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Takashi Matsui, Takeshi Kodama, Takahiro Mori, Tetsuhiro Tadakoshi, Hiroshi Noguchi, Ikuro Abe, Hiroyuki Morita
2-Alkylquinolone (2AQ) alkaloids are pharmaceutically and biologically important natural products produced by both bacteria and plants, with a wide range of biological effects, including antibacterial, cytotoxic, anticholinesterase, and quorum-sensing signaling activities. These diverse activities and 2AQ occurrence in vastly different phyla have raised much interest in the biosynthesis pathways leading to their production. Previous studies in plants have suggested that type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) might be involved in 2AQ biosynthesis, but this hypothesis is untested...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zeeshan Fazal, Jennifer Pelowitz, Patrick E Johnson, Jason C Harper, C Jeffrey Brinker, Eric Jakobsson
In order to design hybrid cellular/synthetic devices such as sensors and vaccines, it is important to understand how the metabolic state of living cells changes upon physical confinement within three-dimensional (3D) matrices. We analyze the gene expression patterns of stationary phase Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) cells encapsulated within three distinct nanostructured silica matrices and relate those patterns to known naturally occurring metabolic states. Silica encapsulation methods employed were lipid-templated mesophase silica thin films formed by cell-directed assembly (CDA), lipid-templated mesophase silica particles formed by spray drying (SD), and glycerol-doped silica gel monoliths prepared from an aqueous silicate (AqS+g) precursor solution...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
R Fougeyrollas, J Křivánek, V Roy, K Dolejšová, S Frechault, Y Roisin, R Hanus, D Sillam-Dussès
Mixed modes of reproduction, combining sexual processes with thelytokous parthenogenesis, occur in all major clades of social insects. In several species of termites, queens maximize their genetic input into nondispersing replacement queens through parthenogenesis, while maintaining genetically diverse sterile offspring and dispersing reproductives via sexual reproduction. This so-called asexual queen succession (AQS) has multiple independent origins and its presumed advantages are diverse as well, ranging from multiplication of colony reproductive potential to extension of its lifespan beyond that of the foundress...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Li Kang, Luqin Si, Jing Rao, Dan Li, Ya Wu, Sanlan Wu, Minghui Wu, Sijie He, Wenwen Zhu, Yang Wu, Jiaqiang Xu, Gao Li, Jiangeng Huang
Hepatic adverse reaction associated with Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) has been frequently reported in recent years. Highly-enriched anthraquinones (AQs) in PMR, such as emodin, chrysophanol and physcion, have been found to be hepatotoxic. In the present study, sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRHs) were employed to investigate the effect of individual and combined AQs on the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) and exogenous probe substrates including deuterium-labeled taurocholate (d5-TCA), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (d4-GCDCA) and 5 (and 6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (CDF)...
February 2, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
V Aleksandropoulou, M Lazaridis
Assessment of population exposure is very important for the evaluation of the adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) ambient levels. In this work population exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 has been evaluated in outdoor environments in the Athens (AMA) and Thessaloniki (TMA) metropolitan areas during the period 2001-2010. The methodology used is based on combining spatiotemporally allocated PM10 and PM2.5 concentration fields with the geographical distribution of population. The results showed that the number of people living in the AMA exposed to PM10 and PM2...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kenji Matsuura
One major advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is its promotion of genetic variation, although it reduces the genetic contribution to offspring. Queens of social insects double their contribution to the gene pool, while overuse of asexual reproduction may reduce the ability of the colony to adapt to environmental stress because of the loss of genetic diversity. Recent studies have revealed that queens of some termite species can solve this tradeoff by using parthenogenesis to produce the next generation of queens and sexual reproduction to produce other colony members...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Antje K Heinrich, Angela Glaeser, Nicholas J Tobias, Ralf Heermann, Helge B Bode
Biological diversity arises among genetically equal subpopulations in the same environment, a phenomenon called phenotypic heterogeneity. The life cycle of the enteric bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens involves a symbiotic interaction with nematodes as well as a pathogenic association with insect larvae. P. luminescens exists in two distinct phenotypic forms designated as primary (1°) and secondary (2°). In contrast to 1° cells, 2° cells are non-pigmented due to the absence of natural compounds, especially anthraquinones (AQs)...
November 2016: Heliyon
Jeong Jin Park, Seong Hye Choi, SangYun Kim, Ae Young Lee, So Young Moon, Jun Hong Lee, Jae Cheol Kwon, Kyung Won Park, Bon D Ku, Hyun Jeong Han, Eun-Joo Kim, Yong S Shim
AIM: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) show greater attentional deficits compared with AD patients without CVD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of galantamine on attention in AD patients with CVD. METHODS: In this open trial, 1512 patients with AD and CVD were recruited from 71 nationwide hospitals. The patients were given galantamine for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the score on the Attention Questionnaire Scale (AQS), which measures the patients' attention in their daily lives...
December 9, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Young-Min Kim, Jihyun Kim, Youngshin Han, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Inbo Oh, Gwi-Nam Bae, Jae Young Lee, Chang-Heok Kim, SungChul Seo, Su Ryeon Noh, Kangmo Ahn
We estimated the exposure to ambient air pollutants and analyzed the associations with allergic diseases. We enrolled 177 children with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 70 asthmatic adults living in Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and followed for 17months between August 2013 and December 2014. Parents or patients recorded symptom scores on a daily basis. Exposure to particulate matter with a diameter <10μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated in four different ways in each individual, using the AQ1 (measurements from the nearest air quality monitoring station to residential houses), AQ2 (measurements modified from AQ1 with the indoor level of air pollutants and time activity of each individual), AQ1-DI, and AQ2-DI (measurements modified from AQ1 and AQ2, respectively, with daily inhalation intakes of air pollutants)...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xianghui Li, Weilin Guo, Zhonghua Liu, Ruiqin Wang, Hua Liu
A novel quinone-modified metal-organic frameworks NH2-MIL-101(Fe) was synthesized using a simple chemical method under mild condition. The introduced 2-anthraquinone sulfonate (AQS) can be covalently modified with NH2-MIL-101(Fe) and acts as a redox mediator to enhance the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) via persulfate activation. The obtained AQS-NH-MIL-101(Fe) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Muthu Thiruvengadam, Kaliyaperumal Rekha, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Taek-Jun Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ill-Min Chung
Anthraquinones (AQs) and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum. We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs), media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum. The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Giordano Rampioni, Marilena Falcone, Stephan Heeb, Emanuela Frangipani, Matthew P Fletcher, Jean-Frédéric Dubern, Paolo Visca, Livia Leoni, Miguel Cámara, Paul Williams
The pqs quorum sensing (QS) system is crucial for Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence both in vitro and in animal models of infection and is considered an ideal target for the development of anti-virulence agents. However, the precise role played by each individual component of this complex QS circuit in the control of virulence remains to be elucidated. Key components of the pqs QS system are 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline (HHQ), 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS), 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO), the transcriptional regulator PqsR and the PQS-effector element PqsE...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Helen L Barr, Nigel Halliday, David A Barrett, Paul Williams, Douglas L Forrester, Daniel Peckham, Kate Williams, Alan R Smyth, David Honeybourne, Joanna L Whitehouse, Edward F Nash, Jane Dewar, Andrew Clayton, Alan J Knox, Miguel Cámara, Andrew W Fogarty
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection is associated with poor outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) and early diagnosis is challenging, particularly in those who are unable to expectorate sputum. Specific P. aeruginosa 2-alkyl-4-quinolones are detectable in the sputum, plasma and urine of adults with CF, suggesting that they have potential as biomarkers for P. aeruginosa infection. AIM: To investigate systemic 2-alkyl-4-quinolones as potential biomarkers for pulmonary P...
March 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Juliana Marioni, María Angel da Silva, José Luis Cabrera, Susana C Núñez Montoya, María Gabriela Paraje
BACKGROUND: Candida tropicalis is increasingly becoming among the most commonly isolated pathogens causing fungal infections with an important biofilm-forming capacity. PURPOSE: This study addresses the antifungal effect of rubiadin (AQ1) and rubiadin 1-methyl ether (AQ2), two photosensitizing anthraquinones (AQs) isolated from Heterophyllaea pustulata, against C. tropicalis biofilms, by studying the cellular stress and antioxidant response in two experimental conditions: darkness and irradiation...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ruobin Dai, Xiaoguang Chen, Ying Luo, Puyue Ma, Shengsheng Ni, Xinyi Xiang, Gang Li
Inhibitory effect of azo dyes on anaerobic methanogenic wastewater treatment (AMWT) has been studied mainly focusing on biological toxicity in the batch test with simulated sole co-substrate. Detailed information on inhibitory effect and mechanism of azo dyes during the long-term operation with real complex co-substrate is limited. Moreover, whether redox mediator (RM) could remediate the inhibition is still unclear in previous studies, especially under the complex scenario. In this study, the real textile wastewater with alternative concentrations of azo dyes (0-600 mg/L) were used to operate a lab-scale high-rate anaerobic methanogenic bioreactor for 127 days, and 50 μM anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) as RM was added at the last period of operation...
November 1, 2016: Water Research
Lipeng Gu, Bin Huang, Zhixiang Xu, Xiaodong Ma, Xuejun Pan
Steroid estrogen in natural waters may be biodegraded by quinone-reducing bacteria, dissolved organic matter (DOM) may serve as a terminal electron acceptor in this process. The influence of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and light illumination on the reduction efficiency of anthraquinone-2-disulfonate (AQS) was investigated using 17β-estradiol (E2) as the target species. The optimum reduction conditions were found to be in the dark under anaerobic conditions at pH 8.0 and 30 °C. Quinone-reducing bacteria can use the quinone structure of DOM components as a terminal electron acceptor coupling with microbial growth to promote biodegradation...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Angela T Nguyen, Jace W Jones, Miguel Cámara, Paul Williams, Maureen A Kane, Amanda G Oglesby-Sherrouse
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary disease that predisposes individuals to pulmonary dysfunction and chronic infections. Early infection of the CF lung with Staphylococcus aureus is common, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa becomes dominant as disease progresses. Emergence of P. aeruginosa likely depends on the action of multiple 2-alkyl-4-(1H)-quinolones (AQ) secreted by this organism. We recently showed that antimicrobial activity against S. aureus is enhanced by iron depletion and is dependent upon multiple AQ metabolites...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kazuya Kobayashi, Yasushi Miyaguni
Parthenogenesis is a relatively rare reproductive mode in nature compared to sex. In social insects, the evolution of parthenogenesis has a notable impact on their life histories. Some termites with parthenogenetic ability produce numerous non-dispersing supplementary queens asexually, whereas other castes are produced via sexual reproduction. This asexual queen succession (AQS) system is adaptive because hundreds of the asexual queens improve the reproductive potential of the colony and maintain the genetic diversity within the colony...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bin Huang, Lipeng Gu, Huan He, Zhixiang Xu, Xuejun Pan
This study investigated the simultaneous transformation of Cr(vi) via a closely coupled biotic and abiotic pathway in an anaerobic system of quinone-reducing bacteria/dissolved organic matters (DOM)/Fe(iii). Batch studies were conducted with quinone-reducing bacteria to assess the influences of sodium formate (NaFc), electron shuttling compounds (DOM) and the Fe(iii) on Cr(vi) reduction rates as these chemical species are likely to be present in the environment during in situ bioremediation. Results indicated that the concentration of sodium formate and anthraquinone-2-sodium sulfonate (AQS) had apparently an effect on Cr(vi) reduction...
September 14, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Qian Di, Sebastian Rowland, Petros Koutrakis, Joel Schwartz
Ground-level ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, which exhibits considerable spatial and temporal variability in its concentration level. Existing modeling approaches for ground-level ozone include chemical transport models, land-use regression, Kriging, and data fusion of chemical transport models with monitoring data. Each of these methods has both strengths and weaknesses. Combining those complementary approaches could improve model performance. Meanwhile, satellite-based total column ozone, combined with ozone vertical profile, is another potential input...
2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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