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Above all else

Julie Fox, Juan M Tiraboschi, Carolina Herrera, Laura Else, Deirdre Egan, Laura Dickinson, Akil Jackson, Natalia Olejniczak, David Back, Saye Khoo, Robin Shattock, Marta Boffito
To investigate the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of single-dose maraviroc 300 mg in HIV-1 exposure compartments. Maraviroc concentrations in blood, secretions (vaginal, urethral, oral, and rectal), and tissue (vaginal and rectal) were measured, and ex vivo challenge was performed in 54 healthy volunteers to study protection from HIV infection. Maraviroc Cmax occurred within 4 hours in most compartments. Concentrations from 4 to 72 hours were above intracellular (IC) IC90 in all compartments, range 15-8095 ng/mL...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ariel V Dowling, Valerie Eberly, Somboon Maneekobkunwong, Sara J Mulroy, Philip S Requejo, Joseph T Gwin
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a device for monitoring pressure relief maneuvers and physical activity for wheelchair users. The device counts the number of wheel-pushes based on wheelchair acceleration and measures pressure relief maneuvers using a seat-sensor consisting of three force sensing resistors. To establish the feasibility of the seat-sensor for the detection of pressure relief maneuvers, ten wheelchair users and ten non-disabled controls completed a series of wheelchair depression raises, forward trunk leans, and lateral trunk leans...
September 29, 2016: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Michelle Pannor Silver, Sarah A Williams
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Some professions foster expectations that individuals cultivate their work identity above all other aspects of life. This can be problematic when individuals are confronted with the expectation that they will readily terminate this identity in later-career stages as institutions seek to cycle in new generations. This study examines the relationship between work identity and retirement by examining multiple generations of academic physicians. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study used a multimethod qualitative design that included document analysis, participant observation, focus groups, and in-depth interviews with academic physicians from one of the oldest departments of medicine in North America...
September 1, 2016: Gerontologist
Anders G Kjaergaard, Anders Dige, Jeppe S Nielsen, Else Tønnesen, Jan Krog
Endothelial activation is pivotal in the development and escalation of sepsis. Central to endothelial activation is the endothelial up-regulation of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) including E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and PECAM-1. Shed CAMs are also found in circulating soluble forms (sCAMs). We investigated whether sCAMs can be used as biomarkers for the differentiation between septic and non-septic patients. Furthermore, we investigated lymphocyte and monocyte expression of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and VLA-4 (CD49d/CD29) ligands for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively...
October 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Sif Blandfort, Merete Gregersen, Lars Carl Borris, Else Marie Damsgaard
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a liberal blood transfusion strategy [Hb levels ≥11.3 g/dL (7 mmol/L)] reduces the risk of postoperative delirium (POD) on day 10, among nursing home residents with hip fracture, compared to a restrictive transfusion strategy [Hb levels ≥9.7 g/dL (6 mmol/L)]. Furthermore, to investigate whether POD influences mortality within 90 days after hip surgery. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis based on The TRIFE - a randomized controlled trial...
June 1, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Heather E Tulloch, Andrew L Pipe, Charl Els, Matthew J Clyde, Robert D Reid
BACKGROUND: Extended use of combined pharmacotherapies to treat tobacco dependence may increase smoking abstinence; few studies have examined their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to evaluate smoking abstinence with standard nicotine patch (NRT), extended use of combined formulations of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT+), or varenicline (VR). METHODS: A total of 737 smokers, including those with medical and psychiatric comorbidities, were randomly assigned to one of the above three treatment conditions...
2016: BMC Medicine
Paul L Else
The thermal dependence (0-40°C) of Na(+) flux in isolated liver cells of three endotherms (mice, rat and rabbit) was compared with that of ectotherms in the form of a thermally tolerant amphibian (cane toad), a cold-water fish (rainbow trout) and a thermophilic reptile (lizard). Mammals were found to share similar high rates of Na(+) flux (3.0-3.7 nmol Na(+) mg(-1) protein min(-1)) at their normal body temperatures (36-39°C). These Na(+) flux rates were significantly greater (P<0.0004-0.0001) than those of the ectotherms, which shared similar low rates of Na(+) flux (0...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
S Ramesh, R Seshasayanan
In this study, a baseband OFDM-MIMO framework with channel timing and estimation synchronization is composed and executed utilizing the FPGA innovation. The framework is prototyped in light of the IEEE 802.11a standard and the signals transmitted and received utilizing a data transmission of 20 MHz. With the assistance of the QPSK tweak, the framework can accomplish a throughput of 24 Mbps. Besides, the LS formula is executed and the estimation of a frequency-specific fading channel is illustrated. For the rough estimation of timing, MNC plan is examined and actualized...
2016: SpringerPlus
André La Gerche
The emerging controversy related to the potential cardiotoxic effects of high doses of intense exercise need to be considered among the much stronger evidence that supports the pleomorphic benefits of exercise as a whole. However, there is fairly compelling evidence to support the association between long-term sport practice and an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation and the fact that this relates to a chronic altered atrial substrate. This article was designed to challenge the reader with speculative science that suggests that exercise might promote permanent structural changes in the myocardium which can, in some individuals, predispose to arrhythmias...
April 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
A R Naylor
Prior to the introduction of evidence-based medicine, decision-making was largely based upon 'intuitive reasoning', whereby senior clinicians dictated practice based upon personal dogma, personal experience and (often) biased observational studies. This era began to end (in vascular surgery) following completion of the landmark randomized trials in carotid disease, which recruited patients throughout the 1980s. Despite scepticism amongst some surgeons of the time these particular randomized trials have stood the test of time and remain the cornerstone of virtually every guideline of practice to this day...
2016: Gefässchirurgie: Zeitschrift Für Vaskuläre und Endovaskuläre Chirurgie
Stephen Sebastian, Jared Abrams, Wilson Geisler
An ultimate goal of vision science is to understand performance under natural conditions. We describe a direct experimental approach for identifying and quantifying the factors that affect detection performance in natural scenes. A large collection of calibrated natural images is divided into millions of background patches that are then sorted into narrow bins along the dimensions of interest. In the present study, each bin represents a particular (narrow range of) mean luminance, contrast, and similarity (phase-independent correlation of the background to the target)...
2015: Journal of Vision
Jean-Michel Brunel
To ensure optimal results, we must do our utmost to achieve targets based on order, symmetry and precision, our ultimate aim being to strive towards the desired harmony, planned contrast and exact proportions. Orthodontic-surgical treatments require specific finishing procedures, which most often call for multidisciplinary, or even transdisciplinary, collaboration. Finishing will involve the dental arches just as much as the orofacial environment. Above all, treatment of this kind demands a highly targeted approach in combination with well-defined and perfectly executed techniques...
September 2015: International Orthodontics
Euphemia L Sibanda, Sarah Bernays, Ian V D Weller, James G Hakim, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: Implementation of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTX-p) among HIV-exposed infants (HEI) is poor in southern Africa. We conducted a study to investigate barriers to delivery of CTX-p to HEI in Zimbabwe at each step of the care cascade. Here we report findings of the qualitative component designed to investigate issues related to adherence conducted among women identified as HIV positive whose babies were started on CTX-p postnatally. Of note, Zimbabwe also provided nevirapine prophylaxis for HIV exposed babies, so the majority were giving nevirapine and CTX-p to their babies...
2015: BMC Public Health
Maartje Wils, Els Devriendt, Koen Milisen, Johan Flamaing
BACKGROUND: When elderly patients are transferred from a residential to an acute care setting, important information regarding their health care can be lost. Over the past years, the concept of advance care planning has also been given a more prominent place in the care for the elderly. However it remains a challenge to communicate the results achieved by this process when patients are referred to another health care setting. Developing a sound method for transferring information is a key element in the transitional care for the elderly patient...
December 2015: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
Bart L Scott, Pamela S Becker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: JAMA Oncology
Xiaoyuan Wang, Bing Xie, Dong Wu, Muhammad Hassan, Changying Huang
The generation and seasonal variations of secondary pollutants were investigated during three municipal solid waste (MSW) compression and transfer in Shanghai, China. The results showed that the raw wastewater generated from three MSW transfer stations had pH of 4.2-6.0, COD 40,000-70,000mg/L, BOD5 15,000-25,000mg/L, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) 400-700mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) 600-1500mg/L, total phosphorus (TP) 50-200mg/L and suspended solids (SS) 1000-80,000mg/L. The pH, COD, BOD5 and NH3-N did not show regular change throughout the year while the concentration of TN, TP and SS were higher in summer and autumn...
September 2015: Waste Management
Mike J F Robinson, Patrick Anselme, Kristen Suchomel, Kent C Berridge
Amphetamine and stress can sensitize mesolimbic dopamine-related systems. In Pavlovian autoshaping, repeated exposure to uncertainty of reward prediction can enhance motivated sign-tracking or attraction to a discrete reward-predicting cue (lever-conditioned stimulus; CS+), as well as produce cross-sensitization to amphetamine. However, it remains unknown how amphetamine sensitization or repeated restraint stress interact with uncertainty in controlling CS+ incentive salience attribution reflected in sign-tracking...
August 2015: Behavioral Neuroscience
Laurence S Sperling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2015: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Leen Vancoillie, Virginie Mortier, Els Demecheleer, Marlies Schauvliege, Linos Vandekerckhove, Dirk Vogelaers, Chris Verhofstede
BACKGROUND: The introduction of highly sensitive HIV-1 viral load assays with a lower quantification limit of 20 copies/ml uncovered that in a number of patients on ART, the viral load systematically fluctuates around or slightly above the detection limit of the assays. This study aimed to analyse the presence or occurrence of drug resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected patients during long-term persistent low-level viraemia (PLLV) under ART. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in which baseline and on-therapy presence of drug resistance mutations in the HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase genes were analysed in patients with PLLV between 20 and 250 copies/ml...
2015: Antiviral Therapy
Tao Cheng, Yizhou Zhang, Wen-Yong Lai, Wei Huang
Flexible and stretchable electronics represent today's cutting-edge electronic technologies. As the most-fundamental component of electronics, the thin-film electrode remains the research frontier due to its key role in the successful development of flexible and stretchable electronic devices. Stretchability, however, is generally more challenging to achieve than flexibility. Stretchable electronic devices demand, above all else, that the thin-film electrodes have the capacity to absorb a large level of strain (>1%) without obvious changes in their electrical performance...
June 10, 2015: Advanced Materials
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