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Chromogenic media

I Caniaux, A van Belkum, G Zambardi, L Poirel, M F Gros
Recently, plasmid-mediated and, therefore, transferable bacterial polymyxin resistance was discovered in strains from both humans and animals. Such a trait may widely spread geographically, while simultaneously crossing microbial species barriers. This may ultimately render the "last resort" polymyxin antibiotics therapeutically useless. Colistin is currently used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative carbapenemase producers and colistin resistance may lead to practical pan-antibiotic resistance. We here analyzed the medical and diagnostic consequences of (emerging) colistin resistance and propose pathways toward adequate diagnostics for timely detection of both asymptomatic carriage and infection...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Marcin Drozd, Mariusz Pietrzak, Jakub Pytlos, Elżbieta Malinowska
Colloidal noble metal-based nanoparticles are able to catalyze oxidation of chromogenic substrates by H2O2, similarly to peroxidases, even in basic media. However, lack of robust chromogens, which work in high pH impedes their real applications. Herein we demonstrate the applicability of selected catechol derivatives: bromopyrogallol red (BPR) and pyrogallol (PG) as chromogenic substrates for peroxidase-like activity assays, which are capable of working over wide range of pH, covering also basic values. Hyperbranched polyglycidol-stabilized gold nanoparticles (HBPG@AuNPs) were used as model enzyme mimetics...
December 15, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Majid Validi, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Masoumeh Douraghi, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani
OBJECTIVES: Production of carbapenemase, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), is one of the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella oxytoca. This study aimed to investigate and identify KPC-producing K. oxytoca isolates using molecular and phenotypic methods. METHODS: A total of 75 isolates of K. oxytoca were isolated from various clinical samples, and were verified as K. oxytoca after performing standard microbiological tests and using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
October 2016: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Nguyen Khanh Thuan, Kamrun Naher, Ryoichi Kubo, Takahide Taniguchi, Hideki Hayashidani
Cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin agar (CIN) has been used as a selective agar to detect Yersinia in food or human patients; however, its components can inhibit the growth of some strains of Yersinia enterocolitica serovar O3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Recently, a new Yersinia selective agar, CHROMagar Yersinia enterocolitica (CAYe), was developed and evaluated as a novel selective agar for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. In this research, a total of 251Yersinia strains (176 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, 59 Y. pseudotuberculosis, and 16 non-pathogenic Yersinia) were cultured on both CIN and CAYe for comparison...
2016: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Marcin Drozd, Mariusz Pietrzak, Paweł G Parzuchowski, Elżbieta Malinowska
Catalytic nanomaterials, widely used as substitutes of peroxidase, exhibit unique properties, which are unattainable for native enzymes. However, their activity is usually examined by means of substrates developed and methods standardized for horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The aim of the presented work was to determine the scope of usefulness of chromogenic substrates for gold nanoparticle (AuNP) activity studies under conditions which significantly extend beyond the activity range of a native HRP. The applicability of chromogens such as 3,3'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), o-phenylenediamine (OPD), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) beyond the typical range of pH, and for the samples of high concentration of hydrogen peroxide was examined...
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Andrea Monas, Krunoslav Užarević, Ivan Halasz, Marina Juribašić Kulcsár, Manda Ćurić
Room-temperature accelerated aging in the solid state has been applied for atom- and energy-efficient activation of either one or two C-H bonds of azobenzene and methyl orange by palladium(ii) acetate. Organopalladium complexes are prepared in quantitative reactions without potentially harmful side products. Dicyclopalladated methyl orange is water-soluble and is a selective chromogenic biothiol sensor at physiologically-relevant micromolar concentrations in buffered aqueous media.
September 9, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Camila Peres Rubio, Josefa Hernández-Ruiz, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Marino Bañón Arnao, José Joaquín Ceron
We performed analytical validation of 3 automated assays of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in canine serum and evaluated their use in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease. The assays were based on the generation of a 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•(+)) in aqueous media, which produces a blue-green color. The antioxidants present in the sample remove the chromogen in proportion to their concentrations. The assays differed mainly in the way in which this radical was produced...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Melanie L Yarbrough, Meghan A Wallace, Cynthia Marshall, Erin Mathias, C A Burnham
Urine is among the most common specimen type submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory; the use of chromogenic agar is one method by which the laboratory might expedite culture results and reduce hands-on time and materials required for urine culture analysis. The objective of our study was to compare chromID CPS Elite (bioMérieux), a chromogenic medium, to conventional primary culture medium for evaluation of urine specimens. Remnant urine specimens (n=200) were inoculated to conventional media and to chromID CPS Elite agar (chromID)...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Zhenbo Xu, Yuchao Hou, Brian M Peters, Dingqiang Chen, Bing Li, Lin Li, Mark E Shirtliff
For the past decade, a number of chromogenic media for methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection have been developed and applied, including Oxoid Brilliance™ MRSA, CHROMagar™ MRSA, BBL™ CHROMagar™ MRSA, MRSASelect and chromID MRSA. The advantages of these chromogenic media offers direct detection of visible staphylococcal colonies, coupled with the use of chromogenic enzymatic substrates that can be hydrolyzed by S. aureus to confirm species or strain identification. BBL™ CHROMagar™ MRSA and MRSASelect are designed for detection of nasal colonization by MRSA, while CHROMagar™ MRSA, Oxoid Brilliance™ MRSA and chromID MRSA are readily applied in bacterial screening...
November 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Delphine Martiny, Anne Dediste, Claire Anglade, Linda Vlaes, Catherine Moens, Souad Mohamed, Olivier Vandenberg
chromID™ Salmonella Elite is compared with 3 culture media commonly used for Salmonella isolation from stool specimens. As results were equivalent to other chromogenic media (100% sensitivity, 98% specificity), only financial arguments should guide the choice for a medium with respect to another.
October 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sevinç Baba, Mustafa Derya Aydın
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS), a member of normal flora of human gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems, is a leading cause of sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia particularly in newborn. GBS can also cause severe infections in pregnant women and adults with underlying disease, as well as mild diseases, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs). GBS strains exhibit 10 different serotypes, and the identification of serotype distribution is important epidemiologically. The role of biofilm production is one of the virulence factors that has been discussed in the pathogenesis of GBS infections...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Jonathan A Otter, Eleonora Dyakova, Karen N Bisnauthsing, Antonio Querol-Rubiera, Amita Patel, Chioma Ahanonu, Olga Tosas Auguet, Jonathan D Edgeworth, Simon D Goldenberg
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are an emerging threat for healthcare providers worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To determine CPE carriage rates and risk factors in an unselected hospital cohort at the time of admission. METHODS: We approached 4567 patients within 72 h of admission to provide a rectal swab and answer a questionnaire on risk factors for carriage. Rectal swabs were cultured for carbapenem-resistant organisms on chromogenic and non-chromogenic agar, and tested for carbapenemase production by PCR (Check-Direct CPE)...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Katharine Roque, Gyeong-Dong Lim, Ji-Hoon Jo, Kyung-Min Shin, Eun-Seob Song, Ravi Gautam, Chang-Yeol Kim, Kyungsuk Lee, Seungwon Shin, Han-Sang Yoo, Yong Heo, Hyoung-Ah Kim
Microorganisms found in bioaerosols from animal confinement buildings not only foster risk of spreading diseases among livestock buildings but also pose health hazards to farm workers and nearby residents. This study identified the various microorganisms present in the air of swine, chicken, and cattle farms with different kinds of ventilation conditions in Korea: 7 pig farms, 12 chicken farms and 5 cattle sheds. Microbial air samples were collected by use of Cascade Impactor onto petri dishes with bacterial or fungal growth media...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Science
Matthew L Faron, Blake W Buchan, Christopher Coon, Theo Liebregts, Anita van Bree, Arjan R Jansz, Genevieve Soucy, John Korver, Nathan A Ledeboer
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of health care-acquired infections (HAIs). Studies have shown that active surveillance of high-risk patients for VRE colonization can aid in reducing HAIs; however, these screens generate a significant cost to the laboratory and health care system. Digital imaging capable of differentiating negative and "nonnegative" chromogenic agar can reduce the labor cost of these screens and potentially improve patient care. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the WASPLab Chromogenic Detection Module (CDM) (Copan, Brescia, Italy) software to analyze VRE chromogenic agar and compared the results to technologist plate reading...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Hajar Jaberie, Fakhraddin Naghibalhossaini
OBJECTIVES: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency is associated with emphysema and liver disease. Only plasma-derived A1AT protein is available for augmentation therapy. Recombinant A1AT (recA1AT) protein expressed in various types of available hosts are either non-glycosylated or aberrantly glycosylated resulting into reduced stability and biological activity. To overcome these limitations, we have used the human liver HepG2 cell line to produce recA1AT protein. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were transfected by A1AT cDNA and cell populations were generated that stably overexpressed A1AT protein...
October 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Theodore Gouliouris, Beth Blane, Hayley J Brodrick, Kathy E Raven, Kirsty E Ambridge, Angela D Kidney, Nazreen F Hadjirin, M Estée Török, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Sharon J Peacock
We compared ChromID VRE and Brilliance VRE media for the detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Using a panel of 28 enterococcal isolates, 10 vanA Enterococcus faecium and three vanA Enterococcus faecalis isolates grew as per manufacturers' instructions whilst growth of two vanC and eight vancomycin-susceptible enterococci was inhibited on both media. Important differences were noted in the selectivity and chromogenic properties of the two media for vanA Enterococcus raffinosus and vanB E. faecium...
August 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Somayeh Sharifynia, Hamid Badali, Mina Sharifi Sorkherizi, Mohammad Reza Shidfar, Atefe Hadian, Shadi Shahrokhi, Ghazale Ghandchi, Sassan Rezaie
Candidiasis, the main opportunistic fungal infection has been increased over the past decades. This study aimed to characterize C.albicans species complex (C.albicans, C.dubliniensis, and C.africana) isolated from patients with respiratory infections by molecular tools and in vitro antifungal susceptibilities by using broth microdilution method according to CLSI M27-A3 guidelines. Totally, 121 respiratory samples were collected from patients with respiratory infections. Of these, 83 strains were germ tube positive and green colonies on chromogenic media, so initially identified as C...
June 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
Richard Bovill, Philip G Evans, Gemma L Howse, Helen M I Osborn
To develop targeted methods for treating bacterial infections, the feasibility of using glycoside derivatives of the antibacterial compound l-R-aminoethylphosphonic acid (l-AEP) has been investigated. These derivatives are hypothesized to be taken up by bacterial cells via carbohydrate uptake mechanisms, and then hydrolyzed in situ by bacterial borne glycosidase enzymes, to selectively afford l-AEP. Therefore the synthesis and analysis of ten glycoside derivatives of l-AEP, for selective targeting of specific bacteria, is reported...
August 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Erika Korzune Ganda, Rafael Sisconeto Bisinotto, Dean Harrison Decter, Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho
The present study aimed evaluate an on-farm culture system for identification of milk pathogens associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows using two different gold standard approaches: standard laboratory culture in study 1 and 16S rRNA sequencing in study 2. In study 1, milk from mastitic quarters (i.e. presence of flakes, clots, or serous milk; n = 538) was cultured on-farm using a single plate containing three selective chromogenic media (Accumast-FERA Animal Health LCC, Ithaca, NY) and in a reference laboratory using standard culture methods, which was considered the gold standard...
2016: PloS One
Feng-Juan Wang, Dai Zhang, Zhao-Hui Liu, Wen-Xiang Wu, Hui-Hui Bai, Han-Yu Dong
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was a common infection associated with lifelong harassment of woman's social and sexual life. The purpose of this study was to describe the species distribution and in vitroCandidaCandida spp.) isolated from patients with VVC over 8 years. METHODS: Species which isolated from patients with VVC in Peking University First Hospital were identified using chromogenic culture media. Susceptibility to common antifungal agents was determined using agar diffusion method based on CLSI M44-A2 document...
May 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
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