Kong. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Face-to-face interviews with 158 patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and aged ⩾65years were conducted in clinics...
January 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093107/characterization-and-identification-of-microbial-communities-in-bovine-necrotic-vulvovaginitis
#3
N Y Shpigel, L Adler-Ashkenazy, S Scheinin, T Goshen, A Arazi, Z Pasternak, Y Gottlieb
Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is a severe and potentially fatal disease of post-partum cows that emerged in Israel after large dairy herds were merged. While post-partum cows are commonly affected by mild vulvovaginitis (BVV), in BNVV these benign mucosal abrasions develop into progressive deep necrotic lesions leading to sepsis and death if untreated. The etiology of BNVV is still unknown and a single pathogenic agent has not been found. We hypothesized that BNVV is a polymicrobial disease where the normally benign vaginal microbiome is remodeled and affects the local immune response...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077161/mathematical-modelling-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-abundance-in-foxes-in-zurich-switzerland
#4
Belen Otero-Abad, Simon R Rüegg, Daniel Hegglin, Peter Deplazes, Paul R Torgerson
BACKGROUND: In Europe, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the main definitive host of Echinococcus multilocularis, the aetiological agent of a severe disease in humans called alveolar echinococcosis. The distribution of this zoonotic parasite among the fox population is remarkably aggregated with few heavily infected animals harbouring much of the parasite burdens and being responsible for most of the environmental parasitic egg contamination. Important research questions explored were: (i) spatial differences in parasite infection pressure related to the level of urbanization; (ii) temporal differences in parasite infection pressure in relation to time of the year; (iii) is herd immunity or an age-dependent infection pressure responsible for the observed parasite abundance; (iv) assuming E...
January 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072880/characterisation-of-early-life-fecal-microbiota-in-susceptible-and-healthy-pigs-to-post-weaning-diarrhoea
#5
Samir Dou, Pascale Gadonna-Widehem, Véronique Rome, Dounia Hamoudi, Larbi Rhazi, Lyes Lakhal, Thibaut Larcher, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Arturo Pinon-Quintana, Alain Guyonvarch, Isabelle L E Huërou-Luron, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067093/rotavirus-epidemiology-5-6-years-after-universal-rotavirus-vaccination-persistent-rotavirus-activity-in-older-children-and-elderly
#6
Jukka Markkula, Maria Hemming-Harlo, Marjo T Salminen, Carita Savolainen-Kopra, Jaana Pirhonen, Haider Al-Hello, Timo Vesikari
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) vaccination using RotaTeq(®) vaccine exclusively was introduced into Finnish National Immunization Program (NIP) in 2009, and soon reached high (≥90%) coverage. Since mid-2013, all stool samples from laboratory diagnosed cases of RV gastroenteritis in the entire country have been typed. METHODS: 364 RV positive stool samples collected from clinical laboratories over a 2-year period were G- and P-typed using RT-PCR, and the results were confirmed by sequencing...
January 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060041/estimating-pertussis-susceptibility-among-0-23-month-old-children-in-the-united-states-using-national-immunization-survey-nis-2013
#7
Lana Childs, Robert A Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Despite high pertussis-containing vaccine coverage in the United States (US), children who are unvaccinated or not fully vaccinated remain susceptible to pertussis. Over multiple birth cohorts of incomplete vaccination, the number of children not immune to pertussis will accumulate due to factors such as age-specific vaccination status and dose-specific vaccine effectiveness. The total number of pertussis-susceptible children 0-23 months of age in the US is unknown. METHODS: Using data on age-specific pertussis-containing vaccine receipt among children evaluated in the 2013 National Immunization Survey (born between February 2011 and June 2012), and accounting for vaccine effectiveness, and maternal transfer of anti-pertussis antibodies, we estimated the cumulative number of pertussis-susceptible children 0-23 months of age...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057385/evaluating-the-first-introduction-of-rotavirus-vaccine-in-thailand-moving-from-evidence-to-policy
#8
Piyanit Tharmaphornpilas, Suchada Jiamsiri, Somchit Boonchaiya, Onwipa Rochanathimoke, Wiravan Thinyounyong, Sumana Tuntiwitayapun, Ratigorn Guntapong, Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Aim-On Rasdjarmrearnsook, Roger I Glass
BACKGROUND: We assessed the effectiveness and possible impact of introducing rotavirus vaccine into the routine immunization program. METHODS: Two provinces were selected for an observational study, one where vaccine was introduced and another where vaccine was not available. In these areas, two sub-studies were linked. The prospective cohort study enrolled children 2month old and followed them to the age of 18months to detect all diarrhea episodes. The hospital surveillance study enrolled all children up to age 5 hospitalized with diarrhea whose fecal samples were tested for rotavirus...
January 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053505/spotlight-on-the-9-valent-hpv-vaccine
#9
REVIEW
Pier Luigi Lopalco
Starting in 2006, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been progressively implemented in most developed countries. Two vaccines have been successfully used, a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-related cancers (bHPV) and a quadrivalent vaccine (qHPV) targeting both HPV-related cancers and genital warts. Between December 2014 and June 2015, a new nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) was granted marketing authorization in the USA and Europe. The 9vHPV was developed from the qHPV and includes five additional HPV types that should increase the level of protection toward HPV-related cancers...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046179/bill-e-kunkle-interdisciplinary-beef-symposium-impact-of-mineral-and-vitamin-status-on-beef-cattle-immune-function-and-health
#10
E B Kegley, J J Ball, P A Beck
The importance of optimal mineral and vitamin nutrition on improving immune function and health has been recognized in the preceding decades. In the southeast, beef cattle are raised predominantly on forages that may be limiting in nutrients for optimal health, especially trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, and Se. Clinical deficiencies of these nutrients produce classic symptoms that are common to several nutrient deficiencies (e.g., slow growth and unthrifty appearance); however, subclinical deficiencies are more widespread and more difficult to detect, yet may result in broader economic losses...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030345/dictyocaulosis-in-dairy-cows-in-brazil-an-epidemiological-clinical-pathological-and-therapeutic-approach
#11
Luan C Henker, Claiton I Schwertz, Neuber J Lucca, Manoela M Piva, Patricia Giacomin, Anderson Gris, Leandro A Rhoden, Luke J Norbury, Aleksandro S da Silva, Rafael A da Rosa, Ricardo E Mendes
An outbreak of severe parasitic pneumonia caused by Dictyocaulus viviparus was diagnosed in adult dairy cows in the municipality of Arabutã, Southern Brazil. The total morbidity in the herd was 71.9%, and the morbidity amongst adult lactating cattle was 100%. The main clinical signs observed were dyspnea, tachypnea, nasal discharge, decreased milk production, and cough. A necropsy was conducted on one animal in order to establish the diagnosis. The herd had been treated previously with levamisole; however, clinical signs persisted and became worse...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027288/cost-effectiveness-comparison-of-monovalent-c-versus-quadrivalent-acwy-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccination-in-canada
#12
Philippe De Wals, Zhou Zhou
BACKGROUND: In Quebec, one dose of monovalent C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (Men-C-Con) is offered at 12 months of age and a booster dose in grade 9 (14-15 years of age). In other Canadian provinces, a quadrivalent ACWY vaccine (Men-4-Con) is increasingly used for adolescents. An economic analysis was performed to assess the value of a switch from Men-C-Con to Men-4-Con. METHODS: A compartmental static simulation model was developed to assess the burden of AWY invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in a cohort of 100,000 persons with different vaccination programs...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017432/beyond-cost-effectiveness-using-systems-analysis-for-infectious-disease-preparedness
#13
Charles Phelps, Guruprasad Madhavan, Rino Rappuoli, Rita Colwell, Harvey Fineberg
Until the recent outbreaks, Ebola vaccines ranked low in decision makers' priority lists based on cost-effectiveness analysis and (or) corporate profitability. Despite a relatively small number of Ebola-related cases and deaths (compared to other causes), Ebola vaccines suddenly leapt to highest priority among international health agencies and vaccine developers. Clearly, earlier cost-effectiveness analyses badly missed some factors affecting real world decisions. Multi-criteria systems analysis can improve evaluation and prioritization of vaccine development and also of many other health policy and investment decisions...
January 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008636/conscientious-objection-to-vaccination
#14
Steve Clarke, Alberto Giubilini, Mary Jean Walker
Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007592/colostrum-proinflammatory-cytokines-as-biomarkers-of-bovine-immune-response-to-bovine-tuberculosis-btb
#15
Eduardo Sánchez-Soto, Rosa Ponce-Ramos, Rodolfo Hernández-Gutiérrez, Abel Gutiérrez-Ortega, Angel H Álvarez, Moisés Martínez-Velázquez, Angel E Absalón, Pablo Ortiz-Lazareno, Alberto Limón-Flores, Ciro Estrada-Chávez, Sara E Herrera-Rodríguez
Bovine colostrum contains compounds, which provide passive immune protection from mother to newborn calves. Little is known about cytokine levels and their role in bovine colostrum. Moreover, the capacity of bovine colostrum cells to mount specific immune responses after natural exposure to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) antigens in dairy herds has not been studied, thus far. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers for bTB infection measurable in bovine colostrum. The present study reveals that isolated-immune colostrum cells can mount a specific immune response against bTB antigens, by measuring the novo IFN-γ release in cell culture...
December 19, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007397/impact-of-the-national-rotavirus-vaccination-programme-on-acute-gastroenteritis-in-england-and-associated-costs-averted
#16
Sara L Thomas, Jemma L Walker, Justin Fenty, Katherine E Atkins, Alex J Elliot, Helen E Hughes, Julia Stowe, Shamez Ladhani, Nick J Andrews
BACKGROUND: Introduction of infant oral rotavirus vaccination in the UK in July 2013 has resulted in decreased hospitalisations and Emergency Department (ED) visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE), for both adults and children. We investigated reductions in AGE incidence seen in primary care in the two years after vaccine introduction, and estimated the healthcare costs averted across healthcare settings in the first year of the vaccination programme. METHODS: We used primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and age-stratified time-series analyses to derive adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRa) for AGE in the first two years of the post-vaccination era (July 2013-April 2015) compared to the pre-vaccination era (July 2008-June 2013)...
December 19, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998640/vaccine-coverage-and-adherence-to-epi-schedules-in-eight-resource-poor-settings-in-the-mal-ed-cohort-study
#17
Christel Hoest, Jessica C Seidman, Gwenyth Lee, James A Platts-Mills, Asad Ali, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Pascal Bessong, Ram Chandyo, Sudhir Babji, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Dinesh Mondal, Mustafa Mahfuz, Estomih R Mduma, Emanuel Nyathi, Claudia Abreu, Mark A Miller, William Pan, Carl J Mason, Stacey L Knobler
BACKGROUND: Launched in 1974, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is estimated to prevent two-three million deaths annually from polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, pertussis, measles, and tetanus. Additional lives could be saved through better understanding what influences adherence to the EPI schedule in specific settings. METHODS: The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study followed cohorts in eight sites in South Asia, Africa, and South America and monitored vaccine receipt over the first two years of life for the children enrolled in the study...
January 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992394/the-conundrum-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-atypical-fulminant-measles-in-a-leukemia-survivor-on-maintenance-chemotherapy
#18
James Guoxian Huang, Allen Eng Juh Yeoh, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, Mas Isa Suhaila
We report the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in an unusually fulminant presentation of measles, presenting as severe necrotizing bronchiolitis with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in the absence of classical clinical features in an immunocompromised host on maintenance chemotherapy. Our patient had presented with features of a viral pneumonitis without the classical exanthem, in combination with HLH. Although rhinovirus-induced HLH was highly unusual, the positive rhinovirus swab result had distracted us from the eventual diagnosis...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27970552/missing-the-value-of-herd-immunity-in-cost-effectiveness-analysis-a-systematic-review
#19
L Nymark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965966/challenges-of-generating-and-maintaining-protective-vaccine-induced-immune-responses-for-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-in-pigs
#20
REVIEW
Nicholas A Lyons, Young S Lyoo, Donald P King, David J Paton
Vaccination can play a central role in the control of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) by reducing both the impact of clinical disease and the extent of virus transmission between susceptible animals. Recent incursions of exotic FMD virus lineages into several East Asian countries have highlighted the difficulties of generating and maintaining an adequate immune response in vaccinated pigs. Factors that impact vaccine performance include (i) the potency, antigenic payload, and formulation of a vaccine; (ii) the antigenic match between the vaccine and the heterologous circulating field strain; and (iii) the regime (timing, frequency, and herd-level coverage) used to administer the vaccine...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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