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Didem Onk, Fatih Özçelik, Oruç Alper Onk, Murat Günay, Tülin Akarsu Ayazoğlu, Ethem Ünver
BACKGROUND The present study sought to assess the renal and liver protective effect of N-acetylcysteine through NH3 and urea metabolism in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who were scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting were divided into 2 groups so as to receive (Group 1, n=35) or not receive (Group 2, n=35) 900 mg/day of n-acetylcysteine for 7 days before the operation starting from their admission to the service by a pulmonologist with the purpose of treating COPD until the day of surgery...
March 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Ali J Marian, Yanli Tan, Lili Li, Jeffrey T Chang, Petros Syrris, Manouchehr Hessabi, Mohammad H Rahbar, James T Willerson, Benjamin Y Cheong, Chia-Ying Liu, Neal S Kleiman, David A Bluemke, Sherif F Nagueh
<u>Rationale:</u> Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic paradigm of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis are important risk factors for sudden death and morbidity in HCM. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Treatment with anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reverses cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in animal models of HCM. <u>Objective:</u> To determine effect sizes of NAC on indices of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in patients with established HCM...
March 14, 2018: Circulation Research
Mark Yarema, Puja Chopra, Marco L A Sivilotti, David Johnson, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Benoit Bailey, Charlemaigne Victorino, Sophie Gosselin, Roy Purssell, Margaret Thompson, Daniel Spyker, Barry Rumack
The original article has been corrected. Table 4 in PDF version of this article has been corrected since the original publication of the article because the first column of numbers (under the heading "Female") in the original PDF version was typeset poorly.
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Erzsebet Polyak, Julian Ostrovsky, Min Peng, Stephen D Dingley, Mai Tsukikawa, Young Joon Kwon, Shana E McCormack, Michael Bennett, Rui Xiao, Christoph Seiler, Zhe Zhang, Marni J Falk
Oxidative stress is a known contributing factor in mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease pathogenesis. Yet, no efficient means exists to objectively evaluate the comparative therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of different antioxidant compounds empirically used in human RC disease. We postulated that pre-clinical comparative analysis of diverse antioxidant drugs having suggested utility in primary RC disease using animal and cellular models of RC dysfunction may improve understanding of their integrated effects and physiologic mechanisms, and enable prioritization of lead antioxidant molecules to pursue in human clinical trials...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
M Boyer, M Sowa, I Di Meo, S Eftekharian, M R Steenari, V Tiranti, J E Abdenur
Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ETHE1 gene critical for hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) detoxification. Patients present in infancy with hypotonia, developmental delay, diarrhea, orthostatic acrocyanosis and petechiae. Biochemical findings include elevated C4, C5 acylcarnitines and lactic and ethylmalonic acid (EMA) in body fluids. Current treatment modalities include metronidazole and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to lower the production and promote detoxification of toxic H2 S...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
A Pérez-Mendoza, Á M Zárate-Guzmán, E S Galvis García, S Sobrino Cossío, J Djamus Birch
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Gastric cancer is one of the main causes of cancer worldwide, but there is currently no global screening strategy for the disease. Endoscopy is the screening method of choice in some Asian countries, but no standardized technique has been recognized. Systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy can increase gastric lesion detection. The aim of the present article was to compare the usefulness of systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy with conventional endoscopy for the detection of premalignant lesions and early gastric cancer in subjects at average risk for gastric cancer...
March 8, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Jong-Woon Shin, Sae-Bom Kwon, Yesol Bak, Sang-Ku Lee, Do-Young Yoon
The compound (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (BCI) is known as an inhibitor of dual specific phosphatase 1/6 and mitogen-activated protein kinase. However, its precise anti-lung cancer mechanism remains unknown. In this study, the effects of BCI on the viability of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H1299, A549, and NCI-H460 were evaluated. We confirmed that BCI significantly inhibited the viability of p53(-) NCI-H1299 cells as compared to NCI-H460 and A549 cells, which express wild-type p53...
March 28, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Katherine Elizabeth Triplett, Ronan Murray, Matthew Anstey
A 51-year-old female presented with acute confusion associated with a non-specific headache and lethargy. The patient's history included bipolar disorder on valproate and recent travel to northern Vietnam. The patient was subsequently found to have hyperammonaemia as well as a urinary tract infection and bacteraemia with Klebsiellapneumoniae The patient was presumed to have a multifactorial non-cirrhotic hyperammonaemic encephalopathy due to a combination of a urinary tract infection and bacteraemia with K...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Surabhi S Vinod, Annelle B Reed, Jamelle Maxwell, Randy Q Cron, Matthew L Stoll
BACKGROUND: Children with chronic rheumatic disease often require intravenous (IV) therapy. Our center has instituted standardized protocols for use of IV medications in rheumatology patients. Herein, we introduce the therapeutic protocols and report on their short-term safety. METHODS: This was an institutional review board (IRB) approved retrospective chart review of all patients who had received IV infusions between the years 2012 and 2015 at a single center, prescribed by a pediatric rheumatologist...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Simon Menanteau-Ledouble, Mark L Lawrence, Mansour El-Matbouli
BACKGROUND: Like many members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Yersinia ruckeri has the ability to invade non professional phagocytic cells. Intracellular location is advantageous for the bacterium because it shields it from the immune system and can help it cross epithelial membranes and gain entry into the host. In the present manuscript, we report on our investigation regarding the mechanisms of Y. ruckeri's invasion of host cells. RESULTS: A gentamycin assay was applied to two isolates, belonging to both the biotype 1 (ATCC 29473) and biotype 2 (A7959-11) and using several cell culture types: Atlantic Salmon Kidney, Salmon Head Kidney and, Chinook salmon embryos cells at both low and high passage numbers...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Tadahiro Miyake, Duo Wang, Hidetada Matsuoka, Kentaro Morita, Hiroshi Yasuda, Kazuhiro Yatera, Tamotsu Kanazawa, Yasuhiro Yoshida
Particulate matter (PM) with a median diameter <2.5 μm, is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. We previously reported the biological effects of PM in vivo, and although neutrophils play an important role in initiating inflammation, few reports have focused on the relationship between PM inhalation and immune responses. Here, we investigated the effect of PM particle size on neutrophils, including their endocytosis activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that 1 μm particles are readily endocytosed by neutrophils and that endocytosis is reduced at 4 °C...
March 6, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Minoo Batooei, Ahmad Tahamoli Roudsari, Zahra Basiri, Fatemeh Yasrebifar, Maryam Shahdoust, Azadeh Eshraghi, Maryam Mehrpooya, Sara Ataei
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress and Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines are contributed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent which demonstrated analgesic effects in some studies. This study is designed to assess the effects of oral NAC as an adjuvant therapy on the clinical symptoms of patients with active RA. METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 51 RA patients with active RA were studied in 2 groups, NAC group (27 patients) received standard treatment of RA and 600 mg NAC twice a day for 12 weeks and placebo group (24 patients) received the standard treatment of RA and placebo...
March 7, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Ya-Lan Wang, Quan-Fei Zhu, Li-Ming Cheng, Shao-Ting Wang, Shan-Shan Qin, Shu-Jian Zheng, Hua-Ming Xiao, Juan-Juan Li, Song-Mei Liu, Bi-Feng Yuan, Yu-Qi Feng
Low-molecular-weight thiols play important roles in a variety of pathological processes and are closely associated with a wide range of diseases. In this study, a selective and sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of all the 7 thiols occurring in the transsulfuration pathway (Cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcys), glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine (Nac), cysteinylglycine (CysGly), glutamylcysteine (GluCys) and cysteamine (CA)) in human serum by in-vitro stable isotope labeling - dispersive solid phase extraction - liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry analysis (IL-DSPE-LC-MS/MS)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Vachirapong Sompakdee, Auemduan Prawan, Laddawan Senggunprai, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Papavee Samathiwat, Jaroon Wandee, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan
AIMS: Transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates the expression of cytoprotective and antioxidant enzymes, contributes to proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy in cancer. The inhibition of Nrf2 can sensitize cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells to the cytotoxicity of several chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of this chemosensitizing effect. MAIN METHODS: KKU-100 cells were used in the study. Nrf2 expression was knocked down by siRNA and expression was validated by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction...
March 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
LiLi Wang, Rodney F Minchin, Neville J Butcher
Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) has been associated with cancer cell growth and invasion, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. NAT1 is located on the short arm of chromosome 8 (8p21), a region that is commonly deleted in colon cancer. Previously, it was reported that HT-29 colon cancer cells, which have a large deletion at 8p21-22, show marked morphological changes, increased E-cadherin expression and altered cell-cell contact inhibition following down-regulation of NAT1 with shRNA...
2018: PloS One
Ritchy Hodebourg, Jennifer E Murray, Maxime Fouyssac, Mickaël Puaud, Barry J Everitt, David Belin
The alarming increase in heroin overdoses in the USA is a reminder of the need for efficacious and novel treatments for opiate addiction. This may reflect the relatively poor understanding of the neural basis of heroin, as compared to cocaine, seeking behavior. While cocaine reinforcement depends on the mesolimbic system, well established cocaine seeking is dependent on dorsolateral striatum (aDLS) dopamine-dependent mechanisms which are disrupted by N-acetylcysteine, through normalisation of corticostriatal glutamate homeostasis...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Takayuki Uchida, Yoshihiro Sakashita, Kanako Kitahata, Yui Yamashita, Chisato Tomida, Yuki Kimori, Akio Komatsu, Katsuya Hirasaka, Ayako Ohno, Reiko Nakao, Atsushi Higashitani, Akira Higashibata, Noriaki Ishioka, Toru Shimazu, Takeshi Kobayashi, Yuushi Okumura, Inho Choi, Motoko Oarada, Edward M Mills, Shigetada Teshima-Kondo, Shin'ichi Takeda, Eiji Tanaka, Keiji Tanaka, Masahiro Sokabe, Takeshi Nikawa
Unloading-mediated muscle atrophy is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We previously demonstrated that elevated ubiquitin ligase casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b (Cbl-b) resulted in the loss of muscle volume [Nakao R. et al. Mol Cell Biol, 29: 4798-4811, 2009]. However, the pathological role of ROS production associated with unloading-mediated muscle atrophy still remains unknown. Here, we showed the ROS-mediated signal transduction caused by microgravity or its simulation contributes to Cbl-b expression...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Joshua A Tillinger, Chhavi Gupta, Kadri Ila, Jamal Ahmed, Jeenu Mittal, Thomas R Van De Water, Adrien A Eshraghi
OBJECTIVE: The present study is aimed at determining the efficacy and exploring the mechanisms by which l-N-acetylcysteine (l-NAC) provides protection against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-induced oxidative stress damage and hair cell loss in 3-day-old rat organ of Corti (OC) explants. Previous work has demonstrated a high level of oxidative stress in TNFα-challenged OC explants. TNFα can potentially play a significant role in hair cell loss following an insult to the inner ear...
March 7, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Bin Yang, Ping Yan, Guang-Zhao Yang, Hui-Li Cao, Fei Wang, Bao Li
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces cardiac cell injury; however, the mechanism underlying cardiac damage remains unclear. A previous study demonstrated that triptolide (TP) exerts protective effects against I/R in cerebral cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of TP on cardiac cells, and investigated the potential mechanisms involved in I/R‑induced damage. Rats and cardiac H9C2 cells undergoing I/R were pretreated with TP, and cell damage was assessed in vivo and in vitro...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Suhui Ye, Alfredo F Braña, Javier González-Sabín, Francisco Morís, Carlos Olano, José A Salas, Carmen Méndez
Argimycins P are a recently identified family of polyketide alkaloids encoded by the cryptic gene cluster arp of Streptomyces argillaceus . These compounds contain either a piperideine ring, or a piperidine ring which may be fused to a five membered ring, and a polyene side chain, which is bound in some cases to an N -acetylcysteine moiety. The arp cluster consists of 11 genes coding for structural proteins, two for regulatory proteins and one for a hypothetical protein. Herein, we have characterized the post-piperideine ring biosynthesis steps of argimycins P through the generation of mutants in arp genes, the identification and characterization of compounds accumulated by those mutants, and cross-feeding experiments between mutants...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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