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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778909/n-acetylcysteine-protects-against-diabetic-nephropathy-through-control-of-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-by-recovery-of-nitric-oxide-in-rats
#1
Guilherme B Nogueira, Giovana R Punaro, Clemerson S Oliveira, Fabiane R Maciel, Thamires O Fernandes, Deyse Y Lima, Adelson M Rodrigues, Margaret G Mouro, Sergio R R Araujo, Elisa M S Higa
The diabetes mellitus (DM) induces several changes, with substantial increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS cause damage to systemic and renal microvasculature, which could be one of the mechanisms involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The ROS modulate other substances like the nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator with important role in the renal function. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant that acts replenishing intracellular cysteine levels, which is essential for glutathione formation...
May 17, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778019/phoenix-dactylifera-protects-against-oxidative-stress-and-hepatic-injury-induced-by-paracetamol-intoxication-in-rats
#2
Gamal A Salem, Ahmed Shaban, Hussain A Diab, Wesam A Elsaghayer, Manal D Mjedib, Aomassad M Hnesh, Ravi P Sahu
The current studies were sought to determine effects of antioxidant potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Phoenix dactylifera leaves (PLAE and PLME) against the widely-used analgesic paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. Groups of rats were treated with or without PCM (1500 mg/kg), PLAE and PLME (300 mg/kg) and n-acetylcysteine (NAC, 50 mg/kg) followed by assessments of liver function tests, oxidative stress, antioxidant defenses, and hepatotoxicity. We observed that PCM significantly elevated serum liver markers, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and bilirubin compared to control (untreated) group...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775221/reagent-induced-asymmetric-induction-in-addition-reaction-of-reduced-glutathione-onto-bis-mannich-chalcones
#3
Aline Bernardes, Giulio D C D'Oliveira, Aneta Silezin, Mónika Kuzma, Szilárd Molnár, Caridad Noda Pérez, Pál Perjési
The stereochemistry of non-enzyme catalyzed nucleophilic addition of GSH to 4'-hydroxychalcone 1 and its bis-Mannich derivative 2 was investigated at different pH values (pH 3.2, 6.1, 7.4, and 8.0). The stereochemical outcome of the reactions was evaluated by HPLC-UV-Vis method. Under strongly acidic conditions (pH 3.2), an unexpected diastereoselective addition of GSH onto the bis-Mannich derivative 2 was observed. Such a selectivity could not be observed in the similar reaction of 2 with N-acetylcysteine...
May 18, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775111/tamoxifen-prevents-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-acute-hepatic-failure-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-mmd-2-upregulation
#4
Xiaoxue Gong, Peng Cao, Liping Liu, Yan Lin, Qing Yang, Linyu Zhou, Tianen Wu, Mansheng Luo
Oxidative stress is considered one of the major mechanisms underlying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF). Tamoxifen has been reported to ameliorate LPS-induced ALF via the induction of monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd-2). Whether antioxidant effects are involved remains unknown. Mice were given tamoxifen (TAM) once a day for 3 days. Twelve hours later, d-galactosamine (GaIN) and LPS were injected intraperitoneally to induce ALF. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered immediately after ALF induction as a positive control...
May 18, 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773554/nitidine-chloride-is-a-mechanism-based-inactivator-of-cyp2d6
#5
Xu Mao, Zi Xia Hu, Qian Wang, Na Zhang, Shen Zhi Zhou, Ying Peng, Jiang Zheng
Nitidine chloride (NC) is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid isolated from the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC, a widely used traditional herbal medicine. NC has been reported to reveal multiple pharmacologic properties. The inhibitory effects of NC on human cytochrome P450 enzymes were investigated in the present study. We found that NC caused time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of CYP2D6, and more than 50% of CYP2D6 activity was suppressed after 15 min incubation with NC at 100 μM in the primary incubation mixtures, with KI of 4...
May 17, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773091/inactivated-sendai-virus-induces-ros-dependent-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#6
Miao Qian, Hai Ming Tan, Ning Yu, Tao Wang, Quan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to investigate the effect of Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) on induction of apoptosis and autophagy in human prostate cancer PC3 cells, and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: PC3 cells were treated with HVJ-E at various multiplicity of infection (MOI), and the generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell viability, apoptosis, and autophagy were detected, respectively. Next, the role of ROS played in the regulation of HVJ-E-induced apoptosis and autuphagy in PC3 cells were analysed...
April 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770867/dietary-supplementation-with-an-amino-acid-blend-enhances-intestinal-function-in-piglets
#7
Dan Yi, Baocheng Li, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Ying Zhou, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770709/lessons-learned-from-the-preserve-trial
#8
Sasan Partovi, Thomas Trischman, Preet S Kang
The recently published PRESERVE trial is presently the largest and most comprehensive clinical trial comparing commonly applied strategies for prevention of iodinated contrast-induced acute kidney injury in high-risk patients. The fundamental conclusion of the PRESERVE trial is that oral acetylcysteine and intravenous sodium bicarbonate are not superior to simple intravenous hydration with isotonic saline for the prevention of contrast-induced renal sequelae. In this commentary, we discuss the results in the context of selected past major trials, and provide insights into the strengths and potential weaknesses of the PRESERVE trial...
May 17, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769187/intraoperative-intraluminal-injection-of-n-acetylcysteine-allowing-treatment-of-distal-intestinal-obstruction-syndrome-without-the-need-for-enterotomy
#9
Nicholas Js Chilvers, James Wheeler
We describe a case of an 18-year-old man who suffers from cystic fibrosis and developed distal intestinal obstruction syndrome while being treated as an inpatient. Following failed medical management, we proceeded to laparotomy where the small bowel was decompressed with retrograde milking into the stomach, leaving a section of impacted stool in the distal ileum. N-acetylcysteine was injected into the bowel lumen proximal to the obstruction. This resulted in dissolution of the stool without the need for enterotomy and is, to our knowledge, the first successful example of this technique in the literature...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752433/palmitic-acid-but-not-high-glucose-induced-myocardial-apoptosis-is-alleviated-by-n%C3%A2-acetylcysteine-due-to-attenuated-mitochondrial-derived-ros-accumulation-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#10
Yang He, Lingyun Zhou, Zhiqiang Fan, Shikun Liu, Weijin Fang
Pharmacological inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a potential strategy to prevent diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate precise effects of antioxidant N‑acetylcysteine (NAC) in alleviating diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Echocardiography and histologic studies were performed 12 weeks after streptozocin injection. Protein levels involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis were analyzed by western blotting in diabetic hearts or high-glucose (HG, 30 mM)- and palmitic acid (PA, 300 μM)-cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs)...
May 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747418/chemopreventive-activities-of-sulforaphane-and-its-metabolites-in-human-hepatoma-hepg2-cells
#11
Peng Liu, Wei Wang, Zhigang Zhou, Andrew J O Smith, Richard P Bowater, Ian Michael Wormstone, Yuqiong Chen, Yongping Bao
Sulforaphane (SFN) exhibits chemopreventive effects through various mechanisms. However, few studies have focused on the bioactivities of its metabolites. Here, three metabolites derived from SFN were studied, known as sulforaphane glutathione, sulforaphane cysteine and sulforaphane- N -acetylcysteine. Their effects on cell viability, DNA damage, tumorigenicity, cell migration and adhesion were measured in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and their anti-angiogenetic effects were determined in a 3D co-culture model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and pericytes...
May 9, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743905/intravenous-n-acetylcysteine-for-the-prevention-of-contrast-induced-nephropathy-a-prospective-single-center-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-the-inproc-trial
#12
Barbara Biernacka-Fiałkowska, Marta Szuksztul, Wojciech Suślik, Karolina Dzierwa, Łukasz Tekieli, Magdalena Kostkiewicz, Piotr Podolec, Piotr Pieniążek
Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common clinical problem that is growing in importance as an increasing number of tests and procedures which utilize contrast media (CM) are performed. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for prevention of CIN after diagnostic and/or interventional procedures requiring CM administration. Material and methods: In a prospective, single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled trial the preventive effects of N-acetylcysteine were evaluated in 222 patients undergoing elective angiography and/or angioplasty...
2018: Postępy W Kardiologii Interwencyjnej, Advances in Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742938/n-acetylcysteine-as-an-antioxidant-and-disulphide-breaking-agent-the-reasons-why
#13
Giancarlo Aldini, Alessandra Altomare, Giovanna Baron, Giulio Vistoli, Marina Carini, Luisa Borsani, Francesco Sergio
The main molecular mechanisms explaining the well-established antioxidant and reducing activity of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the N-acetyl derivative of the natural amino acid l-cysteine, are summarised and critically reviewed. The antioxidant effect is due to the ability of NAC to act as a reduced glutathione (GSH) precursor; GSH is a well-known direct antioxidant and a substrate of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, in some conditions where a significant depletion of endogenous Cys and GSH occurs, NAC can act as a direct antioxidant for some oxidant species such as NO2 and HOX...
May 9, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742703/nebulized-heparin-and-n-acetylcysteine-for-smoke-inhalational-injury-a-case-report
#14
Umair Ashraf, Bharat Bajantri, Gabriella Roa-Gomez, Sindhaghatta Venkatram, Amanda Cantin, Gilda Diaz-Fuentes
RATIONALE: Every year, ∼40,000 people suffer burn-related injuries in the United States. Despite recent advances, the odds of dying from exposure to fire, flames, or smoke are one in ∼1500. Smoke inhalation causes injury to the airways via a complex physiological process, and the treatment is mainly supportive. Many recent interventions aim to decrease the formation of fibrin casts, the main cause of airway damage in these patients. Among these, treatment with a combination of nebulized heparin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown benefit...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742587/exploratory-application-of-neuropharmacometabolomics-in-severe-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Fanuel T Hagos, Philip E Empey, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaochao Ma, Samuel M Poloyac, Hülya Bayır, Patrick M Kochanek, Michael J Bell, Robert S B Clark
OBJECTIVES: To employ metabolomics-based pathway and network analyses to evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid metabolome after severe traumatic brain injury in children and the capacity of combination therapy with probenecid and N-acetylcysteine to impact glutathione-related and other pathways and networks, relative to placebo treatment. DESIGN: Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from children enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a combination of probenecid and N-acetylcysteine after severe traumatic brain injury (Trial Registration NCT01322009)...
May 7, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741731/expression-of-grim-19-in-unexplained-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion-and-possible-pathogenesis
#16
Yang Yang, Laiyang Cheng, Xiaohui Deng, Hongling Yu, Lan Chao
STUDY QUESTION: Is aberrant expression of gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19) associated with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA)? SUMMARY ANSWER: GRIM-19 deficiency may regulate regulatory T cell/ T helper 17 cell (Treg/Th17) balance partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis in URSA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Immunological disorders may cause impaired maternal immune tolerance to the fetus and result in fetal rejection...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740205/mitochondrial-pathway-mediated-by-reactive-oxygen-species-involvement-in-%C3%AE-hederin-induced-apoptosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#17
Jiao Li, Dan-Dan Wu, Ji-Xiang Zhang, Jing Wang, Jing-Jing Ma, Xue Hu, Wei-Guo Dong
AIM: To investigate the antitumor activity of α-hederin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and its underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo . METHODS: SMMC-7721, HepG-2 and Huh-7 HCC cells were cultured in vitro and treated with α-hederin (0, 5 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L, 15 μmol/L, 20 μmol/L, 25 μmol/L, 30 μmol/L, 35 μmol/L, 40 μmol/L, 45 μmol/L, 50 μmol/L, 55 μmol/L, or 60 μmol/L) for 12 h, 24 h, or 36 h, and cell viability was then detected by the Cell Counting Kit-8...
May 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739267/relapsed-refractory-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-treated-with-n-acetylcysteine-a-case-report
#18
Sinan Demircioğlu, Ömer Ekinci, Ali Doğan, Cengiz Demir
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a rare condition that presents with microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, fever, renal impairment and neurological symptoms. Plasma exchange is a lifesaving treatment for this condition. However, some cases may be non-responsive to plasma exchange, or loss of response may occur. Treatment options for refractory cases include high-dose corticosteroids, rituximab, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, splenectomy, bortezomib and N-acetylcysteine. We present a refractory case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura responding to the last of these therapies...
January 1, 2018: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739258/4-methylpyrazole-protects-against-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity-in-mice-and-in-primary-human-hepatocytes
#19
J Y Akakpo, A Ramachandran, S E Kandel, H M Ni, S C Kumer, B H Rumack, H Jaeschke
Liver injury due to acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the major cause of acute liver failure in the United States. While treatment with N-acetylcysteine is the current standard of care for APAP overdose, anecdotal evidence suggests that administration of 4-methylpyrazole (4MP) may be beneficial in the clinic. The objective of the current study was to examine the protective effect of 4MP and its mechanism of action. Male C57BL/6J mice were co-treated with 300 mg/kg of APAP and 50 mg/kg of 4MP. The severe liver injury induced by APAP at 6 h as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activities, centrilobular necrosis, and nuclear DNA fragmentation was almost completely eliminated by 4MP...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738966/sulfotransferase-catalyzed-biotransformation-of-liguzinediol-and-comparison-of-its-metabolism-in-different-species-using-uflc-qtof-ms
#20
Fei Shen, Hong-Mei Wen, Chen-Xiao Shan, An Kang, Bang Dong, Chuan Chai, Ji-Yun Zhang, Qi Zhang, Wei Li
Liguzinediol (2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, LZDO) is a potential agent for the low-risk treatment of heart failure. 2-N-acetylcysteine-LZDO (2-NAC-LZDO) and 2-cysteine-LZDO (2-Cys-LZDO) are major LZDO metabolites found in the pharmacokinetic studies of rats and beagle dogs. To elucidate the biotransformation pathway and related enzymes, an incubation system with 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as a cofactor and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a trapping agent was established using liver cytosol...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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