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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207888/effect-of-the-different-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-uptakes-on-the-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-analysis-of-a-hospital-based-and-population-based-surveillance-study-in-madrid-spain-2007-2015
#1
Juan Picazo, Jesús Ruiz-Contreras, Juan Casado-Flores, Sagrario Negreira, Fernando Baquero, Teresa Hernández-Sampelayo, Enrique Otheo, Cristina Méndez
In the Community of Madrid, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced the 7-valent (PCV7) in the fully government-funded Regional Immunization Program (RIP) in May, 2010, but was later excluded in May, 2012, and included again in January, 2015. These unique changes allowed us to assess the impact of the different pneumococcal vaccination policies on PCV13 uptake in infants and on the incidence rate (IR) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children <15 years old. In this prospective, active, surveillance study, we estimated PCV13 uptakes, IR and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for total IPD and for IPD caused by PCV13- and non-PCV13 serotypes in children <15 years, stratified by age, in four periods with different vaccination policies: fully government-funded PCV7 vaccination, fully government-funded PCV13, mixed public/private funding and only private funding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202790/reactivity-of-anti-pedv-structural-protein-antibodies-to-porcine-enteric-coronaviruses-diagnostic-implications
#2
Luis Gabriel Gimenez-Lirola, Jianqiang Zhang, Jose Antonio Carrillo-Avila, Qi Chen, Ronaldo Magtoto, Korakrit Poonsuk, David H Baum, Pablo Piñeyro, Jeffrey Zimmerman
The development of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) antibody-based assays is important for detecting infected animals, confirming previous virus exposure, and monitoring sow herd immunity. However, the potential cross-reactivity among porcine coronaviruses is a major concern for the development of pathogen-specific assays. In this study, we used serum samples (n = 792) from pigs of precisely known infection status and a multiplex fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay and/or enzyme-linked immunoassay platform to characterize the antibody response against PEDV whole-virus (WV) particles and recombinant polypeptides derived from the four PEDV structural proteins, i...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198725/adult-pneumococcal-vaccination-advances-impact-and-unmet-needs
#3
Ricardo J José, Jeremy S Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preventing pneumonia in the elderly and study participants individuals with comorbidities is an unmet clinical need. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest bacterial cause of pneumonia, and we summarize recent findings regarding current S. pneumoniae vaccines, and debate their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in risk groups. We also discuss potential future vaccine strategies such as protein antigen vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Current vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine does not prevent S...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177391/effect-of-oral-supplementation-with-different-energy-boosters-in-newborn-piglets-on-pre-weaning-mortality-growth-and-serological-levels-of-igf-i-and-igg
#4
R Muns, M Nuntapaitoon, P Tummaruk
Oral supplements are commonly used in commercial herds to improve energy status and passive immune acquisition of newborn piglets. However, there is little scientific evidence on the efficacy of oral supplements for piglets. The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of 2 oral supplementation products on piglet pre-weaning mortality and growth. A total of 62 litters (749 piglets) were distributed according to the sow's parity among 3 treatments: 1) CONTROL group, no oral supplementation to piglets; 2) EN group, light piglets (LP: birth BW ≤ 1...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177383/evaluating-the-behavior-growth-performance-immune-parameters-and-intestinal-morphology-of-weaned-piglets-after-simulated-transport-and-heat-stress-when-antibiotics-are-eliminated-from-the-diet-or-replaced-with-l-glutamine
#5
J S Johnson, D C Lay
Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of post-weaning transport during heat stress (HS) and thermoneutral (TN) conditions when dietary antibiotics are removed or replaced with a nutraceutical. Sixty mixed sex piglets from 10 sows ( = 6 piglets/sow) were weaned (18.8 ± 0.8 d of age) and then herded up ramps into 1 of 2 simulated transport trailers in either TN (28.8 ± 0.2°C) or HS (cyclical 32 to 37°C) conditions where they remained for 12 h. During the 12 h of simulated transport, fans were used to simulate air movement through the trailer, feed and water were withheld, and rectal temperature (T) was measured hourly...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177046/stable-expression-of-mycobacterium-bovis-antigen-85b-in-auxotrophic-m-bovis-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#6
Caroline Rizzi, Ana Carolina Peiter, Thaís Larré Oliveira, Amilton Clair Pinto Seixas, Karen Silva Leal, Daiane Drawanz Hartwig, Fabiana Kommling Seixas, Sibele Borsuk, Odir Antônio Dellagostin
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, responsible for causing major losses in livestock. A cost effective alternative to control the disease could be herd vaccination. The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has a limited efficacy against bovine TB, but can improved by over-expression of protective antigens. The M. bovis antigen 85B demonstrates ability to induce protective immune response against bovine TB in animal models. However, current systems for the construction of recombinant BCG expressing multiple copies of the gene result in strains of low genetic stability that rapidly lose the plasmid in vivo...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168855/vaccination-of-calves-with-mycobacterium-bovis-bacillus-calmette-guerin-reduces-the-frequency-and-severity-of-lesions-of-bovine-tuberculosis-under-a-natural-transmission-setting-in-ethiopia
#7
G Ameni, K Tafess, A Zewde, T Eguale, M Tilahun, T Hailu, A Sirak, F J Salguero, S Berg, A Aseffa, R G Hewinson, H M Vordermeier
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is highly prevalent in intensive dairy farms of the urban "milk-sheds" in Ethiopia, and vaccination could be a cost-effective disease control strategy. In the present study, the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to protect against bTB was assessed in Holstein-Friesian calves in a natural transmission setting. Twenty-three 2-week-old calves were subcutaneously vaccinated with BCG Danish SSI strain 1331, and matched 26 calves were injected with placebo. Six weeks later, calves were introduced into a herd of M...
February 6, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166835/frequency-of-th17-cells-correlates-with-the-presence-of-lung-lesions-in-pigs-chronically-infected-with-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#8
Elena L Sassu, Andrea Ladinig, Stephanie C Talker, Maria Stadler, Christian Knecht, Heiko Stein, Janna Frömbling, Barbara Richter, Joachim Spergser, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Robert Graage, Isabel Hennig-Pauka, Wilhelm Gerner
Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) remains one of the major causes of poor growth performance and respiratory disease in pig herds. While the role of antibodies against APP has been intensely studied, the porcine T cell response remains poorly characterized. To address this, pigs were intranasally infected with APP serotype 2 and euthanized during the acute phase [6-10 days post-infection (dpi)] or the chronic phase of APP infection (27-31 dpi). Lymphocytes isolated from blood, tonsils, lung tissue and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were analyzed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for IL-17A, IL-10 and TNF-α production after in vitro stimulation with crude capsular extract (CCE) of the APP inoculation strain...
February 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162819/development-of-a-single-dose-recombinant-camp-factor-entrapping-poly-lactide-co-glycolide-microspheres-based-vaccine-against-streptococcus-agalactiae
#9
Gang Liu, Jinhua Yin, Herman W Barkema, Liben Chen, Muhammad Shahid, Otto Szenci, Jeroen De Buck, John P Kastelic, Bo Han
Streptococcus agalactiae is an important contagious bovine mastitis pathogen. Although it is well controlled and even eradicated in most Northern European and North American dairy herds, the prevalence of this pathogen remains very high in China. However, research on development of a vaccine against S. agalactiae mastitis is scarce. The aims of the present study were to: (1) develop a single-dose vaccine against S. agalactiae based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (MS) encapsulated CAMP factor, a conserved virulent protein encoded by S...
February 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161422/il-17a-and-complement-contribute-to-killing-of-pneumococci-following-immunization-with-a-pneumococcal-whole-cell-vaccine
#10
Ivana B Campos, Muriel Herd, Kristin L Moffitt, Ying-Jie Lu, Michelle Darrieux, Richard Malley, Luciana C C Leite, Viviane M Gonçalves
The pneumococcal whole cell vaccine (PWCV) has been investigated as an alternative to polysaccharide-based vaccines currently in use. It is a non-encapsulated killed vaccine preparation that induces non-capsular antibodies protecting mice against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage via IL-17A activation of mouse phagocytes. Here, we show that PWCV induces antibody and IL-17A production to protect mice against challenge in a fatal aspiration-sepsis model after only one dose...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161183/investigation-of-the-effect-of-pegbovigrastim-on-some-periparturient-immune-disorders-and-performance-in-mexican-dairy-herds
#11
R Ruiz, L O Tedeschi, A Sepúlveda
This study analyzed the efficacy of pegbovigrastim (Imrestor, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on some health and production parameters in lactating dairy cows. Primiparous and multiparous Holsteins from 17 Mexican dairy herds (n = 10,238) were included in this study, which was conducted in 2015. Treated cows (n = 5,025) received Imrestor approximately 7 d before expected calving and again within 24 h after calving; control cows (n = 5,213) did not receive a placebo. Clinical mastitis (MAS; 0 to 30 DIM), retained placenta (RP), and clinical metritis (MET; 0 to 21 DIM) occurrences were recorded, as well as the number of medication days, medical treatments needed, and the number of days that milk was discarded due to medication administered for disease...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160764/vaccination-attitudes-and-practices-of-integrative-medicine-physicians
#12
Laura Jean Buehning, Kenneth Michael Peddecord
Context • The growth of Internet-based information and social networking has increased the accessibility and importance of antivaccine information. That information has led to a questioning of vaccination schedules and policies by many individuals. Although the attitudes of complementary and alternative practitioners, such as homeopaths and chiropractic students, toward vaccination have been assessed, despite the growth of integrative medicine, no assessment of the attitudes and practices regarding vaccination of these physicians has been performed...
January 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158921/the-double-antigen-elisa-concept-for-early-detection-of-e-rns-specific-classical-swine-fever-virus-antibodies-and-application-as-an-accompanying-test-for-differentiation-of-infected-from-marker-vaccinated-animals
#13
D Meyer, S Fritsche, Y Luo, C Engemann, S Blome, M Beyerbach, C-Y Chang, H-J Qiu, P Becher, A Postel
Emergency vaccination with live marker vaccines represents a promising control strategy for future classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks, and the first live marker vaccine is available in Europe. Successful implementation is dependent on a reliable accompanying diagnostic assay that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). As induction of a protective immune response relies on virus-neutralizing antibodies against E2 protein of CSF virus (CSFV), the most promising DIVA strategy is based on detection of E(rns) -specific antibodies in infected swine...
February 3, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131586/estimating-genetic-and-phenotypic-parameters-of-cellular-immune-associated-traits-in-dairy-cows
#14
Scott J Denholm, Tom N McNeilly, Georgios Banos, Mike P Coffey, George C Russell, Ainsley Bagnall, Mairi C Mitchell, Eileen Wall
Data collected from an experimental Holstein-Friesian research herd were used to determine genetic and phenotypic parameters of innate and adaptive cellular immune-associated traits. Relationships between immune-associated traits and production, health, and fertility traits were also investigated. Repeated blood leukocyte records were analyzed in 546 cows for 9 cellular immune-associated traits, including percent T cell subsets, B cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. Variance components were estimated by univariate analysis...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122199/current-meningitis-outbreak-in-ghana-historical-perspectives-and-the-importance-of-diagnostics
#15
REVIEW
Alexander Kwarteng, John Amuasi, Augustina Annan, Samuel Ahuno, David Opare, Michael Nagel, Christof Vinnemeier, Jürgen May, Ellis Owusu-Dabo
Bacterial meningitis continues to be one of the most dreaded infections in sub-Saharan Africa and other countries that fall in the "meningitis belt" due to recurrent nature of the infection and the sequel of deliberating effects among survivors even after treatment. Ghana has had recurrent epidemics in the past but has been free from high mortality levels. Whereas reasons for the low reported number of deaths in the past are unclear, we hypothesize that it may be due to increased vaccination from expanded program on immunization (EPI) and consequent herd immunity of the general population...
January 22, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118846/ecological-validity-of-cost-effectiveness-models-of-universal-hpv-vaccination-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#16
Giampiero Favato, Emmanouil Noikokyris, Riccardo Vecchiato
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infection with high-risk, oncogenic strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) still induces a relevant burden of diseases on both men and women. Although vaccines appear to be highly efficacious in preventing the infection of the most common high-risk strains (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18), important questions regarding the appropriate target population for prophylactic vaccination are still debated. Models in the extant literature seem to converge on the cost-effectiveness of high coverage (>80%) of a single cohort of 12-year-old girls...
January 25, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114943/joining-the-in-vitro-immunization-of-alpaca-lymphocytes-and-phage-display-rapid-and-cost-effective-pipeline-for-sdab-synthesis
#17
Lubos Comor, Saskia Dolinska, Katarina Bhide, Lucia Pulzova, Irene Jiménez-Munguía, Elena Bencurova, Zuzana Flachbartova, Lenka Potocnakova, Evelina Kanova, Mangesh Bhide
BACKGROUND: Camelids possess unique functional heavy chain antibodies, which can be produced and modified in vitro as a single domain antibody (sdAb or nanobody) with full antigen binding ability. Production of sdAb in conventional manner requires active immunization of Camelidae animal, which is laborious, time consuming, costly and in many cases not feasible (e.g. in case of highly toxic or infectious antigens). RESULTS: In this study, we describe an alternative pipeline that includes in vitro stimulation of naïve alpaca B-lymphocytes by antigen of interest (in this case endothelial cell binding domain of OspA of Borrelia) in the presence of recombinant alpaca interleukins 2 and 4, construction of sdAb phage library, selection of antigen specific sdAb expressed on phages (biopanning) and confirmation of binding ability of sdAb to the antigen...
January 23, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104528/cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-cb2-as-one-of-the-candidate-genes-in-human-carotid-plaque-imaging-evalu1ation-of-the-novel-radiotracer-11-c-rs-016-targeting-cb2-in-atherosclerosis
#18
Romana Meletta, Roger Slavik, Linjing Mu, Zoran Rancic, Nicole Borel, Roger Schibli, Simon M Ametamey, Stefanie D Krämer, Adrienne Müller Herde
INTRODUCTION: Endarterectomized human atherosclerotic plaques are a valuable basis for gene expression studies to disclose novel imaging biomarkers and therapeutic targets, such as the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). In this work, CB2 is expressed on activated immune cells, which are abundant in inflamed plaques. We evaluated the CB2-specific radiotracer [(11)C]RS-016 for imaging vascular inflammation in human and mouse atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS: The differential gene expression of microscopically classified human carotid plaques was evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
January 8, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094076/influenza-vaccination-in-older-people-with-diabetes-and-their-household-contacts
#19
Lin Yang, Hairong Nan, Jun Liang, Yin Hang Chan, Laam Chan, Rita Wing Man Sum, Yee Mei Kwan, Feifei Zhou, Huaiqing Meng, Lorna Kwai Ping Suen
BACKGROUND: People with diabetes are at a higher risk of influenza infections and severe complications. The vaccination of close contacts could offer indirect protection to people with diabetes; this is known as "herd immunity." The aim of this study is to investigate the vaccination rates of people with diabetes and their household contacts in Hong Kong. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Face-to-face interviews with 158 patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and aged ⩾65years were conducted in clinics...
January 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093107/characterization-and-identification-of-microbial-communities-in-bovine-necrotic-vulvovaginitis
#20
N Y Shpigel, L Adler-Ashkenazy, S Scheinin, T Goshen, A Arazi, Z Pasternak, Y Gottlieb
Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is a severe and potentially fatal disease of post-partum cows that emerged in Israel after large dairy herds were merged. While post-partum cows are commonly affected by mild vulvovaginitis (BVV), in BNVV these benign mucosal abrasions develop into progressive deep necrotic lesions leading to sepsis and death if untreated. The etiology of BNVV is still unknown and a single pathogenic agent has not been found. We hypothesized that BNVV is a polymicrobial disease where the normally benign vaginal microbiome is remodeled and affects the local immune response...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
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