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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529975/phylogenetic-analyses-suggest-that-factors-other-than-the-capsid-protein-play-a-role-in-the-epidemic-potential-of-gii-2-norovirus
#1
Kentaro Tohma, Cara J Lepore, Lauren A Ford-Siltz, Gabriel I Parra
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. For over two decades, a single genotype (GII.4) has been responsible for most norovirus-associated cases. However, during the winter of 2014 to 2015, the GII.4 strains were displaced by a rarely detected genotype (GII.17) in several countries of the Asian continent. Moreover, during the winter of 2016 to 2017, the GII.2 strain reemerged as predominant in different countries worldwide. This reemerging GII.2 strain is a recombinant virus that presents a GII...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511204/-current-immunization-status-of-d%C3%A3-sseldorf-s-nursery-school-children-and-staff-members-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Delbar Dilmaghani, Michael Schäfer, Renate Bredahl, Klaus Göbels
Background The local health authority (Gesundheitsamt) in Düsseldorf, Germany aimed to investigate the current immunization status of nursery school children and pedagogues in Düsseldorf, Germany. Furthermore, analysing the association between Düsseldorf's 5 social environment clusters and immunization status was of interest. Especially due to recent changes in the German Infection Protection Act closely monitoring adverse immunization trends becomes increasingly important. Methods Weighted cluster random sampling was used in order to draw a sample of 50 nursery schools from the 5 social environment clusters...
May 16, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501456/assessing-age-dependent-susceptibility-to-measles-in-japan
#3
Ryo Kinoshita, Hiroshi Nishiura
BACKGROUND: Routine vaccination against measles in Japan started in 1978. Whereas measles elimination was verified in 2015, multiple chains of measles transmission were observed in 2016. We aimed to reconstruct the age-dependent susceptibility to measles in Japan so that future vaccination strategies can be elucidated. METHODS: An epidemiological model was used to quantify the age-dependent immune fraction using datasets of vaccination coverage and seroepidemiological survey...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500811/cost-effectiveness-of-dengue-vaccination-programs-in-brazil
#4
Eunha Shim
AbstractThe first approved dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV, a chimeric, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus vaccine, was recently licensed in 13 countries, including Brazil. In light of recent vaccine approval, we modeled the cost-effectiveness of potential vaccination policies mathematically based on data from recent vaccine efficacy trials that indicated that vaccine efficacy was lower in seronegative individuals than in seropositive individuals. In our analysis, we investigated several vaccination programs, including routine vaccination, with various vaccine coverage levels and those with and without large catch-up campaigns...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499721/efficacy-of-south-african-babesia-bovis-vaccine-against-field-isolates
#5
P C Troskie, A A Latif, B J Mans, M P Combrink
A high-passage Babesia bovis vaccine containing only one genotype population was, although protective, inferior compared to the immunity afforded by a lower passage of the same strain containing two populations. The 24 times serially passaged South African B. bovis S vaccine strain contain only a single parasite population (Bv80 allele A 558bp). Forty-four field isolates sampled were all found different with regard to the number and composition of the parasite populations present in each isolate. The extensive genotypic diversity in South Africa and the limited genotypic diversity observed in the S24 vaccine, raised the question on its ability to protect against such diverse populations...
May 3, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498857/cost-effectiveness-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-strategies-for-the-elderly-in-korea
#6
Jung Yeon Heo, Yu Bin Seo, Won Suk Choi, Jacob Lee, Ji Yun Noh, Hye Won Jeong, Woo Joo Kim, Min Ja Kim, Hee Young Lee, Joon Young Song
BACKGROUND: Although the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) showed good efficacy against pneumococcal disease in the the CAPiTA trial, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23) program has been ongoing for older adults aged ≥ 65 years in Korea since May of 2013. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the current vaccination strategy (a single-dose PPSV23 vaccination) compared to a single-dose PCV13 vaccination and sequential PCV13-PPSV23 vaccinations in the elderly population aged ≥ 65 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489974/diversity-of-the-tlr4-immunity-receptor-in-czech-native-cattle-breeds-revealed-using-the-pacific-biosciences-sequencing-platform
#7
Karel Novák, Jitka Pikousová, Vladimíra Czerneková, Věra Mátlová
The allelic variants of immunity genes in historical breeds likely reflect local infection pressure and therefore represent a reservoir for breeding. Screening to determine the diversity of the Toll-like receptor gene TLR4 was conducted in two conserved cattle breeds: Czech Red and Czech Red Pied. High-throughput sequencing of pooled PCR amplicons using the PacBio platform revealed polymorphisms, which were subsequently confirmed via genotyping techniques. Eight SNPs found in coding and adjacent regions were grouped into 18 haplotypes, representing a significant portion of the known diversity in the global breed panel and presumably exceeding diversity in production populations...
May 10, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484344/economic-evaluations-of-vaccines-in-canada-a-scoping-review
#8
REVIEW
Ellen R S Rafferty, Heather L Gagnon, Marwa Farag, Cheryl L Waldner
BACKGROUND: This study aims to summarise and describe the evolution of published economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada, thereby outlining the current state of this expanding and meaningful research. METHODS: Using Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review framework we assembled relevant research from both academic and grey literature. Following abstract and full-text review we identified 60 articles to be included in the final analysis. RESULTS: We found that since 1988 there has been a steady increase in the number of economic evaluations on vaccines in Canada...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482131/incidence-of-acute-hepatitis-a-among-hiv-positive-patients-during-an-outbreak-among-msm-in-taiwan-impact-of-hav-vaccination
#9
Guan-Jhou Chen, Kuan-Yin Lin, Hsin-Yun Sun, Wang-Huei Sheng, Szu-Min Hsieh, Yi-Chia Huang, Aristine Cheng, Wen-Chun Liu, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
BACKGROUND: An unprecedented outbreak of acute hepatitis A has occurred among MSM in Taiwan since June 2015. We aimed to describe the seroepidemiology of HAV infection and to investigate the relationship between HAV vaccination and the incidence of acute hepatitis A among HIV-positive patients at the largest designated hospital for HIV care during the outbreak. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2016, the HAV serostatus, vaccination history, and clinical characteristics of HIV-positive patients were retrospectively reviewed...
May 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472165/cost-effectiveness-of-alternate-strategies-for-childhood-immunization-against-meningococcal-disease-with-monovalent-and-quadrivalent-conjugate-vaccines-in-canada
#10
Thomas E Delea, Derek Weycker, Mark Atwood, Dion Neame, Fabián P Alvarez, Evelyn Forget, Joanne M Langley, Ayman Chit
BACKGROUND: Public health programs to prevent invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) with monovalent serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV-C) and quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (MCV-4) in infancy and adolescence vary across Canadian provinces. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of various vaccination strategies against IMD using current and anticipated future pricing and recent epidemiology. METHODS: A cohort model was developed to estimate the clinical burden and costs (CAN$2014) of IMD in the Canadian population over a 100-year time horizon for three strategies: (1) MCV-C in infants and adolescents (MCV-C/C); (2) MCV-C in infants and MCV-4 in adolescents (MCV-C/4); and (3) MCV-4 in infants (2 doses) and adolescents (MCV-4/4)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467238/sexual-orientation-disparities-in-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-of-u-s-males-and-females
#11
Brittany M Charlton, Sari L Reisner, Madina Agénor, Allegra R Gordon, Vishnudas Sarda, S Bryn Austin
PURPOSE: This study sought to examine how human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may differ across sexual orientation groups (e.g., bisexuals compared to heterosexuals)-particularly in boys and men, about whom little is known. METHODS: Data were from a prospective cohort of 10,663 U.S. females and males enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study followed from 1996 to 2014. Participants were aged 11-24 years when the vaccine was approved for females in 2006 and 14-27 years when approved for males in 2009...
May 3, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463627/modeling-a-morbillivirus-outbreak-in-hawaiian-monk-seals-to-aid-in-the-design-of-mitigation-programs
#12
Jason D Baker, Albert L Harting, Michelle M Barbieri, Stacie J Robinson, Frances M D Gulland, Charles L Littnan
We developed a stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) model to simulate a range of plausible morbillivirus outbreak scenarios in a randomly mixing population of 170 endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Neomonachus schauinslandi). We then modeled realistic vaccination and quarantine measures to determine the potential efficacy of such mitigation efforts. Morbillivirus outbreaks represent substantial risk to monk seals-91% of simulated baseline outbreaks grew (R0>1), and in one-third of the scenarios all, or nearly all, individuals were infected...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457742/from-individual-to-herd-protection-with-pneumococcal-vaccines-the-contribution-of-the-cuban-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-implementation-strategy
#13
Nivaldo Linares-Pérez, María E Toledo-Romaní, Darielys Santana-Mederos, Anaí García-Fariñas, Dagmar García-Rivera, Yury Valdés-Balbín, Vicente Vérez-Bencomo
A new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is currently undergoing advanced clinical evaluation prior to its planned introduction in Cuba. The implementation of the pneumococcal vaccination strategy has been designed with consideration of the need to maximize both its direct and indirect effects. A novel approach is suggested, which addresses preschool children as the first-line target group to generate herd immunity in infants and to have an impact on transmission at the community level. The clinical evaluation pipeline is described herein, including evaluations of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impact...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455577/-one-decade-of-hpv-vaccination-in-germany
#14
REVIEW
P Schneede
As a worldwide very common sexually transmitted infection (STI), HPV causes millions of genital warts every year and is responsible for 5% of all cancers in men and women. With strong empirical evidence for both vaccine safety and efficacy, the HPV vaccines proved to protect against these HPV-related conditions over the last decade. But current HPV vaccination coverage is suboptimal in many countries. Even in Germany the absence of a school-based immunization program and the recommendation of a publicly funded girls-only HPV vaccination strategy are the main reasons for a female coverage rate under 40%, which does not achieve herd immunity for the boys...
April 28, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453607/determining-best-strategies-for-maternally-targeted-pertussis-vaccination-using-an-individual-based-model
#15
Patricia Therese Campbell, Jodie McVernon, Nicholas Geard
Rising pertussis incidence has prompted a number of countries to implement maternally-targeted vaccination to protect vulnerable infants, but questions remain about optimal design of such vaccination strategies. We simulated pertussis transmission within an individual based model parameterized to match Australian conditions, explicitly linking infants and their mothers to estimate the effectiveness of alternative maternally-targeted vaccination strategies (antenatal versus postnatal delivery) and the benefit of revaccination over multiple pregnancies...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449971/indirect-herd-protection-following-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccines-introduction-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Gal Tsaban, Shalom Ben-Shimol
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal diseases are major causes of morbidity among adults, especially those over 50years of age. While pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV's) impact on pneumococcal disease rates among children is well established, the extent of its impact on adult pneumococcal related illness remains unclear. The aim of this systematic literature review was to describe the impact of PCV introduction to childhood national immunization programs worldwide on PCV-naive adult population...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449735/maternal-pertussis-immunisation-clinical-gains-and-epidemiological-legacy
#17
Ana I Bento, Aaron A King, Pejman Rohani
The increase in whooping cough (pertussis) incidence in many countries with high routine vaccination coverage is alarming, with incidence in the US reaching almost 50,000 reported cases per year, reflecting incidence levels not seen since the 1950s. While the potential explanations for this resurgence remain debated, we face an urgent need to protect newborns, especially during the time window between birth and the first routine vaccination dose. Maternal immunisation has been proposed as an effective strategy for protecting neonates, who are at higher risk of severe pertussis disease and mortality...
April 13, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444974/school-based-surveillance-for-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-during-2014-15-seasons-in-hong-kong
#18
Ting F Leung, Renee W Y Chan, Angela Kwok, Wendy C S Ho, Mars K P Tao, Kam L Hon, Frankie W T Cheng, Albert M Li, Paul K S Chan
BACKGROUND: Influenza imposes substantial healthcare burden in children, which can be prevented by vaccination. Influenza vaccination coverage varies widely among childhood populations worldwide, which has significant impact on herd immunity and usefulness of influenza vaccine. However, there is limited real-life data on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children. OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to investigate clinical spectrum of childhood influenza and VE in preventing influenza in Hong Kong children...
April 26, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443077/molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-the-influenza-a-h3n2-hemagglutinin-trimer-reveals-the-structural-basis-for-adaptive-evolution-of-the-recent-epidemic-clade-3c-2a
#19
Masaru Yokoyama, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Masayuki Shirakura, Shinji Watanabe, Takato Odagiri, Kimito Ito, Hironori Sato
Influenza A(H3N2) has been a major cause of seasonal influenza in humans since 1968, and has evolved by antigenic drift under the constantly changing human herd immunity. Increasing evidence suggests that the antigenic change occasionally occurred concomitant with the alterations of the N-glycosylation site profile and hemagglutination activity of the virion surface protein hemagglutinin (HA). However, the structural basis of these changes remains largely unclear. To address this issue, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the glycosylated HA trimers of the A(H3N2), which has a novel pattern of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons unique in the new A(H3N2) epidemic clade 3C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438407/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-against-serogroup-c-meningococci-in-the-region-of-valencia-spain-impact-of-meningococcal-c-conjugate-vaccination
#20
Lina Pérez-Breva, Raquel Abad-Torreblanca, Miguel Ángel Martínez-Beneito, Joan Puig-Barberà, Sara Alemán-Sánchez, Nuria Morant-Talamante, Macrina Sastre-Cantón, Julio A Vázquez-Moreno, Javier Díez-Domingo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccination programs provide direct and indirect protection against meningococcal disease. However, a decrease in the antibodies could affect herd immunity. We conducted a seroprevalence study to assess the immunity in subjects 8-12years after different MCCV vaccination programs were launched and evaluated the impact of vaccination on seroprotection. METHODS: Seroepidemiological study conducted from October 2010 to April 2012 in the region of Valencia, Spain...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
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