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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616744/craniofacial-development-discoveries-made-in-the-chicken-embryo
#1
John Abramyan, Joy M Richman
The aim of this review is to highlight some of the key contributions to our understanding of craniofacial research from work carried out with the chicken and other avian embryos. From the very first observations of neural crest cell migration to the fusion of the primary palate, the chicken has proven indispensable in facilitating craniofacial research. In this review we will look back to the premolecular studies where "cut and paste" grafting experiments mapped the fate of cranial neural crest cells, the role of different tissue layers in patterning the face, and more recently the contribution of neural crest cells to jaw size and identity...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604827/sequence-charge-decoration-dictates-coil-globule-transition-in-intrinsically-disordered-proteins
#2
Taylor Firman, Kingshuk Ghosh
We present an analytical theory to compute conformations of heteropolymers-applicable to describe disordered proteins-as a function of temperature and charge sequence. The theory describes coil-globule transition for a given protein sequence when temperature is varied and has been benchmarked against the all-atom Monte Carlo simulation (using CAMPARI) of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In addition, the model quantitatively shows how subtle alterations of charge placement in the primary sequence-while maintaining the same charge composition-can lead to significant changes in conformation, even as drastic as a coil (swelled above a purely random coil) to globule (collapsed below a random coil) and vice versa...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601224/physical-therapists-perception-of-workplace-ethics-in-an-evolving-health-care-delivery-environment-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Roberto Cantu
Physical therapists are trained and obligated to deliver optimal health care and put patients first above all else. In the changing health-care environment, health-care organizations are grappling with controlling cost and increasing revenues. Moral distress may be created when physical therapists' desire to provide optimal care conflicts with their organization's goals to remain financially viable or profitable. Moral distress has been associated with low perception of ethical environment, professional burnout, and high turnover in organizations...
March 30, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560852/prioritization-of-the-essentials-in-the-spending-patterns-of-canadian-households-experiencing-food-insecurity
#4
Andrée-Anne Fafard St-Germain, Valerie Tarasuk
OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is a potent determinant of health and indicator of material deprivation in many affluent countries. Food insecurity is associated with compromises in food and housing expenditures, but how it relates to other expenditures is unknown. The present study described households' resource allocation over a 12-month period by food insecurity status. DESIGN: Expenditure data from the 2010 Survey of Household Spending were aggregated into four categories (basic needs, other necessities, discretionary, investments/assets) and ten sub-categories (food, clothing, housing, transportation, household/personal care, health/education, leisure, miscellaneous, personal insurance/pension, durables/assets)...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529325/julio-r-villanueva-microbiologist-researcher-and-mentor-of-generations-of-scientists
#5
Cesar Nombela
On November 21, 2017, Professor Julio R. Villanueva died in Salamanca. Born on April 27, 1928 in Villamayor, council of Piloña (Asturias), he lived almost to the age of 90. His was an accomplished life, full of endeavors and exciting works in the world of research and teaching, which earned him very broad recognition both in Spain and the international arena. Villanueva was undoubtedly the driving force of Fundamental Microbiology in Spain. His early steps came at a time when experimental biology was arriving at an important new age, using microbial systems for experimentation that lead to general conclusions about all living beings...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360053/childhood-trauma-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-as-compared-to-substance-abuse-disorders
#6
Nina Mørkved, Dagfinn Winje, Anders Dovran, Kjersti Arefjord, Erik Johnsen, Rune Andreas Kroken, Liss-Gøril Anda-Ågotnes, Jens C Thimm, Igne Sinkeviciute, Maria Rettenbacher, Else-Marie Løberg
The prevalence of childhood trauma (CT) in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and substance abuse disorders (SUDs) is high. Direct comparisons of CT in these disorders are lacking, and it is not known whether there are differences in self-reported CT in SSDs as compared to SUDs. We aimed to compare the frequency, severity and types of CT in SDDs and SUDs. Patients with SSDs (n = 57) and SUDs (n = 57) were matched for age and gender. Overall levels of CT and CT subtypes were measured retrospectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short-Form (CTQ-SF), and grouped into none/low and moderate/severe levels of CT...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851444/falling-giants-and-the-rise-of-gene-editing-ethics-private-interests-and-the-public-good
#7
Benjamin Capps, Ruth Chadwick, Yann Joly, John J Mulvihill, Tamra Lysaght, Hub Zwart
This paper considers the tensions created in genomic research by public and private for-profit ideals. Our intent is to strengthen the public good at a time when doing science is strongly motivated by market possibilities and opportunities. Focusing on the emergence of gene editing, and in particular CRISPR, we consider how commercialisation encourages hype and hope-a sense that only promise and idealism can achieve progress. At this rate, genomic research reinforces structures that promote, above all else, private interests, but that may attenuate conditions for the public good of science...
August 29, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481257/characterisation-of-arctic-bacterial-communities-in-the-air-above-svalbard
#8
Lewis Cuthbertson, Herminia Amores-Arrocha, Lucie A Malard, Nora Els, Birgit Sattler, David A Pearce
Atmospheric dispersal of bacteria is increasingly acknowledged as an important factor influencing bacterial community biodiversity, biogeography and bacteria-human interactions, including those linked to human health. However, knowledge about patterns in microbial aerobiology is still relatively scarce, and this can be attributed, in part, to a lack of consensus on appropriate sampling and analytical methodology. In this study, three different methods were used to investigate aerial biodiversity over Svalbard: impaction, membrane filtration and drop plates...
May 6, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452604/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-on-renal-tissue-after-lower-limb-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#9
Meral Erdal Erbatur, Şaban Cem Sezen, Aslıhan Cavunt Bayraktar, Mustafa Arslan, Mustafa Kavutçu, Muhammed Enes Aydın
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine - administered before ischemia - has protective effects against lower extremity ischemia reperfusion injury that induced by clamping and subsequent declamping of infra-renal abdominal aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After obtaining ethical committee approval, four study groups each containing six rats were created (Control (Group C), diabetes-control (Group DM-C), diabetes I/R (Group DM-I/R), and diabetes-I/R-dexmedetomidine (Group DM-I/R-D)...
December 2017: Libyan Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428762/gendered-pathways-how-mathematics-ability-beliefs-shape-secondary-and-postsecondary-course-and-degree-field-choices
#10
REVIEW
Lara Perez-Felkner, Samantha Nix, Kirby Thomas
Do mathematics ability beliefs explain gender gaps in the physical science, engineering, mathematics, and computer science fields (PEMC) and other science fields? We leverage U.S. nationally representative longitudinal data to estimate gendered differences in girls' and boys' perceptions of mathematics ability with the most difficult or challenging material. Our analyses examine the potentially interacting effects of gender and these ability beliefs on students' pathways to scientific careers. Specifically, we study how beliefs about ability with challenging mathematics influence girls' and boys' choices to pursue PEMC degrees, evaluating educational milestones over a 6-year period: advanced science course completion in secondary school and postsecondary major retention and selection...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407075/once-daily-atazanavir-cobicistat-and-darunavir-cobicistat-exposure-over-72-h-post-dose-in-plasma-urine-and-saliva-contribution-to-drug-pharmacokinetic-knowledge
#11
Emilie R Elliot, Alieu Amara, Nicole Pagani, Laura Else, Graeme Moyle, Alex Schoolmeesters, Chris Higgs, Saye Khoo, Marta Boffito
Background: We investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of atazanavir/cobicistat and darunavir/cobicistat once daily over 72 h following drug intake cessation in plasma, saliva and urine. Methods: Healthy volunteers received a fixed-dose combination of 300/150 mg of atazanavir/cobicistat once daily for 10 days, followed by a 10 day washout period and then a fixed-dose combination of 800/150 mg of darunavir/cobicistat once daily for 10 days. Full PK profiles were assessed for each phase for 72 h following day 10 and parameters determined to the last measurable concentration in plasma, saliva and urine by non-compartmental methods...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368870/psychometric-properties-of-the-oswestry-disability-index
#12
Mikhail Saltychev, Ryan Mattie, Zachary McCormick, Esa Bärlund, Katri Laimi
The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in a large cross-sectional cohort of individuals with chronic low back pain by defining its internal consistency, construct structure and validity, and its ability to differentiate between different degrees of functional limitation. A total of 837 consecutive outpatient patients with low back pain were studied. The internal consistency of ODI was assessed by Cronbach's α, construct structure by exploratory factor analysis, construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and discrimination was determined by item response theory analysis...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114984/professionalism-professionalization-expertise-and-compassion-a-qualitative-study-of-medical-residents
#13
Susan P Phillips, Nancy Dalgarno
BACKGROUND: Formal and informal medical curricula convey expectations about professionalization, that is, the development of physician identity, and also about professionalism. This study examined whether, in general, junior residents experienced any dissonance between these roles and focused particularly on how they negotiated conflicts between compassion, self-care, duty and medical expertise. METHODS: In 2015, purposive sampling was used to select 21 first-year residents at a Canadian medical school...
January 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990456/an-unexpected-digital-papillary-adenocarcinoma-of-the-thumb
#14
Mitchell Nash, Juliet Burn, Simon Chan
Digital papillary adenocarcinoma (DPAca) is an aggressive lesion with high metastatic potential, which is easily misdiagnosed. We present a 55-year-old male with a cystic lesion on his right thumb. Above all else, lesions of the digits should be sent for histopathology routinely, regardless of their history or appearance.
2016: Case Reports in Plastic Surgery & Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886967/the-independent-plastic-surgery-match-analysis-of-changes-in-recent-years-and-applicant-preferences
#15
Ziyad S Hammoudeh, Gamal Mostafa, Michel Saint-Cyr, Karim Bakri, Samir Mardini
BACKGROUND: The number of surgical applicants to "independent" plastic surgery programs has drastically decreased. However, the competitiveness of recent applicants relative to previous years has not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of recent "independent" applicants and to obtain their preferences regarding the match. METHODS: A 25-question survey was distributed to 97 applicants of the 2012 "independent" match...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874118/the-influence-of-temperature-pressure-and-ag-doping-on-the-physical-properties-of-tio2-nanoceramics
#16
V H Tran, P Głuchowski, A Łukowiak, W Stre Combining Cedilla K
Undoped and Ag-doped TiO2 ceramics have been prepared at temperatures between 500-1000 °C and under pressures up to 8 GPa. Their crystal structures and physical properties were investigated by means of EDX, SEM, TEM, X-ray powder diffraction, and magnetization M, specific heat Cp and electrical resistance ρ measurements. It is found that the anatase-structured As-cast powder transforms into rutile and columbite-type at 500 °C and 5.5 GPa. The stabilization of the latter phase is fulfilled under a pressure of 8 GPa and at temperatures above 800 °C...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855394/prenasal-thickness-prefrontal-space-ratio-and-other-facial-profile-markers-in-first-trimester-fetuses-with-aneuploidies-cleft-palate-and-micrognathia
#17
Merel Bakker, Margherita Pace, Els de Jong-Pleij, Erwin Birnie, Karl-Oliver Kagan, Caterina M Bilardo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of the prenasal thickness (PNT)/nasal bone length (NBL) ratio, maxilla-nasion-mandible (MNM) angle, facial profile line, profile line distance, and prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) in the first trimester of pregnancy, develop normal ranges, and evaluate these markers in abnormal fetuses. METHODS: All measurements were performed on stored images by two operators. Feasibility, interoperator agreement, and prediction intervals were calculated for all measurements...
November 18, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854455/much-ado-about-nothing-capturing-attention-toward-locations-without-new-perceptual-events
#18
Matthew D Hilchey, J Eric T Taylor, Jay Pratt
Popular frameworks of attention propose that visual orienting occurs through a combination of bottom-up (stimulus-driven) and top-down (goal-directed) processes. Much of the basic research on these processes adheres paradigmatically to experimental methods that introduce salient but task-irrelevant stimuli (objects or transients) to the visual environment to determine whether attention is captured to their locations. This common practice of changing or adding a stimulus to a location to determine whether it captures attention reflects a notion that locations at which new features or stimuli spontaneously appear are prioritized above all else...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815795/charles-william-lacaillade-biologist-parasitologist-educator-and-mentor
#19
Pascal James Imperato
Charles William Lacaillade (1904-1978) was an eminent biologist in the middle decades of the twentieth century. He was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts of parents whose ancestors were French Canadians. His father, also named Charles William Lacaillade, was a dentist who graduated from Tufts University School of Dentistry in 1898. His mother, Elodia Eno, came from a family of very successful businessmen. Lacaillade was the third of six children. His two older brothers, Harold Carleton and Hector Eno, both graduated from the University of Louisville, School of Dentistry, while his younger brother, Lawrence, became a businessman...
February 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727157/brief-report-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-investigation-of-single-dose-oral-maraviroc-in-the-context-of-hiv-1-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Julie Fox, Juan M Tiraboschi, Carolina Herrera, Laura Else, Deirdre Egan, Laura Dickinson, Akil Jackson, Natalia Olejniczak, David Back, Saye Khoo, Robin Shattock, Marta Boffito
To investigate the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of single-dose maraviroc 300 mg in HIV-1 exposure compartments. Maraviroc concentrations in blood, secretions (vaginal, urethral, oral, and rectal), and tissue (vaginal and rectal) were measured, and ex vivo challenge was performed in 54 healthy volunteers to study protection from HIV infection. Maraviroc Cmax occurred within 4 hours in most compartments. Concentrations from 4 to 72 hours were above intracellular (IC) IC90 in all compartments, range 15-8095 ng/mL...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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