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Yvette H van Beurden, Tom van Gils, Nienke A van Gils, Zain Kassam, Chris J J Mulder, Nieves Aparicio-Pagés
Treatment of refractory celiac disease type II (RCD II) and preventing the development of an enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma in these patients is still difficult. In this case report, we describe a patient with RCD II who received fecal microbiota transfer as treatment for a recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and remarkably showed a full recovery of duodenal villi and disappearance of celiac symptoms. This case suggests that altering the gut microbiota may hold promise in improving the clinical and histological consequences of celiac disease and/or RCD II...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Jaehwan Kim, James G Krueger
Psoriasis vulgaris, affecting the skin, is one of the most common organspecific autoimmune diseases in humans. Until recently, psoriasis was treated by agents or approaches discovered largely through serendipity. Many of the available drugs were inherently quite toxic when used as continuous treatment for many years in this chronic disease. However, an increasing understanding of disease-specific immune pathways has spurred development of pathway-targeted therapeutics during the past decade. Psoriasis is now the most effectively treated human autoimmune disease, with high-level clinical improvements possible in ∼90% of patients using a new generation of drugs that selectively target the IL-23/Type 17 T cell axis...
September 23, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Libo Du, Siqingaowa Suo, Han Zhang, Hongying Jia, Ke Jian Liu, Xue Ji Zhang, Yang Liu
It is still a huge challenge to find a new strategy for rationally designing covalent drugs because most of them are discovered by serendipity. Considering that the effect of covalent drugs is closely associated with the kinetics of the reaction between drug molecule and its target protein, here we first demonstrate an example of the kinetic effect of pi-stacking of drug molecules on covalent antimicrobial drug design. When PEGylated 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (PEG-ACA) is used as a substrate drug, pi-stacking of  the ACA group via the self-assembly of PEG-ACA on the surface of gold nanoparticles (i...
November 4, 2016: Nanotechnology
Nathalie Garçon, Alberta Di Pasquale
Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to improve their immunogenicity. Used for more than 80 years, aluminum, the first adjuvant in human vaccines, proved insufficient to develop vaccines that could protect against new challenging pathogens such as HIV and malaria. New adjuvants and new combinations of adjuvants (Adjuvant Systems) have opened the door to the delivery of improved and new vaccines against re-emerging and difficult pathogens. Adjuvant Systems concept started through serendipity. The access to new developments in technology, microbiology and immunology have been instrumental for the dicephering of what they do and how they do it...
September 16, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Gregg L Semenza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Cell
John E Robison
Scholars have long speculated about how Kanner and Asperger's descriptions of autistic behavior appeared just 1 year apart in America and Austria even as World War II had severed communication between the two countries. Both conspiracy and serendipity have been alleged, but a simpler explanation has now emerged. Autistic knowledge crossed the Atlantic with Georg Frankl-a previously unrecognized "man in the middle" who followed his fiancé to America. The evidence presented here fills in many blanks and suggests both Kanner and Asperger benefited from Frankl's insight...
September 13, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Jun Li, Simon Lorger, Judith K Stalick, Arthur W Sleight, M A Subramanian
We recently reported that an allowed d-d transition of trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) Mn(3+) is responsible for the bright blue color in the YIn1-xMnxO3 solid solution. The crystal field splitting between a'(dz(2)) and e'(dx(2)-y(2), dxy) energy levels is very sensitive to the apical Mn-O distance. We therefore applied chemical pressure to compress the apical Mn-O distance in YIn1-xMnxO3, move the allowed d-d transition to higher energy, and thereby tune the color from blue to violet/purple. This was accomplished by substituting smaller cations such as Ti(4+)/Zn(2+) and Al(3+) onto the TBP In/Mn site, which yielded novel violet/purple phases...
October 3, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Sean Ekins, Natalie Diaz, Julia Chung, Paul Mathews, Aaron McMurtray
How do we inspire new ideas that could lead to potential treatments for rare or neglected diseases, and allow for serendipity that could help to catalyze them? How many potentially good ideas are lost because they are never tested? What if those ideas could have lead to new therapeutic approaches and major healthcare advances? If a clinician or anyone for that matter, has a new idea they want to test to develop a molecule or therapeutic that they could translate to the clinic, how would they do it without a laboratory or funding? These are not idle theoretical questions but addressing them could have potentially huge economic implications for nations...
September 12, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Robert H Howland
Methylene blue, first discovered and used as a dye in the textile industry, has long been used for biological staining in histology, bacteriology, and hematology. Because of its unique physiochemical properties, it was the first synthetic drug used in medicine, having been used to treat malaria more than one century ago. Methylene blue was also one of the first drugs used for the treatment of patients with psychosis at the end of the 19th century and was the lead drug in the serendipitous development of phenothiazine antipsychotic drugs in the mid-20th century...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Konrad Wink, Andreas Otte
Coincidences accompany our lives. This paper shows to which extent serendipity plays a role in important discoveries and developments in medicine. These include, among others, Mendel's laws, the determination of the human chromosome number, the discovery of DNA by Watson and Crick, the PAP test, or the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity. But also and especially in pharmacology, there are many examples of serendipity. Some go closely with serendipities in the discovery of bacteriology.
August 2016: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Dontscho Kerjaschki
This overview summarizes selected major developments over the last 40 years in understanding podocyte biology and its involvement in glomerular disease subjectively from my perspective. Serendipity has played a major role in my contributions to investigative nephrology that range from basic mechanisms of immune deposit formation in experimental membranous nephropathy to the role of a microRNA in FSGS. This review emphasizes the importance of continuous reality checks of experimental results obtained in vitro or with genetically modified animals with human disease...
June 20, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Marta Domínguez, Susana Alvarez, Angel R de Lera
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are promiscuous partners of heterodimeric associations with other members of the Nuclear Receptor (NR) superfamily. Through these liaisons RXR ligands ("rexinoids") either transcriptionally activate on their own the "permissive" subclass of heterodimers (PPAR/RXR, LXR/RXR, FXR/RXR) or synergize with partner ligands in the "non-permissive" subclass of heterodimers (RAR/RXR, VDR/RXR and TR/RXR). The nature and extent of the interaction of the ligand-receptor complexes with co-regulators, which is cell and context-dependent, results ultimately in transcriptional modulation of cognate gene networks...
June 16, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Patrick Cheong-Iao Pang, Shanton Chang, Karin Verspoor, Jon Pearce
BACKGROUND: Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for "exploring" health information. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information-seeking behaviors...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Ochoa-Aguilar Abraham, Ventura-Martinez Rosa, Sotomayor-Sobrino Marco Antonio, Gómez-Acevedo Claudia, Morales-Espinosa María Del Rosario
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactam molecules are a family of drugs commonly used for their antibiotic properties; however, recent research has shown that several members of this group present a large number of other effects such as neuroprotective, antioxidant, analgesic or immunomodulatory capabilities. These properties have been used in both preclinical and clinical studies in different diseases such as hypoxic neuronal damage or acute and chronic pain. The present work briefly reviews the antibiotic effect of these molecules, and will then focus specially on the non-antibiotic effects of three beta-lactam subfamilies: penicillins, cephalosporins and beta lactamase inhibitors, each of which have different molecular structure and pharmacokinetics and therefore have several potential clinical applications...
May 17, 2016: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Arun Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Gregory M Treich, Tran Doan Huan, Rui Ma, Mattewos Tefferi, Yang Cao, Gregory A Sotzing, Rampi Ramprasad
Although traditional materials discovery has historically benefited from intuition-driven experimental approaches and serendipity, computational strategies have risen in prominence and proven to be a powerful complement to experiments in the modern materials research environment. It is illustrated here how one may harness a rational co-design approach-involving synergies between high-throughput computational screening and experimental synthesis and testing-with the example of polymer dielectrics design for electrostatic energy storage applications...
August 2016: Advanced Materials
M F Schetelig, A Targovska, J S Meza, K Bourtzis, A M Handler
The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity α (As-sry-α) promoter regulation...
August 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Alan Wayne Jones
Knowledge about the history and development of therapeutic agents holds a central position in the education and training of pharmacists and pharmacologists. Students enjoy learning about the discovery of drugs, including details about the pioneer workers involved (apothecaries, organic chemists, pharmacologists, and physiologists) and the role played by serendipity. The treatment of people suffering from allergies and the development of drugs that block the actions of histamine at H1 and H2 receptors are the subject of this review...
January 2016: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Anna Maria Porcelli, Maria Antonietta Calvaruso, Luisa Iommarini, Ivana Kurelac, Roberta Zuntini, Simona Ferrari, Giuseppe Gasparre
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in respiratory complexes subunits contribute to a large spectrum of human diseases. Nonetheless, ribosomal RNA variants remain largely under-investigated from a functional point of view. We here report a unique combination of two rare mitochondrial rRNA variants detected by serendipity in a subject with chronic granulomatous disease and never reported to co-occur within the same mitochondrial haplotype. In silico prediction of the mitochondrial ribosomal structure showed a dramatic rearrangement of the rRNA secondary structure...
June 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sahdeo Prasad, Subash C Gupta, Bharat B Aggarwal
Novel drug development leading to final approval by the US FDA can cost as much as two billion dollars. Why the cost of novel drug discovery is so expensive is unclear, but high failure rates at the preclinical and clinical stages are major reasons. Although therapies targeting a given cell signaling pathway or a protein have become prominent in drug discovery, such treatments have done little in preventing or treating any disease alone because most chronic diseases have been found to be multigenic. A review of the discovery of numerous drugs currently being used for various diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and autoimmune diseases indicates that serendipity has played a major role in the discovery...
June 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Nancy E Davidson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
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