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Yan Zhang, Jinhua Li, Jing Bai, Linsen Li, Ligang Xia, Shuai Chen, Baoxue Zhou
A dramatic enhancement of organics degradation and electricity generation has been achieved in a wastewater fuel cell (WFC) system via strengthening superoxide radical with radical chain reaction by using a novel 3D anthraquinone/polypyrrole modified graphite felt (AQS/PPy-GF) cathode. The AQS/PPy-GF was synthesized by one-pot electrochemical polymerization method and used to in-situ generate superoxide radical by reducing oxygen under self-imposed electric field. Results showed that methyl orange (MO) were effectively degraded in AQS/PPy-GF/Fe(2+) system with a high apparent rate constant (0...
August 24, 2017: Water Research
Xinhua Tang, How Yong Ng
In this study, anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS), a redox mediator, was covalently bound to conductive polypyrrole hydrogel (CPH) via electrochemical reduction of the in-situ-generated AQS diazonium salts. The porous structure and hydrophilic surface of this CPH/AQS anode enhanced biofilm formation while the AQS bound on the CPH/AQS anode worked as a redox mediator. The CPH/AQS bioanode reduced the charge transfer resistance from 28.3Ω to 4.1Ω while increased the maximum power density from 762±37mW/m(2) to 1919±69mW/m(2), compared with the bare anode...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
Mohd Abul Kalam, Aws Alshamsan
Tacrolimus (TAC)-loaded Ploy-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) was developed by emulsification-diffusion method for topical ocular delivery in certain ocular conditions where therapeutic level of immunomodulator into eyes is required for sufficient duration. So, we optimized TAC-loaded PLGA-NPs with higher TAC payload. The mean particle-size and its distribution, polydispersity, zeta-potentials, morphology, drug encapsulation and loading capacity of NPs were analyzed. Transcorneal permeation through excised rabbit cornea revealed instant and controlled permeation of TAC from TAC-aqueous suspension (TAC-AqS) and from PLGA-NPs, respectively...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Laura A McGuinn, Cavin Ward-Caviness, Lucas M Neas, Alexandra Schneider, Qian Di, Alexandra Chudnovsky, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Armistead G Russell, Val Garcia, William E Kraus, Elizabeth R Hauser, Wayne Cascio, David Diaz-Sanchez, Robert B Devlin
BACKGROUND: Adverse cardiovascular events have been linked with PM2.5 exposure obtained primarily from air quality monitors, which rarely co-locate with participant residences. Modeled PM2.5 predictions at finer resolution may more accurately predict residential exposure; however few studies have compared results across different exposure assessment methods. METHODS: We utilized a cohort of 5679 patients who had undergone a cardiac catheterization between 2002-2009 and resided in NC...
July 29, 2017: Environmental Research
Renato Sonchini Gonçalves, Expedito Leite Silva, Noboru Hioka, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Marcos Luciano Bruschi, Wilker Caetano
Different from works described in the literature, which use expansive analytical methods to separation of anthraquinones derivatives (AQs), this communication reported a simple and inexpensive methodology to get them. In this way, the expensive commercial AQs: Chrysophanol, physcione and emodine were extracted from plant material (Rhamnus frangula L.) and isolated by classical column chromatography technique under optimised binary mobile phase gradients (CHCl3 : AcOEt(a), a = 1 to 5%) in excellent yields.
July 26, 2017: Natural Product Research
Li-Long Jiang, Dong-Sheng Zhao, Ya-Xi Fan, Qiong Yu, Ping Li, Hui-Jun Li
Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) has been commonly used as a tonic in China for centuries. PMR-associated hepatotoxicity has been drawing increasingly more attention in recent years in parallel with its wide utilization. Anthraquinones (AQs) are recognized as the main hepatotoxic components in PMR. However, the exact underlying mechanism of AQs poisoning is still not fully understood. Herein, we proposed a hypothesis that metabolic activation of AQs such as emodin was involved in PMR-induced liver injury, AQs followed to generate the electrophilic reactive metabolites and subsequently formed covalent adduct with cellular nucleophiles in the liver to exert hepatotoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Juliana Marioni, Roger Bresolí-Obach, Montserrat Agut, Laura R Comini, José L Cabrera, María G Paraje, Santi Nonell, Susana C Núñez Montoya
The photoprocesses involved in the photo-induced Candida tropicalis biofilm reduction by two natural anthraquinones (AQs), rubiadin (1) and rubiadin-1-methyl ether (2), were examined. Production of singlet oxygen (1O2) and of superoxide radical anion (O2•-) was studied. Although it was not possible to detect the triplet state absorption of any AQs in biofilms, observation of 1O2 phosphorescence incubated with deuterated Phosphate Buffer Solution, indicated that this species is actually formed in biofilms...
2017: PloS One
Espen J Folmo, Sigmund W Karterud, Kjetil Bremer, Kristoffer L Walther, Elfrida H Kvarstein, Geir A F Pedersen
Few group psychotherapy studies focus on therapists' interventions, and instruments that can measure group psychotherapy treatment fidelity are scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of the Mentalization-based Group Therapy Adherence and Quality Scale (MBT-G-AQS), which is a 19-item scale developed to measure adherence and quality in mentalization-based group therapy (MBT-G). Eight MBT groups and eight psychodynamic groups (a total of 16 videotaped therapy sessions) were rated independently by five raters...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Felizitas C Wermter, Nico Mitschke, Christian Bock, Wolfgang Dreher
OBJECTIVES: Temperature dependent chemical shifts of important brain metabolites measured by localised (1)H MRS were investigated to test how the use of incorrect prior knowledge on chemical shifts impairs the quantification of metabolite concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phantom measurements on solutions containing 11 metabolites were performed on a 7 T scanner between 1 and 43 °C. The temperature dependence of the chemical shift differences was fitted by a linear model...
July 6, 2017: Magma
Pallavi Lahiri, Dipankar Ghosh
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are secreted by all Gram-ve pathogens. These nano-scale delivery vehicles contain discrete arrays of prokaryotic pathogenic determinants, including a family of low molecular weight (MW) lipidic quorum signaling alkyl-quinolones (AQs). These are synthesized from β-keto-fatty acids and function like primordial lipidic hormones, which regulate numerous pathogenic factors both inter-species and intra-species. Significantly, AQs can also directly exacerbate pathogenesis by cross-kingdom signaling with the host immune, metabolic, and other systems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Luis H Alvarez, Iris C Arvizu, Refugio Bernardo García-Reyes, Claudia M Martinez, Daniel Olivo-Alanis, Yair A Del Angel
In this research was immobilized anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) on granular activated carbon (GAC) to evaluate its capacity to reduce congo red (CR) in batch reactor and continuous UASB reactors. The removal of p-cresol coupled to the reduction of CR was also evaluated. Results show that the immobilization of AQS on GAC (GAC-AQS) achieved 0.469mmol/g, improving 2.85-times the electron-transferring capacity compared to unmodified GAC. In batch, incubations with GAC-AQS achieved a rate of decolorization of 2...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Aishwarya Raman, Avelino F Arellano
A ratio-based method is used to characterize anthropogenic elemental carbon (ECa) using in situ measurements and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). We use long-term records of ground-based measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments to assess the patterns in anthropogenic combustion ratios (ΔECa/ΔCO and ΔECa/ΔNOx) across the U.S. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) regions for the years 2000-2015...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Takashi Matsui, Takeshi Kodama, Takahiro Mori, Tetsuhiro Tadakoshi, Hiroshi Noguchi, Ikuro Abe, Hiroyuki Morita
2-Alkylquinolone (2AQ) alkaloids are pharmaceutically and biologically important natural products produced by both bacteria and plants, with a wide range of biological effects, including antibacterial, cytotoxic, anticholinesterase, and quorum-sensing signaling activities. These diverse activities and 2AQ occurrence in vastly different phyla have raised much interest in the biosynthesis pathways leading to their production. Previous studies in plants have suggested that type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) might be involved in 2AQ biosynthesis, but this hypothesis is untested...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zeeshan Fazal, Jennifer Pelowitz, Patrick E Johnson, Jason C Harper, C Jeffrey Brinker, Eric Jakobsson
In order to design hybrid cellular/synthetic devices such as sensors and vaccines, it is important to understand how the metabolic state of living cells changes upon physical confinement within three-dimensional (3D) matrices. We analyze the gene expression patterns of stationary phase Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) cells encapsulated within three distinct nanostructured silica matrices and relate those patterns to known naturally occurring metabolic states. Silica encapsulation methods employed were lipid-templated mesophase silica thin films formed by cell-directed assembly (CDA), lipid-templated mesophase silica particles formed by spray drying (SD), and glycerol-doped silica gel monoliths prepared from an aqueous silicate (AqS+g) precursor solution...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
R Fougeyrollas, J Křivánek, V Roy, K Dolejšová, S Frechault, Y Roisin, R Hanus, D Sillam-Dussès
Mixed modes of reproduction, combining sexual processes with thelytokous parthenogenesis, occur in all major clades of social insects. In several species of termites, queens maximize their genetic input into nondispersing replacement queens through parthenogenesis, while maintaining genetically diverse sterile offspring and dispersing reproductives via sexual reproduction. This so-called asexual queen succession (AQS) has multiple independent origins and its presumed advantages are diverse as well, ranging from multiplication of colony reproductive potential to extension of its lifespan beyond that of the foundress...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
Li Kang, Luqin Si, Jing Rao, Dan Li, Ya Wu, Sanlan Wu, Minghui Wu, Sijie He, Wenwen Zhu, Yang Wu, Jiaqiang Xu, Gao Li, Jiangeng Huang
Hepatic adverse reaction associated with Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) has been frequently reported in recent years. Highly-enriched anthraquinones (AQs) in PMR, such as emodin, chrysophanol and physcion, have been found to be hepatotoxic. In the present study, sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRHs) were employed to investigate the effect of individual and combined AQs on the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) and exogenous probe substrates including deuterium-labeled taurocholate (d5-TCA), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (d4-GCDCA) and 5 (and 6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (CDF)...
April 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
V Aleksandropoulou, M Lazaridis
Assessment of population exposure is very important for the evaluation of the adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) ambient levels. In this work population exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 has been evaluated in outdoor environments in the Athens (AMA) and Thessaloniki (TMA) metropolitan areas during the period 2001-2010. The methodology used is based on combining spatiotemporally allocated PM10 and PM2.5 concentration fields with the geographical distribution of population. The results showed that the number of people living in the AMA exposed to PM10 and PM2...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kenji Matsuura
One major advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is its promotion of genetic variation, although it reduces the genetic contribution to offspring. Queens of social insects double their contribution to the gene pool, while overuse of asexual reproduction may reduce the ability of the colony to adapt to environmental stress because of the loss of genetic diversity. Recent studies have revealed that queens of some termite species can solve this tradeoff by using parthenogenesis to produce the next generation of queens and sexual reproduction to produce other colony members...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Antje K Heinrich, Angela Glaeser, Nicholas J Tobias, Ralf Heermann, Helge B Bode
Biological diversity arises among genetically equal subpopulations in the same environment, a phenomenon called phenotypic heterogeneity. The life cycle of the enteric bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens involves a symbiotic interaction with nematodes as well as a pathogenic association with insect larvae. P. luminescens exists in two distinct phenotypic forms designated as primary (1°) and secondary (2°). In contrast to 1° cells, 2° cells are non-pigmented due to the absence of natural compounds, especially anthraquinones (AQs)...
November 2016: Heliyon
Jeong Jin Park, Seong Hye Choi, SangYun Kim, Ae Young Lee, So Young Moon, Jun Hong Lee, Jae Cheol Kwon, Kyung Won Park, Bon D Ku, Hyun Jeong Han, Eun-Joo Kim, Yong S Shim
AIM: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) show greater attentional deficits compared with AD patients without CVD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of galantamine on attention in AD patients with CVD. METHODS: In this open trial, 1512 patients with AD and CVD were recruited from 71 nationwide hospitals. The patients were given galantamine for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the score on the Attention Questionnaire Scale (AQS), which measures the patients' attention in their daily lives...
December 9, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
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